The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Formation of network of teacher's seminaries in the West Siberian educational district at the end the H1H-beginning of the XX century

UDK: 378(091)-057.87-058

O. V. Perova


Process of formation of professional pedagogical education in Western Siberia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century and a solution of the problem of preparation of pedagogical shots for rural areas through expansion of network of teacher's seminaries is considered.

The boundary of X1X-XX of centuries in Russia was the period of fast social and economic rise. In the conditions of modernization of society of one of significant the problem of development of national education and professional education was. By 1897 only the sixth part of the population of the country was competent [1, page 317]. In 1906 the Ministry of National Education (MNE) prepared idea of introduction of universal education in the Russian Empire for discussion it in the II State Duma, however the project was approved some years later, already by the III State Duma.

According to a one-day school census for January, 1911 100.3 thousand elementary schools at which 154 thousand teachers (without religious teachers priests), i.e. 58% of the required number worked when calculating 1 teacher for 50 pupils were recorded. In total the solution of a personnel problem of the empire required more than 265 thousand teachers. At the same time the real average of pupils on one teacher of data of 1911 in the MNP educational institutions made about 40 people, and at schools of other departments of 35-38 people that meant increase in personnel requirements approximately by 20% at the existing norms. From 15 educational districts of the Russian Empire the greatest deficiency in teacher's shots was had: Turkestan (92%), the Warsaw educational district (68%), the Caucasian, West Siberian, Kiev and Vilensky educational districts (on 60-50%) [2, page 219, 222].

Ensuring needs of Western Siberia required about 9.7 thousand teachers (when calculating 1 teacher on 50 pupils) [2, page 219]. Stable economic recovery of the region stimulated expansion of network of educational institutions, however the solution of a personnel problem was complicated by geographical features of the region: population density of Siberia and Steppes was low, and the off road terrain interfered with creation of one school for residents of several settlements. Therefore needs of the district for pedagogical shots increased almost twice.

The West Siberian educational district was founded on July 1, 1885 and at the beginning of the 20th century included territories of the Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces, the Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions. Preparation kvalifitsi-

rovanny pedagogical shots up to opening in 1902. The Tomsk teacher's institute the only Omsk teacher's seminary in the region carried out.

In the Omsk and Tomsk state archives the interesting documents demonstrating that the Omsk teacher's seminary was open in August, 1872 remained, studies began in it only in December. The first release of seminarists in number of 15 people took place in June, 1875 [3, l. 5-7]. In total by 1902 the seminary trained about 580 teachers of initial schools.

The Omsk teacher's seminary was founded on the basis of Situation and states of Molodechnyansky teacher's seminary of March 17, 1870. The course in made 3 years, at seminary the model initial school worked. At the time of opening the teaching staff of seminary consisted of only 8 people, and the director N.I. Viren headed it. Own room on the project of the architect

AA. I. Ezeta seminary received in 1875. In 1903 other two-storeyed brick building was built, and in 1906 the possibility of placement in seminary of a boarding school for pupils appeared. Till this time most of pupils were forced to live on rental apartments. On class accessory most of the first pupils of seminary were natives of clergy (40-50%), of representatives of city estate (30-35%) and rural estate (20-25%).

By the beginning of the 20th century, according to data on the number of the initial schools presented by the trustee of the educational district L.I. Lavrentyev to MNP in Western Siberia there were 26 city by Position on May 31, 1872 of schools, 99 parish city schools, 5 rural parish schools, 142 rural two-great and one-great schools of department of MNP according to the instruction of 1874, 10 railway, 26 rural schools which are financed the Office of its Imperial Majesty, 560 rural schools of department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 170 stanitsa and settlement schools of the Siberian Cossack army, 28 private schools and 25 Russian-Kyrgyz aulny schools of department of MNP. Only 1092 schools on the district [4, l. 50 about.], from them in rural areas -

928 (85%). In each school there were two or three offices, with two and more teachers. One teacher's seminary which is letting out annually 18-20 pupils could not satisfy all teacher's vacancies in the educational district.

The trustee of the educational district initiated opening of teacher's seminaries and institutes in each of administrative units of Western Siberia. The special alarm was caused by the Semipalatinsk region in which there were only 82 educational institutions, 3.9 thousand pupils and less than 200 teachers. Of May 20, 1900 about opening in Semipalatinsk it was specified in representation of the trustee of the district of teacher's seminary that for this seminary the special purpose is planned - "to serve as a nursery of the Russian culture among half-civilized nomadic the Kyrgyz and other foreigners..." [4, l. 72, 72 about.]. July 1, 1903. The Semipalatinsk teacher's seminary opened as a part of two classes [5, l. 17].

