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Category: History

Italian trace of family of Baryatinsky

UDK 94 (47). 08




Article is devoted to a problem of studying communications of Baryatinsky' family, known in the Russian story, with Italy. In it the fate of the women of this family who closely connected themselves with Italy - Lionilla Ivanovna Barjatinskaja-Wittgenstein and her daughter Antoinette Baryatinskaya-Kidzhi are mainly traced. In article materials of private archive of family Kidzhi (Italy) are used.

Baryatinskiye - one of the most ancient princely childbirth which representatives were proud of the origin from Michael of Chernigov - Ryurikovich. In researches about origin of the Russian nobility it was repeatedly noted that "the feature of the Russian feudal top that it "left" one sort and had one ancestor - Rurik (unlike Europe where the feudal aristocracy belonged to various childbirth)" 1. Eventually branches of a princely family of Rurik more and more moved away from each other, and therefore there was a concept of corporationism of separate princely surnames, but from more than 250 surnames of a family of Rurik the majority existed only in 2-3 generations, than and the ambitious aspiration Baryatinsky-Ryurikovichey spoke to become related with the most notable families of Europe.

Because of outstanding qualities of one of them - the commander-in-chief and the deputy in the Caucasus - Alexandra of Ivanovich of Baryatinsky - a personnel of other members of a dynasty remained always is less interesting to domestic researchers. Many works were written to the pre-revolutionary and Soviet periods about Baryatinsky' life - especially in Maryino-. But, first of all, the image of the famous winner Shamil was remembered again. Some writers devoted to it special raboty2. Today are of interest, both works of biographic character, and the works devoted to creation of "a family nest" - Maryino3. Also the Dagestan researchers of war on Kavkaze4 were interested in Baryatinsky' fate. But began to pay to the European origin of Baryatinsky attention in connection with growth of interest in development of the Russian-European relations and history of the Russian nobility only recently. The purpose of this article is to investigate communications of family of Baryatinsky with Italy.

The diplomat I.S. Baryatinsky, the most part of the life carried out abroad in the second half of the 18th century, married the princess Ekaterina von Gol-stein-Bek - the daughter of the duke Pyotr-Augustus, the relative Peter III, the governor general of St. Petersburg and Estlyandii5 as a dowry villages of the Kursk province were received: Ivanovskoye, Snagost and others in the Rylsky County which Peter the Great once presented to the hetman Mazepa (even before his treason). In opinion with -

1 B.I. Solovyov. Russian nobility and its outstanding representatives. M, 2000. Page 170.
2 A.L. Zisserman. Field marshal prince A.I. Baryatinsky. M, 1888.
3 D.D. Lotareva of Maryino: estate of the Russian aristocrat//World of the Russian estate. M, 1995; S.I. Fedorov of Maryino of princes Baryatinsky. Kursk, 1994; S.I. Fedorov of Maryino. Monument of farmstead architecture. Voronezh, 1988; E.V. Holodova. Estates of the Kursk province. Kursk, 1997.
4 Ibragimova M. Imam Shamil. M, 1991.
5 Golstein-Beck, duke Pyotr Augustus//Big biographic encyclopedia//[Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://dic.academic.ш/dic.nsf/enc_bþgrafhy/ 37256/Golstein-Beck.

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vremennik, Ekaterina Golstein-Beck was "extremely graceful, with a surprising waist, expressive features, stately and easy in movements, but at the same time a little pretentious, she was very kind and is even free in the address; being expressed easily and beautifully, it acquired in a conversation tone of the Parisian fashionistas of the time, some mix of philosophy with sensitivity and genuine coquetry" 6. Nevertheless, marriage was unsuccessful, in many respects because of the princess Golstein-Bek as, according to the prince P.V. Dolgorukov: "Ekaterina Petrovna was a woman very proud and unusually presumptuous; she incessantly allowed to feel to the husband that she did him the greatest the honor, sochetavshis with him marriage; hated that it was called the princess and titled the Excellency, and demanded that it was called the princess and titled the grace. The son of the prince Ivan was brought up by it in such concept that he is put by the birth on some absolutely special degree of greatness, at least, on an equal basis with grand dukes. Nearly inspired in it that Lord, having created Adam in the sixth day and having had a rest in the seventh day, in the eighth day already created the ancestor of the prince Ivan Ivanovich" 7.

