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Role of the Don archaeological institute in development of science and the culture of Don region (1918-1922)

 © 2008 V. Karaycheva


Development of science and culture to Dona at the beginning of the 20th century is a subject of many researches, however the place and a role in this process of separate scientific and cultural institutions are still insufficiently studied, in particular the Don archaeological institute. Therefore the purpose of this article - consideration of processes of formation and development of the Don archaeological institute and also definition of its place and a role in scientific and cultural life of Rostov-on-Don.

The background of higher education institution begins since 1909 when representatives of the local intellectuals created the Rostov society of history, antiquities and the nature. It was engaged in the structure of the public museum, the organization of lectures and publishing work. Under the leadership of A.M. Ilyin archeological excavations were carried out though work considerably was at a loss because of lack of funds and qualified specialists.

The Rostov society of history, antiquities and the nature actively worked up to 1915 when the Warsaw university was transferred to Rostov-on-Don. The highly skilled professional scientists who arrived from Warsaw considered stay of the university to Dona as a temporary phenomenon. The relations between them and local local historians developed difficult. Residents of Rostov considered that "circumstances of wartime and indifference of the university to Society were the cause it death" [1, page 4].

For the first years of its work (1909-1914) 70 meetings, and in recent years (1915-1917) - only two took place in total. It led to elimination in January - the beginning of February, 1917 of society as independent organization. The situation sharply changed on May 5, 1917 when the provisional government made the decision on abolition Warsaw and creation of the Don university. In these conditions many representatives of university science had to reconstruct the relation to studying regional history and archeology. The organization of research institutes, including with training at a commercial basis became a new form of work in the years of civil war. It gave the chance to the faculty physically to survive, and to students - to avoid a conscription. In the North Caucasus the Rostov archaeological institute became such research institute with office of art history. Except it in Russia there was the same institute of Zubov in Petrograd, but by 1917 it was closed. At any other institute, except Rostov, there was no archaeological office which would be engaged in archeology of the South of Russia, in particular Don region. Therefore, the Rostov archaeological institute in this regard was the only thing in Russia.

In pre-revolutionary Rostov there were no studies not only archaeological, but also historical and philological -

institution leg. Training of specialists outside edge did not satisfy either local authorities, or Don public. The absence in the region of the higher educational institution or any other establishment capable to head scientific and practical and pedagogical activity in the region, led to the fact that not all graduates came back home for work. Study (road, residence, etc.) in Moscow, Petrograd, Kharkiv, others "the university centers" - business expensive. Training in the hometown or in the region is much cheaper. It would allow to expand considerably preparation scales so of experts necessary for the region [2, page 113-114].

Rostov (subsequently Donskoy) the archaeological institute was founded on May 1, 1918 as a private higher educational institution by group of professors of Donskoy of the university. The need for training of qualified specialists for work in the museums, archives and libraries was the main prerequisite of opening of higher education institution. The institute had two offices: art history and archeology. Later two more new offices - ethnographies (March, 1920) and an archaeography were open (September, 1920).

Several years the rector of Donskoy of archaeological institute Alexander Ivanovich Yatsemirsky (1873-1925) - the doctor of Slavic philosophy, ordinary professor of the imperial Don university of department of Slavic philology was one of founders and.

Having moved with the university to Rostov-on-Don, Yatse-mirsky successfully conducted the educational and scientific activity. He organized excursions and excavation, showed vigorous activity in creation and opening of the Don archaeological institute in which he taught Slavic-and-Russian paleography. He skillfully organized work in club of the All-Russian union of administrative, Soviet, public and trade workers (BCACOTP), taught at working faculty, worked in board of the university and in the commissions on the organization of pedagogical faculty [3, page 4-5]. It published over 200 printing works devoted to a rumynovedeniye, archeology, paleography, ethnography, folklore and library science [4, l. 2-8].

Alexander Mikhaylovich Pridik also stood at bases of new higher education institution, was his rector, took active part in its opening and taught a number of courses on the history of Greece and ancient art.

Ivan Ivanovich Kozlowski at first worked in the Kiev commercial school, in Warsaw, then at the Don university. At archaeological institute read methodology of archaeological disciplines, the central and local institutions of the Moscow Russia, the history of archives, the Russian culture, conducted a practical training on archive science.

Alexander Mikhaylovich Ladyzhensky in 1920 taught at the Don state university, the Don archaeological institute and technical school of the water transport, Kabarde, Ossetia participated in a number of scientific expeditions in Adygea, collected valuable scientific ethnographic material on common law of the people of these republics. At the Don archaeological institute A.M. Ladyzhensky worked as the deputy rector. Managed an office of history of a scientific thought at the Don university. In the same place organized philosophical society which secretary consisted from the date of his opening - since March 15, 1921

Alexander Mikhaylovich Evlakhov taught at the Don archaeological institute and gave an art history course. About 30 scientific works are written to them. It was the organizer of the romano-German office at historical and philological faculty of the Don university.