Along with process of opening of the Semipalatinsk teacher's seminary in MNP the issue of establishment of one more men's teacher's seminary in the West Siberian educational district was discussed. This time the initiative of opening of new teacher's seminary proceeded from Directorate of national schools of the Tomsk province. In representation of the director of national schools of the Tomsk province addressed to the trustee of the West Siberian educational district it was pointed out the serious shortage of the trained teachers for all types of elementary schools. In 1900 in the Tomsk province 300 rural schools of different type consisted, many of which because of large number of pupils had two, three offices. The teaching staff of data of educational institutions was formed generally at the expense of the persons who passed examination for a rank of the initial teacher or ended three classes of a female gymnasium or a pro-gymnasium and received after six-month student teaching the certificate on a rank of the initial teacher. Pedagogical training of such teachers was estimated as extremely low. In 1901 in the province 36 more schools were open, and by 1907 their quantity increased to 451 [6, l. 9 about.]. The problem of personnel security of rural schools even more became aggravated.

At the first congress of inspectors of the Tomsk province which took place in June, 1900 the establishment of teacher's seminary [4, l was recognized necessary. 7

about.]. When determining the place of new seminary the fact that during work of a congress from the country chief 1 - go the site of the Barnaul County of Mr. Voynilovich the petition for permission to start construction of the building of teacher's seminary in the village of Pavlovsk arrived was considered. This petition was excited at the request of peasants of 93 rural societies. In 1896 the village assemblies decided to make annually special collecting 1-5 kopeks from 1 tithe of a pas -

the hotny earth and 1-3 kopeks from 1 head of cattle for the purpose of the direction them on all-useful matter in commemoration of "day of sacred coronation of their Imperial Majesties". In two years the representatives of rural societies stopped on need of opening "school which pupils accepted from country societies, participants of all donations on an exit from the called school could hold with success positions of teachers in initial schools with the obligation to serve in them not less than 3 years" [4, l. 8]. The type of such educational institution determined teacher's seminary. For the structure of seminary the village was elected the place. Pavlovsk, in 55 versts from Barnaul and 270 versts from the nearest station of the railroad. By 1902 rural societies the capital was already built and it is transferred to the order of Mr. Voynilovich in the amount of 25,000 rub, and until the end of a decade was planned to collect the sum of 40,000 rub and to use it on keeping of scholars of seminary [4, l. 8-9]. Meanwhile discussion of a question of opening of seminary dragged on owing to the offer which arose in MNP to transform a part of men's teacher's seminaries to women's. But the local community donating for the structure of seminary gave preference to men's seminary. The teacher's seminary in the village of Pavlovsk of the Tomsk province was founded since July 1, 1904, however war with Japan and other circumstances, independent of educational district administration, slowed down the actual opening of seminary for 2.5 years. Only in October, 1906, acceptance tests were made and the act of opening of the Pavlovsk seminary took place.

However the total number of the qualified teachers still remained extremely small. On the basis of the report of the trustee for 1910 about a condition of educational institutions of the West Siberian educational district it is possible to make idea of educational qualification of all teachers of the lowest initial schools.

From the table given below [7, l. 373] it is visible that 49% of total number of teachers and 86.9% of total number of teachers had no pedagogical preparation. Growth of number of the lowest initial schools in many respects advanced possibilities of teacher's seminaries in the region.

The absence in the Tobolsk province of special educational institution for training of teachers and teachers extremely aggravated a problem of shortage of pedagogical shots. Opening of constants teacher's rooms of courses in the cities of Tara and Tobolsk only partly resolved a personnel issue. According to the estimates of the district inspector Popov, according to collected data for the end of 1910, the average service life of the teacher in rural initial schools of the Tobolsk province was 6.5 years. Annual updating of staff opened not less

An administrative unit Total number of teachers by January 1, 1911 teachers teachers

with special pedagogical preparation and education with secondary and primary education without educational qualification with special pedagogical preparation and education with secondary and primary education without educational qualification

Tomsk province 1042 153 206 3 1 672 7

Tobolsk province 880 126 73 3 84 594 —

Akmola region 403 134 104 - 89 75 1

Semipalatinsk region 140 35 42 — 34 27 2

Total 2465 448 (51%) 425 (48.4%) 6 (0.6%) 208 (13.1%) 1368 (86.3%) 10 (0.6%)

118 teacher's vacancies in already operating schools. To it to add again opened schools on average in 49 in a year. Thus, annually the Tobolsk province required not less than 167 candidates for teacher's positions [8, l. 8].