The princess shone in the St. Petersburg light where she made enormous success and a set of love affairs. Its affair with the count A.K. Razumovsky led to a break with the husband. The princess abandoned the husband, Russia and went to live to Berlin under the name of princesses Golstein-Beck. About the happened gap between spouses not only documentary, but also art confirmations remained: in a picture of the female artist of the second half of the 18th century Anjelica Kauffman who is the most recognized in Europe E.P. Baryatinskaya is represented together with children - Ivan, Anna and the son-in-law, but without husband. The picture also shows the aspiration of notable families of Russia existing at the end of the XVIII century "to become related" with Italy because Kauffman, generally all life lived and created in Italy, and according to the Italian archives, this group portrait was created for the Neapolitan king Ferdinand IV as a portrait of family of the Russian envoy at court of the French king during long stay of family of Baryatinsky in Rome and is in Lozanne8 now.

The biography, the son I.S. Baryatinsky represented on a family portrait, I.I. Baryatinsky is surprising that, being given rise in Paris and having carried out a considerable part of the life on diplomatic service in England and Bavaria (where contracted marriage with the Bavarian countess Maria Keller), after the death of the father in 1811 he left service and entered possession of all fatherly lands. Unlike the father who was pretty seldom stopping by in Ivanovskoye he chose this manor for implementation of the noble plans for "civilization" of the fatherland. "What calling can be better for the person rich which uses the state on education of the state, improving agriculture, entering arts and crafts, bringing content and happiness to society and which the example civilizes the native land..." 9 - the prince in 1815 wrote.

So far the palace called in honor of the second wife M.F. Keller, the prince was completed, remaining the supporter of that opinion that "the real tsivilizator of the nations, support of society, benefactors of the human race" are the educated agronomists and farmers, but not commanders and diplomats, went to travel for the purpose of studying various European systems of managing and the last achievements systems -

6 Ivan Sergeyevich Baryatinsky / / [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http: / / www.rusdiplomats.narod. ru/ambassadors /bariatinski-is.html
7 Tsit. on: Angelica Kauffman e Bariatinski / / the Information are provided by the staff of the museum Kid-zhi (Arichcha, Italy).
8 Ivan Sergeyevich Baryatinsky / / [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http: / / www.rusdiplomats.narod. ru/ambassadors /bariatinski-is.html
9 Tsit. on: A.L. Zisserman. Field marshal prince A.I. Baryatinsky. M, 1888. T. 1. Page 3.

telny dela10. But, if the prince planned to organize economy in Ivanovskoye on a sample of the English and German manors, then Baryatinsky dreamed to finish internal rooms of the Maryino palace under construction according to refined luxury of the Italian aristocracy. Living long in Rome the prince, under the influence of Z.A. Volkonskaya, like the ideas of classicism - a civic duty, service to the Fatherland, culture - in this connection began to acquire in advance considerable works of art (busts of antique philosophers, etc.), to do orders Italian (the Roman master Kamuchchini) and to the Russian artists training in Italy, in particular, to Antonio and Fiodor Bruni.

After I.I. Baryatinsky's death of his spouse lived in Ivanovskoye 6 more years, having devoted itself to education of juvenile children and charity. "In 1843 it suited the shelter for education of poor children subsequently transferred to an institution of Lutheran church St. Annas. In 1846 organized in the house a shelter of day stay of juvenile children, then the shelter for widows which served as the beginning of Mariinsky almshouse, female community of nurses for care about patients and the poor and the widow house. In the beginning she took part in maintaining the called institutions, and then in connection with a disease refused personal management, but until the end of life helped money" 11. All sons, contrary to desires of the father, promoted military, except for Victor who retired in a rank of the captain of the 1st rank and engaged in archeology. The eldest son of the prince - the commander-in-chief and the deputy in the Caucasus Alexander Ivanovich topped with military glory - refused right of primogeniture in favor of the brother Vladimir Ivanovich.

The general V.I. Baryatinsky came into inheritance in 1850. In spite of the fact that seldom happened in a manor, constructed new church there and reconstructed the palace on the project of Italian I.A. Monigetti. I.I. Baryatinsky's daughters proved in the history, first of all, as the classical "Russian wives". Maria Ivanovna, having married the Podolsk leader of the nobility M.V. Kochubey, maintained the related relations with other sister who left the most notable mark in the history of Europe - Lionilla Ivanovna. But, from all descendants of the grand duke, some researchers call L.I. Baryatinskaya-Wittgenstein the "rare egoist" leading always only the private life, but not the interests of the Fatherland and for this reason which lived long zhizn12. But the most part of her life passed in Italy which received glory of the country of long-livers thanks to the surprising climate. Researches of the author in private archive of family of Kidzhi (Arichcha, Italy) also testify to some surface of such characteristic.

Lionilla was born in the house of the prince N.I. Saltykov in 1816 and was baptized as Leonida13. After receiving home education became the maid of honor of the empress Alexandra Fiodorovna who married off 18-year-old Baryatinskaya to the son of the field marshal Wittgenstein who deserved glory of "the savior of St. Petersburg" in war with Napoleon and dangerous serdtseeda14. News of a new marriage of Wittgenstein was

10 D.D. Lotareva of Maryino: estate of the Russian aristocrat//World of the Russian estate. M, 1995. Page 162.
11 Tsit. on: Genealogical painting of princes Baryatinsky (first branch) / / Noble childbirth of the Russian Empire. SPb., 1993. T. 1. Page 67.
12 I. Chizhova. Long ago the broken-off words. M, 2006. Page 414.
13 There is a photocopy of the original from Kidzhi archive in personal archive of the author of article.
14 End Radzivillov / / the Third way. M, 2007. The emperor's wing aide-de-camp Lev (Ludwig) Petrovich was known also as one of the few Decembrists pardoned by the tsar whose first wife - Stefanie Radzivill - died at the age of 23 years. Stefanie bequeathed all the state with the known diamond necklace to the husband on condition that on reaching majority of the daughter he will transfer them to her. Manors died also remained for Wittgenstein up to majority of his son Pyotr. Two years later, already in St. Petersburg, Wittgenstein appeared in the center of a scandalous adultery: "In the city speak about communication of the young princess Suvorova with the count Wittgenstein much, - Pushkin well familiar with Stefanie Radzivill noted in "Diary". - Noticed on it new diamonds, told that it accepted them as a gift from Wittgenstein (as if under the will of his late wife) and that Suvorov had on this cruel explanation with the wife". Lyubov Suvorova was companion Wittgenstein's wife on a regiment of the prince Aleksandra Suvorova.

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apprehended by "light" ambiguously. Nevertheless, the wedding was held on October 28, 1834, in palace church of the Winter Palace. Surprising beauty of Lionilla created for gloss of a social life was sung by artists and publicists of the XIX-XX centuries, but she together with the husband left from St. Petersburg in the manor of Verka under Vilno which got to the count in inheritance from the first wife. The institute girlfriend S.D. Radzivill is A.O. Rosset (N.V. Gogol's friend and the famous memoirist) - reflected the relation of secular St. Petersburg to this decision in the diary: "Then historical memoirs and restorations of the destroyed family crypts and locks went to fashion. Vitgenshteyna went to a wreck and began to be under construction there. Our Vitg were columns Wittgenstein Berenburg; but the Prussian king made them princes. It was pleasant to vain Leonilla Ivanovna, and she turned into a perfect prussachka" 15. According to the memoirist, life in the lock reminded a madhouse: Leonilla, having adopted Catholicism, backed a huge cross on streets, falling into imaginary exaltation. At the same time it had an affair with the French tutor, and at her husband - with the German mistress. The daughter of the first Russian landowner who applied foreign scientific achievements and usovershenstvovaniya16 was unfortunate in family life.

However, by an example of the parents she organized in a manor of Verka school for country children. After the death of the mad spouse in 1866 in Cannes, she moved to the daughter to Italy and maintained the relations with the 4th hussar Mariupol regiment, bearing a name of the general field marshal prince Wittgenstein and lodged in Belostoke17. As Wittgenstein's spouse already at mature age (in the 1910th year!) took part in creation of the museum of the 1812th year in Moskve18. At the same time L.I. Wittgenstein constantly visited also other estates: a manor Vitgenshteynov in Sayna (Germany), property on the Black Sea in the Crimea, residence in Paris and Switzerland (the estate of Oka near Lausanne), the family estate of Maryino near Kursk where gave birth to the daughter Antoinette on March 12, 1839.