Alexander Petrovich Malyavko-Vysotsky is a teacher of graphic art, heraldry and a sfragistika. Since the end of 1918 taught at the Don archaeological institute, thought up an emblem of institute [5, l. 20]. At the same time worked at the Don university and taught the graphic diploma. Consisted the member of Presidium of society of history and archeology in Rostov. Not once made reports in the society of history and antiquities.

Stepan Fedorovich Kechekyan read the general theory of the right, sociology, history of a political thought in Russia. Published a number of scientific works: "The ethnic world view", "What is freedom", "The fact and the right", consisted the member of Philosophical society at the Don university.

Evgeny Aleksandrovich Chernousov conducted classes in general history, art history and history of legal antiquities.

Ivan Ivanovich Zamotin read the newest Russian literature of the end of X1X-XX of centuries and a technique of teaching the Russian literature at the Don archaeological institute. It published over 40 articles on history of literature.

Semyon Alekseyevich Kamenev taught at working faculty of the Don university and at the Don archaeological institute. In the last gave courses: the folk theater, history of the Russian ethnography, conducted also a practical training on the Russian ethnography.

Nikolay Nikolaevich Sretensky is professor of Donskoy of the university, Don archaeological institute and pedagogical technical school. At the Don archaeological institute conducted classes in history of christian teachings and the history of Old Russian painting. Was the honorary member of society of art and antiquities at archaeological institute, consisted in the society of philosophy at the Don university and in Literary society at the Kazan university.

Alexander Mikhaylovich Ilyin since 1918 conducted a practical training on South antiquities, was engaged in studying Tanaissky epigraphic monuments.

Pavel Sakharov held a position of the teacher of history in the Don archaeological institute a sack -

tours. Here he gave a course of ethnology, comparative ethnography, conducted a workshop on the history of Don region.

Mikhail Fabianovich Gnesin - the active propagandist of musical art who was the director of the Don conservatory and in new higher education institution taught music history.

It is not the complete list of teachers of Donskoy of archaeological institute. But, judging by personal records which remained, 11 professors, teachers of the art higher schools, gymnasiums, etc. worked here. Many of them were staff members of other higher educational institutions of Rostov-on-Don. Therefore in this higher education institution the hourly payment of their work was expedient. For 30 h lectures a week professor (from the moment of opening of institute in 1918) received - 2100 rubles in month, for 40 week-long lectures - 2575 rubles in month. When invited some experts from other centers, paid according to business hours [6, l. 28-30].

For staff members of Donskoy of archaeological institute the following tariffs of compensation were accepted. So, the rector earned a salary in a month of 8 thousand 400 rubles under a working condition on a rate. The vice rector - 7 thousand 610 rubles, technicians - from 6 thousand to 2 thousand rubles

Teachers could not devote completely themselves to work at one university, for example in Donskoy, the received contents far did not provide them in the material relation. Therefore many worked in several educational institutions. And as the Don archaeological institute was commercial at the beginning of the activity by institution, teachers from other higher education institutions found additional earnings here.

With establishment of the Soviet power to Dona, in January, 1920. Donskoy archaeological institute was nationalized, and since April 1 was considered as state university.

Comparing the salary of the faculty at the beginning of opening of institute and in recent years its existence, we see that the salary at employees and teachers considerably increased. It is connected with an economic situation in the country during this period of time. For gradual reorganization of monetary circulation and also for simplification and simplification of the account and bookkeeping decrees of November 3, 1921 and of October 24, 1922 carry out two denominations of bank notes on which the difference in sums of money is connected not with increase in a salary, and only with reforms of the Soviet government.

There were changes in the program of teaching: such objects as classic languages, withdrew from the program, but entered new: Soviet construction and Constitution of RSFSR, political system of RSFSR, task of proletarian art, etc. With a release on March 4, 1921 of the resolution of SNK "About Introduction of the General Scientific Minimum Obligatory for Teaching in All Higher Education Institutions", objects of it of "the general scientific minimum" pressed many special disciplines [7, page 74].

the Don archaeological institute brought up

and let out the famous historians, local historians, museum workers. Among them there are G.A. Inozemtsev, M.B. Kras-nyansky, B.V. Lunin [8, page 23].

Boris Vladimirovich Lunin was born on July 18, 1906 in Geneva, in family of political refugees. Election of his grandfather of V.I. Lunin as the member of the I State Duma allowed all family to return to Russia.

From a gymnasia bench in Pyatigorsk B.V. Lunin joined work of a circle of young archeologists. After moving of family to Rostov-on-Don it became the auditor of Donskoy of archaeological institute (office of archeology), and then according to the recommendation of the prof. A.I. Yatsemirsky and other scientists it was accepted as a member of members of Donskoy of society of archeology and history at the Rostov State University.

In the 20-30th B.V. Lunin began to conduct big scientific and organizational and research as the board member and the scientific secretary of the North Caucasian regional society of archeology, history and ethnography, bureau of study of local lore and other organizations. The prominent archeologist-local historian of those years, he published a cycle of articles in which generalized results of the archaeological researches conducted in the North Caucasus [9, page 12-15].

Georgy Aleksandrovich Inozemtsev who also graduated from the Don archaeological institute and became the famous historian, the archeologist and the local historian was a friend and B.V. Lunin's colleague. The young man was noticed by outstanding scientists and professors: A.I. Yatsemirsky, N.N. Lyubovich, I.P. Kozlowski. In their person G.A. Inozemtsev found benevolent teachers and wise mentors. Along with study he was the head of a museum circle and conducted excavation of the Aksay barrow. After the Great Patriotic War Inozemtsev continues the favourite business. He receives the open sheet No. 66 granting the right for carrying out archeological excavations, works as the manager of scientific library, and since 1949 at the Rostov state university. G.A. Inozemtsev with expeditions bypassed all Don ancient settlements. He conducted archaeological investigations, collected lifting, ceramic and other material, seriously was engaged in scientific work. He is the author of several brochures devoted to labor movement to Dona [10, page 7]. In 1955 defends the master's thesis on archeology on the subject "Bronze Age of the Lower Don".

Mikhail Borisovich Krasnyansky was a listener of Donskoy of archaeological institute also. Sincerely loving the Don Cossacks and the Don study of local lore, he was considered as the oldest and famous local historian. The Don public is obliged to its energy in Rostov by the city museum, society of history of antiquities and the nature. It possesses a number of archaeological, archival and historical opening, numerous publications about the historical past of Rostov and Don ("The remains of the Ancient Greek settlement in the territory of Rostov-on-Don", "Historical literature on Rostov", "Notes of the Don archeologist", "Coins of ancient Rostov", etc.). By it it was collected giving out

on completeness the bibliography of archival and cartographic sources. Besides, it one of the first made attempt of creation of the preliminary archaeological map of the lower reach of Don [11, l. 2]. The big merit of M.B. Krasnyansky is that, conducting absolutely disinterested local history work, he always opened the library and archive for all interested them, and many scientists and local historians repeatedly found at him any given data and references which were often facilitating them their scientific work [12, l. 26].

At the Don archaeological institute also Alexander Semyonovich Shenderov, the famous artist got an education. Its painting was shown at an exhibition in Anna Akhmatova Literary and Memorial Museum in 1997. It was born in 1897 in Rostov-on-Don. Studied on office of art history of the Don archaeological institute (at N.E. Lansere), in A.F. Gaush's studio at M.V. Dobuzhinsky, studied history of art under the leadership of A.N. Benois [13, page 16].

Listeners conducted active scientific and cultural life: organized excursions, indicative excavation, scientific expeditions.

At the Don archaeological institute the studio for independent classes of listeners worked, "in connection with the taught disciplines", there were "A cash desk of mutual aid of students" and Conciliation commission. In studio only those listeners who were recommended by professors and teachers were allowed. Classes were from 6 to 9 h. The studio was equipped with laboratory.

On December 21, 1918 on council the charter "Cash desks of mutual aid of students at Rostov - on - Don archaeological institute" was adopted. The main objective of this organization was in rendering financial support to institute and listeners [14, l. 37]. The cash desk of mutual aid played a large role for the Don archaeological institute. Quite often on money of this organization books, magazines, atlases, maps, tables were acquired, there was a financial support to listeners, lectures of teachers [15, l were printed. 3].

Every Sunday classes in the museum where students of institute got acquainted with museum objects, methods of their classification, technology of storage were, or visit of exhibitions of painting, a sculpture was organized. Listeners in Public library comprehended subtleties of library work, studied archive of the former Rostov customs, participated in excavation of barrows and ancient settlements.

In circles of archeology and history of art created by listeners and teachers of institute materials on archeology, art history, an archaeography, geology and other sciences were developed. They existed thanks to membership fees, subsidies from societies and institutions, to donations of members of a circle and individuals and to collecting from public lectures and literary soirees [16, l. 16].

In general teachers and students of archaeological institute played a role of organizers of scientific and educational work: museum and archival hens -

sy, exhibitions, conferences, public lectures, evenings, discussions became an integral part of cultural life of the city [17, page 15].

Donskoy archaeological institute existed absolutely not for long, in 1922 it was closed, but nevertheless left the mark not only in science, but also cultural life of Rostov.


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2. A.G. Danilov. The intellectuals of the South of Russia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. Rostov N / D, 2000.
3. I. Kozlowski. Professor A.I. Yatsemirsky//Izv. Don state university. 1925. T. 6.
4. GARO, R-49, op. 1, 39.
5. In the same place, 6.
6. In the same place, 2.
7. Roman Z.N. Don archaeological institute//Don archeology. 1999. No. 2.
8. Roman Z.N. Don archaeological institute//Don vremennik. 1998. No. 5.
9. T.I. Konevskaya. B.V. Lunin's memories. The Don archaeological readings "The lower Don - ethnic contacts". Rostov N / D, 2002.
10. ROMK are RC of 2417/28.
11. GARO, t. 2613, op. 1, 13.
12. In the same place, 32.
13. In the same place, R-49, op. 1. 50.
14. In the same place, 12.
15. In the same place, 15.
16. In the same place, 10.
17. Ya. Nazarenko. Don archaeological institute

>//Science and its workers. 1922. No. 5.

Pedagogical Institute of Southern Federal University

On January 16, 2008

Jeremy Roberts
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