Of total number of teachers of the province of 77% were made by women from whom only 12% had pedagogical education in volume of one-year pedagogical courses or the VIII classes of female gymnasiums and the first step in the solution of a question of training of the qualified teachers was opening on July 1, 1910 of the Yalutorovsk four-great women's teacher's seminary [9, l. 241].

In a year after opening of the Yalutorovsk teacher's seminary by the trustee of the district the representation was sent to MNP about establishment of new teacher's seminary in the Tobolsk province. The only women's teacher's seminary, letting out annually no more than 25 teachers, could not provide full replacement of vacant teacher's positions. For opening of new teacher's seminary the city of Tobolsk was chosen as the place. Besides a comfortable geographical location and existence of means of communication with other cities of the province the considerable low cost of life and absence active political the movement were referred to advantages of this settlement. Assignment of the land plot under the structure of seminary out of city boundaries, according to the trustee, also was a favorable condition under which "pupils will be far away from city temptations and is closer to that situation in what they should serve in rural schools" [8, l. 9]. Besides, the city undertook the obligation to annually assign three thousand rubles from the territorial estimate on agricultural classes of seminarists. The final decision of a question of the Tobolsk seminary fell on 1914

The next stage in opening of teacher's seminaries in Western Siberia was connected with initsiati-

howl the State Duma and Council of ministers in 1913 to found in commemoration of the 300 anniversary of reign of House of Romanovs 93 teacher's seminaries on number of provinces and areas of the Russian Empire with assignment to the marked educational institutions of names "in memory of the 300 anniversary of reign of HOUSE OF ROMANOVS" [10, l. 1]. In this regard it was offered to provincial territorial meetings to define the place for opening of seminary, at the same time it was recommended to stop mainly on rural areas with an indispensable condition of gratuitous granting from 2 to 5 tithes of lands to seminaries depending on the city or rural areas.

As a result of three-months correspondence of the trustee 4 settlements for opening of teacher's seminaries decided on directors of national schools by January, 1914. In the Tomsk province for placement of teacher's seminary the page was defined. Stone; in the Tobolsk province - the village of Golyshmanov-skoye, the Ishim County; in the Akmola region - Kokchetav; in Semipalatinsk - the settlement Irtysh. But in three months, in March, 1914, the trustee submitted a petition to MNP for opening in the district already of six teacher's seminaries again. Except already mentioned places the city of Tobolsk was called, on it the petition by uchebnookruzhny management and the village Zmeinogorsky of the Tomsk province was submitted earlier. Volost boards of the first country site of the Zmeinogorsky County about 1,000 rub annually gathered for needs of future seminary, and money 3,000 rub [10, l were already collected. 58 about., 59]. And still MNP found impossible opening of teacher's seminary in the village of Zmeinogorskom of the Tomsk province about what in November, 1914 it was brought to the attention of volost foremen. Teacher's seminaries were not open in one of four places presented to consideration to MNP. However the situation with security with a teacher's personnel of initial schools of the district was so difficult that forced to define for teacher's rooms dolzh-

Nosta of any persons, "which will declare on this desire, though not possessing vocational pedagogical education if only only schools were not left without teachers" [11, l. 4]. At the same time in the West Siberian educational district, despite wartime, annually from 1914 to 1917 about one new men's teacher's seminary was established: in the cities of Tobolsk (the beginning of studies on December 21, 1914), Barnaul (on July 1, 1915), Akmolinsk (on October 1, 1916) and Biysk (November, 1917) [8, l. 6566; 11, l. 53, 53 about., 110; 12, l. 199 about.]. In most cases the initiative of their opening proceeded from local authorities long before a raising of a question of anniversary teacher's seminaries.

