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Possibilities of studying cultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region



UDK 911.53

The possibilities of studying modern landscapes of the Kaliningrad region are considered, the technique of their research is offered. Main units of necessary information — genetic types of natural landscapes, spatial features of resettlement and land use, network components of the landscape environment of the region are described.

This article considers the opportunities for the study of cultural landscapes in the Kaliningrad region and offers a methodology for such study. The author outlines the main modules of necessary information: genetic types of natural landscapes, spatial settlement and land use features, and the network components of the landscapes environment.

In domestic geography it is accepted to divide landscapes into natural and anthropogenic (cultural). In the Kaliningrad region almost all landscapes are in various degrees cultural (except for some sites of the coast

Baltic Sea and gulfs). This the territory already at the beginning of the XX century was everywhere populated and

it is mastered, possessed dense network iron and highways. Big sites of the territory were reclaimed and opened that defined changes of structure of a soil and vegetable cover. Not all cultural landscapes kept the shape by the beginning of the 21st century. The area of laylands increased, many railroads in post-war time were sorted, not all pump stations providing water balance of polder work, the number of rural settlements was reduced. Many cultural landscapes gained quite "natural" shape. The disappeared settlements are allocated on the plain with thickets of a lilac and the run wild fruit-trees. Former embankments of the railroads grew with elder. Many country roads as though were dissolved in a landscape, and any more not connecting bridge the stone blocks bared under a sand layer, nothing reminds of them suddenly through a stream or ranks of old trees... The difficult historical fate of this territory became also the fate of its cultural landscapes which are at unequal stages of the development now (or degradations). It complicates a problem of their research, but it is necessary to study them, the landscape environment of the territory — not only a material world of regional community, but also a potential resource for further development of our region.

The existing approaches to studying cultural landscapes

Already at the beginning of the XX century it became obvious that human influence on the environment became level with other (natural) factors. In our country L.S. Berg for the first time started talking about studying cultural landscapes, acting in October, 1913 in the Russian Geographical Society [1]. Nevertheless and century later there is neither consensus about studying cultural landscapes, nor even the settled definition.

In modern Russian geography there are several main approaches to a concept of a cultural landscape [2]. The first is conditionally called landscape and geographical (works of V.A. Nizovtsev, A.N. Ivanov, V.A. Nikolaev (MSU), G.A. Isachenko (St.Petersburg State University)). The cultural landscape in understanding of these researchers is a private type of an anthropogenic landscape. The second approach to studying a cultural landscape — an ethnologo - geographical (V.N. Kalutskov's (MSU) works. The ethnocultural landshaftovedeniye includes in a cultural landscape a material layer (nature, economy, local community) and also semantic — language and folklore. The third approach — information and axiological — is developed at Institute of cultural and natural heritage (Yu.A. Vedenin, R.F. Turovsky, M.E. Kuleshova's works) [3]. This approach marks balance between natural and geographical and culturological paradigms. It is worth mentioning also the approach to a cultural landscape standing alone as to the designed object on the basis of the theory of territorial areas and networks (B.B. Rodoman, V.L. Kagansky) [12]. Except geography, the concept "cultural landscape" is actively used also by the humanities. The set of approaches to studying a cultural landscape is caused by complexity of the phenomenon and development of domestic geographical school where during

E.A. Romanova

POSSIBILITIES of STUDYING CULTURAL LANDSCAPES of the KALININGRAD REGION

decades clear split of geography on physical and economic triumphed. Studying a cultural landscape is on a joint of these sciences therefore the universal scientific technique is still not created. Features of the Kaliningrad region — full change of the population after war, change of a system of managing and ATD — define impossibility of full use of any of the listed above approaches. In Russia there are only several regions which contemporary history was defined by change of the state accessory and even ethnic groups. Among them there are the Karelian Isthmus, the southern part of the island of Sakhalin, Kuril islands and the Kaliningrad region. In-depth studies of cultural landscapes of these cross-border regions were conducted only on the Karelian Isthmus [8]. The Kaliningrad region differs from the Karelian Isthmus in natural and social and economic parameters and on degree of familiarity of the territory that does not allow to use the technique applied there. Only its material layer can be the main object of a research of modern cultural landscapes in the Kaliningrad region. For the solution of this task Yu.G. Saushkin gave the most acceptable definition of a cultural landscape [17]. Such approach to studying cultural landscapes allows to see them in development that is especially important in the analysis of dynamics of landscapes.

Technique of a research of cultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region

Cultural landscapes of the territory of the area began to be formed on the basis of the natural complexes created by the last quarternary freezing and as a result of the processes forming the environment after a glacier. Therefore basic should consider studying genetic types of landscapes where the main objects are the maternal breed and a relief. Further it is necessary to estimate extent of transformation of natural landscapes by human society. For this purpose it is necessary to choose such components of a material layer which will allow to estimate load of a landscape authentically. The system of resettlement of the territory acts as such component. An important factor of transformation of a natural landscape — agriculture. Therefore also the analysis of land use has to be carried out. Other components of a material layer of a cultural landscape are the transport infrastructure, objects of the industry, defense, recreations connected with the system of resettlement which have to be considered too. The cultural landscape is much more subject to both spatial, and temporary changes, than natural. It is impossible to study modern landscapes of the territory without research of extent of their transformation. Temporary cuts of 1939 (fixes a pre-war condition and the maximum familiarity of the territory) and 2009 (current state) are most convenient. To estimate extent of transformation of landscapes of the territory — means to compare landscapes of different temporary cuts. There are no representative data on landscapes of the territory of the area in pre-war time, that is to compare modern landscapes of the territory of the area, it seems, there is nothing. But withdrawal from this provision is, the key to a solution is concluded in the definition of a cultural landscape of Yu.G. Saushkin. The person creates a cultural landscape on the basis of natural, changing its components, but the new landscape continues to live under natural laws. If impact of the person on a landscape stops, it will develop under the same laws, but already without participation of the person. In this regard it is appropriate to remember work of Accusative of Semenova-Tyan-Shanskogo which subdivided landscapes into primitive, half-civilized, cultural, running wild, run wild [19]. Thus, the algorithm of studying cultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region was chosen following: a research of structure of natural landscapes of area, studying a system of resettlement of the territory on the chosen temporary cuts — 1939 and 2009, consideration of other components of a material layer and system of land use on the chosen temporary cuts, the interfaced analysis of all components of a material layer of cultural landscapes of area within the theory of territorial areas and networks.

Structure of natural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region as basis of a cultural landscape

Despite deep studying components of the nature, detailed complex landscape researches in the Kaliningrad region were not conducted. Landscape cards with the level of allocation of natural complexes lower than the level of type of a landscape were not developed, landscape shooting was not conducted. In 1998 — 2001, separate researches on Kurshsky and Vistula braids were conducted [5; 6]. In 2002 in the Atlas of the Kaliningrad region it was published

the landscape map of the area of scale 1:500000 based on hypsometric approach to allocation of landscapes and made without forwarding works on literary data [7]. Therefore from 2003 to 2010 we carried out landscape shooting of the territory in scale 1:200,000, and for certain territories — willows larger scale [4; 14—16]. In the Kaliningrad region the following genetic types of natural landscapes (fig. 1) are presented.

Fig. 1. Landscape structure of the Kaliningrad region

Genetic types of landscapes: Ia are flat and hilly plains of the main moraine;

Ib — final morennye heights and ridges; Ic are flat lake and glacial plains; Id — hilly

flyuvioglyatsialny plains; IIa is the drevnedeltovy lowland; IIb are drevneallyuvialny plains; IIc are modern valley complexes; IIIa are coastal lagunny lowlands; IIIb are seaside eolian formations; IIIc — accumulative

sea coast; IIId are abrasion sea coast

Thin plains, mainly wavy and flat and hilly, occupy the central part of the area, having stretched from Sambia Peninsula in the West to its eastern frontiers. On Sambia Peninsula the system final morennykh ridges of a horseshoe form dominates, many flyuvioglyatsialny forms — kam also remained. Other massif of landscapes of glacial origin is presented in the south of the area. The extensive lake and glacial plain is located between two spurs of Varmiysko-Vistytis Upland and is characterized by a flat relief. The second large area of distribution of ozernolednikovy deposits is in the northeast of area. Seaside landscapes are presented by abrasion and accumulative and abrasion coast of Sambia Peninsula and accumulative coast of the Vistula and Kurshsky braids. Coast of the Vistula and Kurshsky gulfs from the continental party are busy with seaside meadows and salt low-lying marshes. The ancient delta of the Neman River occupies the extreme northwest of area, it is the extensive lowland occupied with low-lying, riding swamps and polder, there are continental dunes and massifs of pereveyanny sands. Valley complexes of the Neman Rivers, Pregolya and to Sheshupa and their inflows have well expressed, places boggy floodplains with staritsa and in the lower current numerous sleeves. In the northeast of area to Entre Rios of Neman and to Sheshupa and south of it the big massif of the drevneallyuvialny deposits which underwent eolian processing and occupied with broad-leaved coniferous forests is located now. Thus, the territory of the Kaliningrad region — the seaside plain in a zone of excess moistening, with small height differences, has an extensive river network and large massifs of swamps. Feature of the territory is existence of large massifs of eolian formations.

Feature of the system of resettlement of the territory of the Kaliningrad region as indicator of familiarity of a landscape

Evolution of resettlement of the Kaliningrad region and its current state are well studied now [9; 10; 21—24]. It is known that modern network of settlements of the territory

The Kaliningrad region it began to be formed in the 13th century, at development of the region by the German award. The historical type of resettlement of the territory at that time occupied with Prussian tribes can be defined as doagrarny [18]. Resettlement of East Prussia by 1939 can be referred to early industrial type as the province held peripheral position in pre-war Germany, what caused agricultural specialization the majority

administrative regions. After accession of a northern part of East Prussia to the USSR the existing network of settlements within several years remained invariable though total population strongly fell (1,107,197 people in 1939 and 937360 people in 2009). The number of country people in 1939 was 43.3% of total population, and not less than 60% of economically active country people was engaged in agriculture [26; 27]. In 2009 the number of country people of the territory is 23.5% of total number, and less than 10% of economically active population are engaged in agriculture. Similar trends are observed also on other indicators — on number of rural settlements and on their lyudnost.

The analysis of city resettlement shows its unasledovannost since pre-war time. Still the center — Kaliningrad (Konigsberg) dominates, but in comparison with 1939 its role amplified that is well noticeable by the index of domination: at the regional center in comparison with 1939 it increased from 1.9 to 2.5. Underwent changes and hierarchy of the cities (rule Tsipfa). We constructed schedules with use of a formula of Is = Р^п" [20] where Is — population of the city of a rank p, P1 — population of the largest city in the region,

and — hierarchization coefficient, in this case 1.3 [15]. They also confirm strengthening of a role of the regional center and insufficient rates of development of other cities. Thus, in comparison with 1939 the territory is less populated now, and the most part of the present population is concentrated in the regional center. But for studying cultural landscapes of these data it is not enough, it is important to know spatial distribution of the population. Distribution of the population across the territory of the area will show not only dynamics of residential landscapes, but also degree of load of a landscape. The cards of population density existing now are executed on values, average for areas, and on the cities [7] and cannot be useful to studying cultural landscapes. The solution of an objective required the cards of real population density showing distribution of the population across all territory of the area.

by

the Author constructed cards of real population density for 1939 and 2009. Calculation of real population density was carried out both within borders of settlements, and within pedestrian reach of the territories, next to the settlement, taking into account their landscape features and land use (fig. 2, 3).

Fig. 2. Real population density of the territory of the Kaliningrad region in 1939

Fig. 3. Real population density of the territory of the Kaliningrad region in 2009

In 1939 the areas with dense population (more than 100 people on sq. kilometer) covered almost all territory of the region, forming a continuous strip along the sea coast, the Pregel River (Pregolya) and concentrating around the cities. Areas of dense population of the western and east parts of the region were counterbalanced. In 2009 areas with population density higher than 100 people on sq. kilometer are separated, their area was reduced. The most part of the territory of the Kaliningrad region has population density less than 10 people on sq. kilometer. The interfaced analysis of structure of natural landscapes and spatial structure of resettlement shows that the modern system of resettlement of area has big landscape conditionality, than pre-war.

Other important components of a material layer of cultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region

The system of land use for the studied 70 years underwent big changes. On the one hand, it is connected with global trends of technological development. On the other hand, the modern system of land use reflects results of planned economy of the Soviet period and crisis of the 90th of the XX century. Now the area of laylands averages from 40.5 to 68% of the area of farmlands of municipal units.

Post-war changes affected also the transport system of the territory. As up to the 90th the Kaliningrad region was the closed territory, the roads connecting it with the southern neighbor were blocked. Northern and eastern frontiers of area in Soviet period were connecting, and the message on them did not stop up to acquisition by the Baltic republics of the state independence. East Prussia possessed the dense network of the railroads connecting settlements. Now only the main highways function. Unlike iron, the network of highways almost completely remained, their feature is the obsadka trees that turns them into picturesque avenues. Now there is a systematic destruction of these trees for expansion of a roadbed and increase in traffic safety that in the future will lead to loss of this unique type of a cultural landscape.

Important components of a material layer of a landscape are objects of industrial infrastructure, they, as a rule, are concentrated in residential zones and in "growth poles" and also career and dump complexes. Feature of the region is existence of pits on extraction of amber in the settlement. Amber.

Numerous defensive works — both modern, and remained since the past centuries became interesting components of a modern landscape of area.

Seaside position of area defines existence of a recreational zone here. The developed recreational zone is now only on Curonian Spit which has the status of national park, is formed on the southern coast of Vistula Lagoon. On the northern coast of Sambia Peninsula the resettlement framework like "sea facade" is presented. Unlike the neighboring European states, extensive territories of a coastal zone (western coast) have population density less than 10 people on sq. kilometer.

Basic principles of studying cultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region

Thus, initial material for studying cultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region forms several layers (blocks) which interfaced analysis will allow not only to classify landscapes, to estimate dynamics of their development, but also to surely predict their further transformation.

The first (basic) layer of information is a structure of natural landscapes, their genetic type, it defines a relief and quarternary deposits of the territory. This structure is expressed spatially, each genetic type of a landscape forms a certain area. The second layer of information is a modern system of resettlement of the territory in its spatial expression — real population density of the territory — is also presented in the form of areas. The third layer is an analog of the second — spatial idea of the former system of resettlement (it is executed on the chosen time cut — 1939). The interfaced analysis of these three layers allows to define dependence of resettlement on the environment and a stage of succession of a cultural landscape. The fourth layer — the modern system of land use — too is presented in the form of areas. The fifth layer of information not areal, but network, it contains information on dot and linear objects (settlements, roads, dams, etc.). The majority of the existing classifications cultural (and anthropogenic) landscapes considers only such objects.

Combination of areal and network approach to studying cultural landscapes expands possibilities of their research and is the basis for forecasting of their further transformation. Territorial areas and networks — a subject of studying theoretical geography [12;13] where laws of polarization of the territory are already open and are studied many mechanisms of transformation of territorial structures. Studying cultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region will allow to check a number of provisions of the theory and, the most important, to use achievements of theoretical geography for optimization of the existing landscape environment for the benefit of regional community.

List of references

1. L.S. Berg. Subject and problems of geography//Izv. RGO. 1915. T. 51, issue 9. Page 463 — 475.
2. M.E. Vedenin Yu.A. Kuleshova. Cultural landscape as object of cultural and natural heritage//Izv. RAS. It is gray. geogr. 2001. No. 1. Page 7 — 14.
3. Vedenin Yu.A., M.E. Kuleshova. Cultural landscapes as category of heritage. iYa: www.heritage.UNESCO.ru (date of the address: 5.01.2011).
4. O.L. Vinogradova, E.A. Romanova. Features of landscape structure of the Sambiysky peninsula//Scientific notes of the Russian Geographical Society (Kaliningrad office). 2010. T. 10. B 1 electron. wholesale. disk (SB-YaOM).
5. I.I. Volkova. Landscape and ecological characteristic of Kurshsky and Vistula braids//Problems of study and conservation of Curonian Spit. Kaliningrad, 1998. Page 112 — 127.
6. I.I. Volkova, V.S. Korneevets, G.M. Fedorov. Vistula (Baltic) braid. Potential of opportunities / under the editorship of G.M. Fedorov. Kaliningrad, 2002.
7. Geographical atlas of the Kaliningrad region / chapter of an edition V.V. Orlenok. Kaliningrad, 2002.
8. T.E. Isachenko. Cultural landscapes of cross-border territories (on the example of the Karelian Isthmus)//Landshaftovedeniye: theory, methods, regional researches, practice: materials XI mezhdunar. landscape konf. / otv. edition. K.N. Dyakonov. M, 2006. Page 725 — 726.
9. A.V. Levchenkov. Interrelations of a system of rural resettlement and landscape factors of the Kaliningrad region//Bulletin of the Kaliningrad state university. 2004. Issue 5. Page 33 — 39.
10. Levchenkov.B. Formation of a system of rural resettlement of the Kaliningrad region: avtoref.... yew. edging. geogr. sciences. SPb., 2005.
11. N.S. Mironenko. Regional geography: theory and methods. M, 2001.
12. B.B. Rodoman. Territorial areas and networks: essays of theoretical geography. Smolensk, 1999.
13. B.B. Rodoman. The polarized biosphere: collection of articles. Smolensk, 2002.
14. E.A. Romanova. Landscape structure and system of resettlement of the Kaliningrad region//Materialy Vseros. nauch. konf. "Seliverstovsky readings": geography and geoecology at the present stage of interaction of the nature and society. SPb., 2009. Page 261 — 266.
15. E.A. Romanova. The retrospective analysis of a system of resettlement of the territory of the Kaliningrad region in 1939 — 2009//Scientific notes of the Russian Geographical Society (Kaliningrad office). 2010. T. 10. S. 1 electron. wholesale. disk (CD ROM).
16. E.A. Romanova, O.L. Vinogradova, E.Yu. Urmanova. System of hydraulic engineering constructions of the ancient delta of Neman and its influence on structure of landscapes//Materialy Vseros. nauch. konf. "Seliverstovsky readings": geography and geoecology at the present stage of interaction of the nature and society. SPb., 2009. Page 156 — 158.
17. Yu.G. Saushkin. Cultural landscape//geography Questions. M, 1946. Issue 1. Page 97 — 106.
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20. The territorial organization of the population / under the editorship of E.G. Chistyakov. M, 2007.
21. G.M. Fedorov, Yu.M. Zverev. Social and economic and geopolitical development of the Kaliningrad region: studies. grant. Kaliningrad, 2002.
22. G.M. Fedorov. Geodemographic situation: the theory and methodical bases / under the editorship of N.T. Agafonov. L., 1984.
23. G.M. Fedorov. Geodemographic typology / under the editorship of N.T. Agafonov. L., 1985.
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27. Nordliches Ostpreussen, Konigsberger Gebiet in 27 deutschen topographiscen Karten im Masstab 1: 100,000, bearbeitet von Fritz R. Baran, 1993.

Statistical materials

1. Demographic year-book, 2007 / Territorial authority of Federal service

the state statistics on Kaliningrad areas. Kaliningrad, 2007.

2. Demographic year-book, 2009 / Territorial authority of Federal service

the state statistics on Kaliningrad areas. Kaliningrad, 2009.

3. Key indicators of development of economy and social series of administrative-territorial formation of the Kaliningrad region, 2002 / Kaliningrad regional committee of the state statistics. Kaliningrad, 2003.
4. Key indicators of development of economy and a social series of administrative-territorial formation of the Kaliningrad region, 2007 / Territorial authority of Federal State Statistics Service on Kaliningrad areas. Kaliningrad, 2008.
5. Rural settlements of the Kaliningrad region (2007) / Territorial authority of Federal State Statistics Service on Kaliningrad areas. Kaliningrad, 2008.
6. Rural settlements of the Kaliningrad region (2009) / Territorial authority of Federal State Statistics Service on Kaliningrad areas. Kaliningrad, 2009.
7. Country people. Demographic aspect, 2009 / Territorial authority of Federal State Statistics Service on Kaliningrad areas. Kaliningrad, 2009.
8. Economic and social situation of the Kaliningrad region in 2008 / Territorial authority of Federal State Statistics Service on Kaliningrad areas. Kaliningrad, 2009.

About the author

Elena Albertovna Romanova, candidate of geographical sciences, associate professor of physical geography, regional geography and tourism, Russian state university of Immanuel Kant.

E-mail: alberta63@mail.ru

About author

Dr. Yelena Romanova, Associate Professor, Department of Physical Geography, Cuntry Studies and Tourism, IKSUR.

E-mail: alberta63@mail.ru

Robert Robinson
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