Thanks to the and friendship with the empress of Prussia Avgusta Lionilla helped "sweet character" (according to the director of the museum Kidzhi - Francesco Petrucci - V.O.) with permission of a number of diplomatic questions during frankoprussky war of 1870-1871. Monsiñer Flavio Kidzhi - the apostolic envoy in Cologne - promoted establishment of contacts between families Kidzhi and Sayn-Wittgenstein. In 1857 Antoinette Wittgenstein-Barjatinskaja married the representative of outstanding aristocratic family Rima - the prince Kam-panyano, Mario Quidzhi Albani della Rover.

Having moved to the permanent residence to Italy, Antoinette, spent the most part of time in the summer residence in Arichche. Exactly here it realized all spiritual traditions of the family. Having devoted itself to charity affairs, she showed uncommon organizing abilities in assistance to families of poor people (we will remind that Italy at a turn of the 19-20th centuries was "the country of the poor" 19). Having created a religious award of nurses in the 1870th year, she entrusted it management of the children's shelter based by it. From Kidzhi's manor ready lunches and uzhiny20 were regularly sent to the dining room of a shelter. In old factory cases created female workshops, rendered all help to needing. Thus, on the Italian earth Antoinette tried to realize the progressive ideas of the grandfather on development of country economy, let and issued in a religious form of Catholicism (that was rather familiar

15 A.O. Smirnova-Rosset. Diary. Memoirs. M, 1989. Page 204.
16 Genealogical painting of princes Baryatinsky (first branch) / / Noble childbirth of the Russian Empire. SPb., 1993. T. 1. Page 67.
17 There is a photocopy of correspondence from Kidzhi archive in personal archive of the author of article.
18 In archive of the author - the copy of the letter of committee on the device in Moscow the museum of the 1812th year.
19 N.I. Timofeev. The USSR - Italy. Cultural ties. History and present. M, 1980. Page 49.
20 Chigi F. Uno sguardo privato. Prefazione di Oreste Ferrari - Einaudi. Viterbo. 1978. River 107.

time - Ivan Baryatinsky became a Catholic on the Italian earth not without influence of the Catholic mother).

Signora Baryatinskaya-Kidzhi adequately brought up five children, one of whom became the gentleman of the Order of Malta, another - Francesco Kidzhi - the talented photographer. He made a trip on the historical homeland of mother to the cousins, having made surprising pictures with views of the river Diet, country everyday life, the village of Ivanovskoye, but not a social life of the rich kuzenov21. Found reflection both events from life of the Russian Empire in the published monographic edition of 120 photos Franchesko22, and the interesting facts from the history of Italy (eruption of Vesuvius of the 1908th year, daily everyday life of the Italian aristocrats) and his family. Activities of his mother for assistance to a children's shelter, her work with nurses on arrangement of the landscape gardening economy are in detail reflected (the huge park adjoining the family palace of Kidzhi struck with the ukhozhennost). Unfortunately, plans of the Holy See for Antoinette Kidzhi-Baryatinskaya's "beatification" for not clear reasons were not embodied in zhizn23.

Archives of a palace of Kidzhi contain a significant amount of the documentary materials and works of art belonging to Antoinette and Lionil-le: "Il materiale deriva dall&eredità di Antonietta Sayn Wittgenstein (1839-1918) nipote del generale Wittgenstein, l’eroe che salvo San Pietroburgo da Napoleone e figlia della bellis-sima Leonilla Bariatinsky, che nel XIX secolo sposo Mario Chigi Albani" 24. Among them - the hand-written original in French of the novel of L.I. Baryatinskaya "Souvenir", drawings and V.S. Sadovnikov and P.F. Sokolov's watercolors showing aspiration of mother and daughter to support the Russian art school. Works of both artists are rather well represented in modern Russian collections, but, according to specialists art critics, "three fine watercolor portraits of work of P.F. Sokolov and nearly the best works by V.S. Sadovnikov are stored in Kidzhi's palace". Sadovnikov's biographers mentioned that in the middle of the 1840th years he was invited for drawing of types of a manor of Verka by the prince Wittgenstein. Watercolors from Kidzhi's palace confirm this fact. Among them there are types of other manor Vitgenshteynov located in Germany (Sayn) signed by Sa-dovnikov. This travel of Sadovnikov, as well as about his so close ties with family Vitgenshteynov, still was not known in such podrobnostyakh25. The album devoted to the Roman exhibition of the 1993rd year of the watercolors collected in Kidzhi's palace (Arichcha of 1978.) - "Acquerelli d&interni del XIX secolo dalla collezione Chigi Wittgenstein Bariatinsky nel Palazzo Chigi di Ariccia" - opens V.S. works Sadovnikova26.