As a result by December, 1917 in Western Siberia 8 teacher's seminaries worked. Their activity was initially strictly regulated by provisions, instructions and rules, according to normative documents [13]. Activity of government seminaries was directed mainly to training of the rural teacher as close as possible to the village and brought up in the spirit of devotion of church, a throne and the fatherland. The programs of subject matters developed by faculty meetings of seminaries corresponded to basic courses of training in rural schools, at the same time special attention was paid to religious education of seminarists. In comparison with preparation on pedagogical courses or in the VIII classes of female gymnasiums the training of pupils of teacher's seminaries gave the chance to gain more profound knowledge on pedagogics, a technique of teaching all objects of a course of initial school and also biennial student teaching. Preference at receipt in seminary was given in the social relation to natives of the country environment. However to children of country and Cossack estate the serious competition was made by city candidates. They had better educational preparation in comparison with a course of initial schools which was the minimum condition at assumption to entrance examinations. At the same time, the social composition of pupils of seminaries was gradually changed. So, in 1873 in the Omsk teacher's seminary only 27% of country children [14 studied, to l.111, 111 about.], and in 1912 natives of the rural environment there were already more than 74% [7, l.70]. For rural children the receipt in teacher's seminary was nearly the only opportunity to get primary professional education. The geography of the residence of the arriving pupils of seminaries went out of the West Siberian educational district. As a part of pupils meet arrived

from the Semirechensky region (since 1899 it belonged to the turkenstansky Governorate-General), Tambov, Voronezh and other provinces. The age list of pupils hesitated from 14 to 19 years. Educational level also was very different. Among pupils there were several classes of gymnasiums, city or district schools, agricultural schools, two-great ministerial schools, parish schools which ended a course and with home education. Long time educational pedagogical institutions of Western Siberia were the closed institutions, and only since 1905 the graduates of teacher's seminaries had an opportunity to continue education at teacher's institutes. Since 1917, according to resolutions of Provisional government, both young men, and girls could come to all teacher's seminaries.

Almost all teacher's seminaries of Western Siberia had the special nature of activity. So, experience of the first and long time of the only Omsk teacher's seminary in the region on development of programs of teaching different objects was noted by MNP and formed the basis of activity of other pedagogical institutions of the West Siberian region, including seminaries. The singular problem of the Semipalatinsk teacher's seminary consisted in distribution of the Russian culture among Kyrgyz and other foreigners. The Pavlovsk teacher's seminary was the only pedagogical institution opened in rural areas, but because of dishonesty at construction of the building of seminary in 1911 the decision on its translation from page was made. Pavlovsk to Novonikola-evsk the Tomsk province. The Yalutorovsk teacher's seminary was the first and only women's in the region. The Tobolsk, Barnaul, Akmola and Biysk teacher's seminaries were open under trying conditions World War I.

In general process of formation of network of teacher's seminaries in the West Siberian educational district corresponded to the all-Russian process. So, in 1872 in Russia there were 49 teacher's seminaries and schools, and in 1910 in the country 92 seminaries functioned already. For January 1, 1917 in Russia 171 seminaries [2, l worked. 94-95]. From 1910 to 1916 inclusive in the country 79 teacher's seminaries were open, i.e. grew by 46%, from them 4 in the West Siberian educational district (growth by 57%). And still the real number of teacher's seminaries also was not enough institutes for the full solution of a question of replacement of pedagogical shots. At the same time the West Siberian teacher's seminaries till 1918 trained more than 1200 qualified teachers and teachers of elementary school.

List of references

1. National education in Russia. Historical almanac. M.: National education, 2000. 400 pages
2. Czechs N.V. National education in Russia from the 60th years of the 19th century. M, 1912. 224 page
3. State Archive of the Omsk Region (SAOR). T. 115. Op. 1. 3.
4. State Archive of the Tomsk Region (SATR). T. 126. Op. 1. 1236.
5. GATO. T. 126. Op. 2. 1754.
6. In the same place. 2150.
7. In the same place. 2612.
8. In the same place. 2687.
9. In the same place. 2670.
10. In the same place. 3035.
11. In the same place. 3041a.
12. In the same place. 3317.
13. G. Falbork, V. Charnolusky. The reference book on national education. Laws, orders, instructions, charters, help data and so forth. T. II. SPb.: Publishing house of t-va "Knowledge", 1901.
14. GAOO. T. 115. Op. 1. 9.

O.V. Perova, senior research associate.

Tomsk state pedagogical university.

Kiyevskaya St., 60, Tomsk, Tomsk region, Russia, 634061.


Material came to edition 08.12.2009

of O. V. Perova


The article discribes the process of the establishment of professional pedagogical education in Western Siberia at the end of the 19th at the beginning of the 20th century and the solution of the problem of village teachers training through the expansion of the network of Teachers’ Semenaries.

Tomsk State Pedagogical University.

Ul. Kievskaya, 60, Tomsk, Tomskaya oblast, Russia, 634061.


Willie Long
Other scientific works: