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Pavel Tkachenko at the head of the Bessarbsky underground



Pavel Dmitrievich Tkachenko - one of pseudonyms of the head of the Bessarabia communistic underground Yakov Yakovlevich Antipov. A comet having flashed in a political firmament of interwar Europe, he died at the age of 25 years, having left about himself kind memory. In memoirs revolyutsionerov1 Pavel Tkachenko is a fine person. His merits of the organizer of liberating fight are recognized in works of the Soviet historians of Moldavii2. Already to the 40 anniversary of his death the list of the publications devoted to it made whole knigu3. And still the documentary base of this literature generalized in the brochure of AI. Dovgopologo4, it is rather poor. However it can be filled up. Pavel Tkachenko, testify me-muaristy5, is the author of a number of leaflets and other ideological documents Bessarabia podpolya6. Whom was this person, shockingly young for the political role played by him? What moved him - commitment to the social idea or patriotism? What did the Bessarabia Bolsheviks manage to achieve under its management? Let's consider the main events of its short political biography.

Yakov Antipov 7 in family of the railway employee at the Novosavitskaya station near Tiraspol was born on April [20], 1901. He was parents' eighth child. In a year the family moved to Bender where the father became the assistant cashier of freight yard. Yasha's childhood passed in need, in 14 years he went to work to railway workshops as the master's helper. But the teenager was extraordinary gifted. He read much, managed to learn in real school, and subsequently learned the French, German, Romanian and Jewish languages. In 15 years Yakov appeared in the political circle organized in Bender by the social democrat G.I. Borisov who became history

Moldova under the pseudonym Old. In 1917, having with honors graduated from external real school, Yakov went to Petrograd where there lived his elder brother Dmitry, the Menshevik who just came back from Vologda where lived in exile. The capital boiled meetings, and Yakov listened, thought. On June 3 the brother brought him on the I All-Russian congress of Councils, and here they listened to V.I. performance of Lenina7. In August, in days of a so-called Kornilovsky mutiny, Yakov Antipov came back to Bender.

In October the Bolsheviks became ruling party, the central power of Russia. And troops of Romania intruded in Bessarabia in January, 1918. Bender headed defense G.I. Borisov who became the Bolshevik. Direct data on Ya.Ya. Antipov's participation in fights no, most likely, a rifle to it then were not entrusted. But from the first days of occupation it gets into gear of a Bolshevist underground. To Tiraspol where, escaping from invaders, parents got over, it did not leave. Admitted in 17 years to Bolshevik party, Antipov got into party and organizational gear. He created youth communistic cells in railway depot, in printing house, among pupils. In November

1918 when in Bender there arrived the French troops, Ya. Antipov was included in the structure of group of youth which conducted promotion among interventionists. Ksenia Lidina (Katovich), Sergey Bernstein (Yantarov), Nikolay Yanovsky, Evgeny Pogonkin, Fedor Pokhilo were its most active participants. Though in the encyclopedia "Soviet Moldova" it is specified that the group was headed by Pavel Tkachenko, in fact G.I. Borisov and the member of the Bender city committee of RCP(b) A.I Glyadkovskaya senior on age and by situation in partii8 supervised its work. The underground managed to establish political connections with the French soldiers and to market leaflets in the Russian, Romanian and French languages. The group was engaged also in investigation. At this time, at the beginning of 1919, Yakov was overtaken by a grief: in Tiraspol the petlyurovets brutally killed his father.

But fight continued. Bolsheviks prepared a revolt in Bessarabia. It should have been lifted at the moment when the Red Army starts release of area. On January 19, 1919 it is premature, even before the way of red troops to Dniester, the revolt in the So-roksky and Hotinsky Counties of Bessarabia broke out; within two weeks the insurgents conducted battles against seven Romanian divisions. In the same days, having expelled petlyurovets, red guerrillas occupied Rybnitsu and Tiraspol. In Bender there were French troops, but the French garrison, raspropagandirovanny Bolsheviks, refused to oppose guerrillas. It was the revolt. the 58th French regiment was disarmed, many soldiers are arrested. The group of underground workers led by Ya. Antipov helped them to run from prison and to be transported through Dniester. "It was dangerous work, - G.I. Stary remembered subsequently, but Pavel persistently conducted it" 9. In February, 1919 the regional party conference which took place in Odessa with participation of representatives of the Bessarabia underground made the decision "to impute a duty to all party, revolutionary organizations immediately to begin the military operations directed to seizure of power on places" 10.

The situation in Bender, appear, favored to a revolt. In the intelligence report of red troops made in the middle of May it was said: "There are no Romanians. There are only a boundary guards and police. There only the French who are ready Bolshevist. The 39th regiment refused to go against Bolsheviks. There is Privy French Council; among the French 85 people are arrested". Nevertheless, in May to a regiment the revolt began. The French expelled from office buildings of the Romanian officials and military and established the guard. On May 17 the French command disarmed a regiment and sent it to France. Also the Romanian troops did not wish to participate in intervention. At the Bulboka station near Bender the soldiers of the 56th regiment of the Romanian army rebelled and made defeat. The Soviet investigation estimated work of the Bender revolutionary organization as fine. The Romanian counterintelligence, probably, was the same opinion. It took the measures: at the beginning of May already happened in the organization proval11.

The insurgent groups formed in Bender at the Bessarabia station, to Kaynarakh, Kaushanakh, Comrat, the Heifer, Tarakliya united till 2000 boytsov12. Yakov was put at the head of group of saboteurs. They broke telephone and cable communication of the Romanian troops, damaged railway tracks, prepared blasting several mostov13. But the underground should have worked quickly. On May 27, 1919, when the group from 150 former guerrillas was transported through Dniester without the knowledge of command of red troops on the west bank, generally bessarabets, in Bender the revolt began. Underground workers distributed weapon directly on streets. Antipov participated in a revolt as a part of the armed "strike group", probably, of the same saboteurs. The Romanian troops from Bender were beaten out. The French refused to shoot at risen, but to the aid of Romanians the African parts of the French army were thrown. Invaders turned into counterattack. Fights on city streets continued several hours, and active armed forces got the best of risen. Chasteners killed prisoners on the spot or shot at walls of the Bender fortress. Then carried out mass arrests. In the first day after suppression of a revolt 1500 inhabitants of Bender14, including Yakov Antipov's companions on group of propagandists were seized. On June 14 the Interim Bessarabia committee of RCP(b) stated a failure Bender organizatsii15. Antipov avoided arrest. Possibly, it managed to leave for Dniester.

Bolsheviks took measures for restoration of the underground organizations of Bessarabia. In August, 1919 the Soviet command helped out Yakov's companions seized with invaders from group of propagandists, having exchanged them for captured Romanian pilots. But on September 5 the court-martial of the 5th Romanian division in absentia took out to Nikolay Yanovsky, Ksenia Katovich, Sergey Berenstein and some other underground workers mortal prigovor16. To appear in Bender where it was known, also Yakov Antipov could not. "For restoration of a Bolshevist underground" it was sent to Chisinau. Here it accepted a name Pavel Tkachenko.

Responsibility ennobles the person. Having got a job on a certain Kuchuk's plant, Yakov Antipov was legalized. Then organized communistic groups among railroad workers and construction workers. Helped to adjust work of the Bender, Orgeevsky, Ka-larashsky, Izmail party committees of Bolsheviks and by July

1919 restored the underground Bolshevist center in Chisinau. This center directed representatives to the conference of the Bessarabia regional organization RCP(b) which took place on July 7-11, 1919 in Odessa. The management of the organization was ukrepleno17. However on June 24

>- On August 29 the Romanian authorities carried out in Chisinau judicial "Process 108" on which 19 defendants, that number I.N. Krivorukov, G.S. Ponyatovsky, V.A. Vorontsov, I.I. Badeev, N. Osipov, F. Tsurkan and other organizers of underground work who were its part in Bessarabia, were in absentia sentenced to mortal kazni18. The way to Bessarabia was closed by it.

The head politically mature, courageous, knowing conditions of Bessarabia, having organizing talent and at that siguranets yet not known was required for the Bessarabia underground. Antipov was beyond the years developed, had experience of the conspirator and intelligent bravery of the fired soldier. However no powers could provide it trust of people, it should be won. Antipov managed it. In October, 1919 he was elected as a member of the Chisinau committee of RCP(b) and headed it. He organized printing of leaflets on a hectograph at himself on the apartment. But the main thing, to it was succeeded to adjust work of the district organizations of party again. "Besides,

>- Ya.Ya. Antipov in the information letter of the Chisinau committee of RCP(b) reported, - the party contacted Orgeev, Hotin, Bolhrad. It is entrusted to Bender organization to contact Akkerman and Izmail. Work, thus, returns to normal across all Bessarabia". Together with the secretary of the Chisinau committee of the Russian communistic union of youth S.M. Bubnovsky and the underground worker A.H. Pokhinin Pavel Tkachenko created in Bessarabia youth

socialist organization. At the end of 1919 Sotsmol was transformed in komsomol19.

In February, 1920 Pavel managed to equip in house No. 23 on Ostapovskaya Street underground printing house and to provide issue of the illegal newspaper "Bessarabsky Kommunist". In March, 1920 there was the first nomer20. In May, after a release of the second number, siguranets found printing house, but underground workers quickly equipped new, and the issue of the newspaper was continued. The release of publication helped Ya.Ya. Antipov to rally Bolsheviks of Bessarabia. Work of an underground in counties was strengthened. And, at last, in May, 1920 under the influence of the Odessa communists and Pavel Tkachenko the Bessarabia organization of the Jewish communistic union [Komferband] made the decision on self-dissolution and entry of his members into the structure of RCP(b) 21.

The underground needed assistance of labor unions. According to V.I. Lenin, labor unions were necessary to become "a driving belt" between party and workers. "Labor unions as the most mass organization, - the veteran of an underground and the trade-union movement I.Ya. Rakitov noted, - represented for Communist Party organization both the base of fight, and the tank from which it scooped the most fighting and irreconcilable elements". But in the first year of the Romanian occupation the Bessarabia Bolsheviks made a political mistake, having refused to work in profsoyuzakh22. A part of workers appeared under the influence of the conciliatory "bivolsky" "economic unions" called so by the name of their organizer, the official of the Chisinau primeriya Bivol. In January, 1920. The central Bureau of labor unions of Bessarabia recognized the political management of the Bessarabia regional committee of RCP(b). Under the leadership of Pavel Tkachenko it headed for exposure and exile of "bivolets" from the management of labor unions.

The Romanian government set in Bessarabia the mode of terror, an arbitrariness and robbery which became history under name "Bessarabia system" 23. Protection of the civil rights and the social interests of the population was absolutely necessary. But Ya.Ya. Antipov understood that bessarabets do not accept the power of Romania in principle. At each demonstration the workers lifted the slogan "Down with the Romanian Occupation!". Watching policy of invaders, even apolitical petty bourgeoises said: "Rather Bolsheviks would come and brought order!". Depth of the political analysis, capacious, without idle talk, language of the letters of the Bessarabia regional committee and the Chisinau city town committee of RCP(b), reporting materials and other documents sent them for Dniester made by Tkachenko demonstrate his high intelligence and political realism. From defeat of Hotinsky and Bender revolts he drew a right conclusion on need of change

tactics. Tkachenko illegally left to Moscow and achieved revision of installation on the issue of preparation of an armed revolt. In June, 1920. The overseas department of RCP(b) of the Central Committee made according to its report the decision on revision of a course on the organization in Bessarabia of the armed performances.

The head of the Bessarabia underground worked as the unskilled worker in the Chisinau railway depot. Here he not only created illegal Bolshevist group, but also openly called workers for creation of labor union of railroad workers. All this represented derogation from requirements of conspiracy, but among workers of the provoker was not. In May, 1920 Pavel was overtaken by agents siguranets at the secret address of the 74-year-old worker Shayevich. Distracting attention of police dogs, the party courier Mikhail Lutsenko showed resistance and was wounded, but Tkachenko worked well uyti24.

He knew, than arrest threatens him. As G.I. Stary told subsequently, once the party courier found Pavel behind improbable occupation: he held the left hand over a candle flame, and right wrote something. The courier in a corridor felt a smell of burned meat and decided that Pavel went crazy. But Tkachenko explained: "Put an experiment... You know, the brother, it is possible what will seize me siguranets, and I know too much. Wanted to look whether I will be able to sustain tortures siguranets, tortures by fire the most terrible" 25. In July of siguranets nevertheless traced the secretary of the underground regional committee of RCP(b) known to her under 11 pseudonyms: Bespyaty, Abrikosov, the Guide, Lyud-mir, Ursu, Petrescu, Jascha, to Basarabyan, Bazarov, Understanding and, of course, Pavel Tkachenko. He was arrested and imprisoned in the Chisinau prison.

Did not give Tkachenko's evidences. All appearances and the addresses, he claimed on interrogation, are known to "companion Skeletov". It was the mythical character. Youth of the person under investigation gave the grounds to believe that he

>- only courier. But he said to the investigator: "The Communist Party tries to obtain establishment in Bessarabia of the power of Councils of working and country deputies", i.e. exiles of invaders. Pavel was subjected not only to usual beatings, but also tortures. The escape from the yard of the building siguranets on Inzov Street (nowadays Sergey Lazo St.) which is carried out at the beginning of August (he jumped over a fence), saved Pavel from new torments and saved from an execution. He tried not to concern relatives. He told the sister Zinaida Yakovlevna Sorokova who found for him in the shed of one worker on Kostyuzhenskoye Highway about the experienced sufferings nearly with humour: "Beat with ramrods heels. Then dipped into cold water. Yes in vain time was spent. Works we up to a throat, have no time to sit out in prison" 26.

Contrary to rules of conspiracy, Pavel did not leave for Dniester, and renewed the management of an underground. He tried to direct energy of a social protest of workers to the solution of the patriotic task, main at that moment, - failure of the entry of Romania in the Soviet-Polish war. On June 7 and on August 10-11, 1920 Bolsheviks organized political strikes in Chisinau. On August 12 the general strike developed into barricade fights with the Romanian troops and police, in the city was entered extraordinary polozheniye27. Arrests of activists followed, and some underground workers accused Pavel Tkachenko of excessive revolutionism. But, considering a question of invasion for Dniester, official Bucharest had to consider experience of Hotinsky and Bender revolts and the possibility of the new armed performance against the Romanian power in Bessarabia shown in August days. Romania did not render the armed assistance to Józef Pilsudsky's regime.

The Chisinau committee aimed an underground at formation of the communistic and trade-union organizations on the periphery, on fight for recovery of civil liberties. In October, 1920 railroad workers of Chisinau, working together with labor unions of Romania, staged a strike against attempts of the Romanian government to take labor unions under control. The underground organizer of it and many other performances was known to Sigurantsa. On "Process 48", carried out in Chisinau on January 24 - on February 19, 1921, a military court of the 3rd army case sentenced it to death - in absentia, and under his original name: Yakov Antipov. For safety it was necessary immediate to run for Dniester. But Tkachenko, like the matador playing with a furious animal waved a red raincoat again and struck a blow of a strategic importance. In days when in Chisinau in the courtroom his name and pseudonyms sounded, he with group of the Bessarabia and Romanian communists prepared and held a conference at which the foundation of the Communist Party of Romania was laid in Yassakh. He formulated a position of party on the Bessarabia question. The Yassky conference expressed a protest against cruel prosecutions of the Bessarabia communists, approved their activity and expressed the "admiration of revolutionism, irreconcilability, discipline and self-sacrifice of the [Bessarabia] communists" 28. Pavel managed to create also the KPM underground printing house, to organize issue of the communistic newspaper and the edition of revolutionary literature.

Undoubtedly, it carried out the decision of Moscow. The Soviet Russia did not recognize annexation of Bessarabia by Romania, but to risk for the sake of release of area war with France and England there was not time. Counting on long fight it was necessary to make active the left forces of Romania. Yakov also participated in the solution of this patriotic task

Antipov. But for bessarabets, veterans of an underground noted, the word "Romanian" was a synonym of the word "aggressor", "invader". The Bessarabia communists did not wish to leave the structure of the Russian Communist Party. Among them "communist separatists" appeared. Only the figure having absolute trust of companions could solve a problem of association. Pavel Tkachenko managed it. In March, 1921 also in Yassakh the unifying conference of communists of the Old Kingdom (Romania in borders of 1912 - P.Sh.), Bessarabia, Bukovina, Dobrudja and Banat was held. P. Tkachenko and S. Bubnovsky were elected as a member of the Vserumynsky Communication center designed to coordinate work of the communistic organizations of Romania. Pavel agreed with a residence of the Central Committee of party in Bucharest, but insisted on that the program developed at the Yassky conference clearly defined policy of the party concerning ethnic minorities, and took care of worthy representative office of the Bessarabia organization as a part of the Central Committee of KPR29.

supervision of political police was weaker than

In Romania, than in Bessarabia, but it was not succeeded to observe conspiracy. On March 26, 1921 Pavel Tkachenko was seized sigurantsy. He tried to run, but it is unsuccessful. His arrest entailed reorganization of the management of the Bessarabia underground which was in Odessa and Tiraspol. In April, 1921 A.L. Green matte, at that time the chairman of the Bessarabia communistic bureau into which entered G.I. Borisov (Old) and L. Makov (Alexandrov), sent to the Bessarabia regional committee of RCP(b) the letter in which reported: "Because of Yasha's failure I appoint Temporary Bessarabia Communist Party committee as a part of companions of Mile, Big-bellied and Bochacher and one candidate Bonopart". It were pseudonyms of S.M. Bubnovsky, the former member of the Tiraspol district executive committee Moldavian F. Pokhilo and

A.E. Dobrochayeva30. Tkachenko under torture was interrogated at this time in siguranets. It managed to keep clarity of mind and presence of mind; he did not give informative evidences.

But in Romania the communists acted in the conditions of legality. In May in Bucharest at the I congress of the Socialist Party of Romania most of delegates voted for accession of SPR to the Communist International. This circumstance served as a pretext for arrest of almost all members of the elected to Yassakh of the temporary Central Committee. Against them the government initiated so-called. "process 270". At the beginning of July, 1922 the Romanian communists created Interim executive committee of the socialist Communist Party of Romania. Possibly, at the initiative of the Bessarabia companions his leaders qualified the Romanian power in Bessarabia as gang of murderers and suggested "to form a united front of fight for free Bessarabia" 31. But the future of the communistic movement in Romania in many respects depended on how defendants will behave, especially main of them - Pavel Tkachenko, the most authoritative of the communists of Romania and territories annexed by it after world war.

To court Pavel was chambered a high security of the Bucharest prison Vekeresht. Protesting against its contents in shackles, 45 political prisoners went on hunger strike. Having learned about it, also Tkachenko ceased to eat food. It was necessary to starve 16 days, to the mass cell he was brought on a stretcher, but shackles from him were removed. Prisoners had confidential communications with communists at liberty. Using underground "mail", Pavel instructed the companions who were in fortress Zhilava how to behave during the investigation and to what tactics to adhere in court. It did not apply for the status of the leader of communists of Romania: the Romanian could only be that. On "Process 270", taking place in Bucharest on January 23 - on June 4, 1922, he acted as the Bessarabia leader seeking to announce the main requirement of the movement headed by it. Exhausted with contents in the punishment cell called "a standing coffin", the speech of Tkachenko devoted to situation in Bessarabia, having fearlessly exposed occupational terror. Workers and peasants of Bessarabia, he said, fight for release from a capitalism yoke, against the Romanian landowners and bankers who gangster took Bessarabia. Pavel finished the speech the irredentistsky statement that he fights against the Romanian occupation, for reunion of Bessarabia with Rossiyey32.

The death sentence pronounced to it on "Process 48" was not cancelled if he was judged in Bessarabia, Pavel was expected by execution. But also on "Process 270" its situation was desperate as on the apartment in Yassakh where it was arrested, siguranets was found by a part of "economy" of the terrorist anarchist Max Goldstein who set off on December 8, 1921 the explosion in the senate of Romania. Whether there was it a juggling of political police, ridiculous accident or something else, it is unknown, but charge included Pavel in group of offenders within "Process 270" terrorists. He resolutely rejected this slander. Despite severe beatings, M. Goldstein also claimed that communists to explosion in the senate of the relation have no. But Pavel, the radical opponent of the Romanian occupation, were helped also by the ideologist of the Bessarabia regionalism, the eminent person Natsional-tsaranistskoy to party of Romania the writer Konstantin Stere. The former populist invited to process as the witness confirmed that the terrorist organizations with Marxist parties had nothing in common at all times. Possibly, according to the recommendation K. Steere the same statement was made by the leader of NCP Yuliu Maniu. The most dangerous count was podorvan33.

Unlike Bessarabia, in Romania the state of emergency was not. The Romanian communists judged on "case 270", more than 200 people, the king Ferdinand to whom the crowning was coming amnestied. Tkachenko and 16 more Bessarabia revolutionaries were sentenced to imprisonment. About a year Pavel left it in military prison of Konstantsa, however the authorities prepared his murder. It was requested to Bessarabia on "Process 108" on which he was in absentia sentenced to death. On April 4, 1923 Tkachenko and his companion on the conclusion S.M. Bubnovsky made escape. They reached Bucharest and found for the secret address. However secret communications in the Romanian capital were unreliable, on April 9 fugitives were seized again. On May 25 the court acquitted them, but the authorities remanded them in custody. On June 5 a military court began new consideration of their "business", already in Chisinau. Over Pavel the murder threat "in attempt to flight" hung. During walk on the prison-yard the policeman shot at it, but missed. Then Pavel prevented attempt to kill him at convoy out of limits tyurmy34. Saving the companion, communists organized mass actions in Pavel Tkachenko's protection in Bessarabia, Romania, France, Germany, Denmark, other countries. The Bessarabia revolutionary found European izvestnost35. The tribunal acquitted him. In August, 1923 Pavel was released and sent from "Great Romania".

Having left through Austria and Germany in the USSR, Tkachenko promoted reconstruction of the Moldavian statehood. On February 4, 1924 it together with G.I. Kotovsky, S.S. Timov and group of seven Romanian communists sent to the Central Committee of RCP(b) the confidential report with the offer to form to the east of Dniester the Moldavian Soviet republic, and not autonomous, but allied, i.e. not depending on Kiev. In the classified document there is no place to promotion, in a note is not mentioned need of the local Moldavian community for creation of autonomy - there were no similar aspirations. The offer was proved by the strategic interests of the USSR - preparation of release of Bessarabii36. The project of a note was made by it, Yakov Antipov. The certificate to that is not only its compliance to language of the documents made by it Bessarabia podpolya37. It calls residents of Bukovina and Galichina not Ukrainians as it was necessary in the USSR, and it is traditional - Russinians. "Distribution of the Soviet power on borders of Bessarabia, - is specified in the document, - has that bigger value that this edge rests in the North and the East against Bukovina and Galicia, which Carpatho-Russian population entirely on side of the Ukrainian SSR and the USSR...". On October 12 the Moldavian autonomy as a part of the Ukrainian SSR was founded. G.I. Borisov [Old], I.I. Badeev, A.I. Stroyev and other figures of the Bessarabia underground became her heads. The Bessarabia liberation movement found a new support in the USSR. In 1940, after reunion of Bessarabia with the USSR, Moldova became the federal republic.

In Moscow Ya.Ya. Antipov was engaged in important political work. He was young, married and happy. But cancellation in the summer of 1919. Overseas department of RCP(b) of the Central Committee - according to its report - a course towards preparation of a revolt in Bessarabia contradicted the Trotskyist concept of "permanent revolution" and the course Zakordota, Department of the Central Committee of the RC [b] of Ukraine of foreign work. The figure of the Romanian communistic movement I. Dichesku-Dick defined Zakordot as extremist establishment, "which brought so many disasters to the Bulgarian and Romanian brotherly Communist Parties, revolutionary communistic the movement in Bessarabia [.]" 38. Trotskyists had to carry Pavel to number of the opponents. His companion S.M. Bubnovsky who also arrived in the USSR, Zakordot's functionaries called "deserter" Romanian kompartii39.

Meanwhile the political situation in Bessarabia was heated. In February-March, 1924 official Bucharest broke negotiations with Russia on the future of edge which carrying out was planned in Vienna. The drought struck a blow to country farms in the south of Bessarabia, and the Romanian authorities continued to plunder the population. Workers and peasants did not see opportunities of protection of the interests in the Romanian political system. The fighting country organizations created in 1918-1919 collected weapon. In Bessarabia the new revolt under the slogan of reunion of area with Russia was about to happen. At the same time some figures of KPR, acting from velikorumynsky positions, demanded from the Bessarabia communists of consent with policy of rumanisation of Moldavians and refusal of reunion of Bessarabia with the USSR. Communists of Bessarabia understood that implementation of requirements of the ru-mynizator unacceptable in itself, will deprive of them support in the people. Whether Pavel Tkachenko, one of creators of KPR and the head of the Bessarabia underground could, to ignore split threat?

It left on the West and again got into gear of communists of Romania. At the III congress of KPR which took place in August, 1924 in Vienna he was a part of its Central Committee, then was elected the secretary of the Central Committee and the member of the Politburo. Despite the death sentence pronounced to it, Pavel illegally came back to Romania. In January

1925 under its management the regional conference of the Bessarabia communists was held in Yassakh. It illegally visited Bessarabia, strengthening the communistic organizations. In 1924-1925 acted as one of organizers of a campaign of solidarity with participants

The Tatarbunarsky revolt, judged on "Process 500". It influenced decisions of tribunal: death sentences to tatarbunarets were not taken out, only 85 insurgents were sentenced to prison zaklyucheniyu40.

More difficult it appeared to prevent split between KPR and communists of Bessarabia. In January, 1925 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania adopted the absurd resolution on dissolution of the Bessarabia communistic organization. The secretary of the Bessarabia regional committee, discordant with this decision, A.Yu. Ganev was expelled by the Central Committee of KPR from party and under not clear circumstances is seized sigurantsy, but communists of Bessarabia kept the organization. Pavel was on their party. In March, 1925 he again illegally left to Moscow. Here he took part in work of the V plenum of Executive committee of Komintern. According to its report IKKI created the special Bessarabia commission as a part of so authoritative figures of the European communistic movement as Georgy Dimitrov, Béla Kuhn, Vasil Kolarov, Mikhail Manuilsky and Pavel Tkachenko. Having studied a question, the commission recognized obvious: in Bessarabia there is a national liberation movement not only among ethnic minorities, but also among Moldavians. It condemned the policy of enslavement of the Moldavian people pursued by the Romanian oligarchy. In March, 1926 IKKI confirmed that the Bessarabia organization submits to the Central Committee of KPR, but cancelled the decision of the Central Committee on its dissolution. Tkachenko left to Bucharest and achieved implementation of decisions of Komintern by the Communist Party of Romania.

In the management of KPR Pavel Tkachenko headed the revolutionary forces presented by such fighters as members of the Central Committee and Politburo bessarabets A.N. Nikolsky, A.Yu. Ganev, K.S. Syrbu, V.Ya. Holos-tenko, S.M. Bubnovsky, Bulgarian Boris Stefanov, subsequently - the secretary general of the Central Committee of KPR. Bessarabtsa from the Central Committee of KPR relied on authority of Komintern, support of ruling party of the USSR and a communistic underground of Bessarabia. Participants of revolution, they possessed the best theoretical and political preparation, than Romanian colleagues. In 1923 they achieved inclusion in the KPR program of point on the right of Bessarabia, Dobrudja and Transylvania for self-determination up to full office, for four decades having provided the internationalist nature of party. On the eve of the Vienna conference of 1924 under their influence KPR openly was on side of the USSR.

Unlike Russia, in Romania the slogan of the right of the nations for self-determination represented the instrument of blackmail of the governments of neighboring states, but not the principle of domestic policy. Official Bucharest started liquidation of the Communist Party of Romania. And on July 23, 1924 and the law on suppression of disorderly conduct ("Law Myrzesku") of December 19, 1924 KPR was tired out by military ordinances of April 5 in podpolye41. However Pavel Tkachenko, seeking to expand political opportunities of party, prepared its legalization. He remained the leader of the Bessarabia communists. Having illegally returned to Romania, it showed that it is impossible to intimidate him. In it fairly saw the authoritative and fearless leader of liberation movement. For the Romanian oligarchy it became not simply hated, but also is very dangerous politically. In ruling circles of Bucharest the decision on murder of the most radical and perspective leader of communists ripened.

On August 15, 1926 on the Bucharest street near the cemetery Bella Pavel Tkachenko, Boris Stefanov and the member the Central Committee of KPR Timofey Marin surrounded by crew siguranets. The agent guided a gun at unarmed Pavel. Having taken to the heels, he evaded from a bullet, but nevertheless was wounded and seized. Marin disappeared in turmoil, Stefanov was for many years flung in Doftana prison. Tkachenko was subjected to fanatic tortures. "All torments, all cruel tortures and humiliations to which he was subjected by animals siguranets, - one of authors of the newspaper of the Austrian communists "Roth Fang" wrote, - could not pull out at it indications about the communistic organizations of Romania put beyond the law". It was not succeeded to break Tkachenko. Therefore he was decided to be liquidated, and, - not to give a reason for expansion of a campaign of revelations, - secretly. On September 4, 1926 Pavel Tkachenko chained in shackles was brought to Chisinau and placed not in the Central prison for political prisoners, and in military. On the night of September 5 executioners siguranets brought it out of a torture chamber and shot at Visternichena's station. According to other data, they conducted one more "interrogation" after which mutilated with tortures, not able to move of the person agents took out from prison in a basket and still threw live the earth. It was declared that Tkachenko ran from custody.

However executioners could not hide his murder. In military prison one of prisoners identified the underground worker famous to him under the name of Lyudmir, and the prison code reported about it to group of political prisoners. On September 5 news was transferred to will. On the same day the Central Committee of KPR on underground channels informed the Bessarabia regional committee on P. Tkachenko's sending to Chisinau. But the request of group of lawyers for the purposes of its delivery to Chisinau organized by regional committee was late. On September 7 near Bender through Dniester the courier of the Balkan Communistic Federation illegally got over; it delivered the message of the Bessarabia regional committee about brutal murder of Pavel Tkachenko in the USSR.

Pavel Tkachenko's death was heavy loss for the Bessarabia liberation movement and communists of Romania. "Acting through Pavel Tkachenko, - it was said in the statement of the Central Committee of the RC of Romania, - working class

lost one of the best and resolute revolutionary fighters". The wave of protests which swept over the countries of foreign Europe in connection with his murder strengthened reputation of Romania as the countries of terror, barbarity and proizvola42. Characterizing the address methods applied by the Romanian authorities with bessarabets, on September 30

1926 the newspaper editorial office of the Belgian communists "Drapo Ruzh" noted that "the gang of savages" operates Bessarabia. The campaign of protests against terror in Bessarabia conducted concerning arrest and Pavel Tkachenko's murder is comparable on scale to a campaign for protection of tatarbunarets. It fixed in the European consciousness the idea about injustice of annexation of Bessarabia Romanian gosudarstvom43. Perhaps, owing to murder of the Bessarabia revolutionary Romania incurred not only political ushcherb44.

At the end of September, 1926. A new blow was struck to the Bessarabia underground. Without having sustained tortures, the member of the Bessarabia regional committee of KPR B. Finkel seized sigurantsy told the names of members of regional party committee and regional committee of the Communistic union of youth. On September 20-29 the police searched more than 300 houses in Chisinau and carried out mass arrests of communists. To get rid of an agency siguranets, the asset of the party organization of Chisinau made the decision about it samorospuske45 what and before supporters of rumanisation from the Central Committee of KPR tried to obtain. However the Bessarabia underground soon overcame crisis. The new management continued the course towards expansion of use of legal forms planned by Pavel Tkachenko borby46.

The communistic underground directed by Ya.Ya. Antipov was ideologically and organizationally the most united and active formation of the Bessarabia liberation movement. Yes, Yakov Antipov and his companions thought of categories of class fight. Their commitment to the social doctrine of the Bolshevism is undoubted. In prisons they sang "International", and on trials even met death sentences by the slogans "Long Live Revolution!". But further the slogan "Long Live Red Bessarabia!", i.e. Bessarabia reunited with Russia sounded. The strikes organized by communists and demonstrations steadily developed into protest actions against the Romanian

Christian Stephen Scott
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