"Radiant" beauty of L.I. Baryatinskaya (on a trope of Italians) which it kept till an extreme old age (died at the age of 102 years) as it was already noted, it was repeatedly sung in works by outstanding artists of Russia and Europe because it was represented by both the famous European painters (F.K. Vinterkhalter) and the Russian artists (P.F. Sokolov). By a strange coincidence, one of the most surprising cloths of Vinterkhalter - Lionilla's portrait in her Crimean manor "Leonilla Princess of Sayn Wittgenstein Sayn" 27

21 B. Richcho. Memories of Italy exhibition//Press service of the State Russian Museum. 14.10.2003.
22 Chigi F. Uno sguardo privato. Prefazione di Oreste Ferrari - Einaudi. Viterbo. 1978.
23 From materials of Kidzhi archive (Arichcha) (in personal archive of the author of article).
24 See: the official Italian site of the Kidzhi palace in Arichche//[An electronic resource]. Access mode:
25 Bortoli St. Works by the Russian artists from the museums and private collections of Italy. Venice, 1991. Page 71.
26 Petrucci F. Acquerelli d&interni del XIX secolo dalla collezione Chigi Wittgenstein Bariatinsky nel Palazzo Chigi di Ariccia. - Roma, Palazzo Puspoli, 1993.
27 F.K. Vinterkhalter [Electronic resource]. Access mode: page=5

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it is almost unknown in modern Russia. Whereas, opening of that fact that the greatest Italian film director Luchino Visconti, picturizing the novel by Giuseppe Tommaso di Lampedusa "Leopard" in interiors of the former summer residence Kidzhi, not only "rehabilitated a concept of the historical movie on West screens" became an unexpected revelation for us, but also found for himself a solution of an image of the beauty Anjelica, thanks to three components: to uncommon external data of Claudia Cardinale, the style well-known historical realistically in work when "palaces were... are reconstructed from the base to kryshi28 and, of course, to Lionilla Baryatinskaya's portraits decorating palace interiors. For understanding of this surprising opening was to compare Lio-nilla Ivanovna's portraits and Claudia Cardinale's photos as Anjelica placed nowadays in palace interiors because this movie became also a part of history of the Summer residence of the Kidzhi family enough. The director, striving for historical reliability and portrait similarity, not only forced the actress to move naturally in historical suits, to wear ancient gloves and jewelry, but also imposed the most difficult make-up. "Leopard" caused the known remark in the French critic Jean de Baronselli about "beauty which is present at the art world of Visconti as a certain fourth measurement" 29. And in it there is a recognition shred given to beauty of the Russian aristocrat L.I. Baryatinskaya.

And today in memory of residents of the Central Italy there live names of two women from Baryatinsky' family - mothers as the embodiments of ideal beauty, the daughter as the embodiments of divine kindness. The Italian trace of family of Baryatinsky who are closely connected with the Kursk region demands the further even more in-depth study.


Kursk State University


The article is devoted to the problem of studying the connections of the famous Russian family Baryatinskii with Italy. The fates of the women from this family: Lionilla Ivanovna-Vitgenstein and her daughter Antoinette who were connected with Italy, are considered. Materials of the private archive of family Kigio (Italy) are used in this article.

28 L.K. Luchino Visconti's goats and his cinema. M, 1987. Page 70.
29 Tsit. on: L.K. Luchino Visconti's goats and his cinema. M, 1987. Page 70.
Terrance Howell
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