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Category: History

Zolotoordynsky cities of the basin of the Syr Darya



a. A. BURKHANOV

ZOLOTOORDYNSKY CITIES of the BASIN of the SYR DARYA *

(to a problem of studying contact zones and historical and cultural communications in the Middle Ages)

In HTTT-HTU of centuries the territory of modern Southern Kazakhstan was a part Kok Horde, the being component of Ulus Dzhuchi. Before gaining troops of Genghis Khan in basins of the Syr Darya Rivers, Talas, Chu and their inflows there were rich and the prospering city centers with the developed craft and international trade. During the Mongolian gain many of them were destroyed, and inhabitants are partially destroyed and stolen in slavery. The travelers passing through these territories, in particular Plano Karpini, saw a set of the devastated ruins of the former cities and settlements (the Travel... 1957: 72; Erzakovich 1968: 96; Baypakov 1998: 56-57; 1999: 40-41).

Extensive regions of the South of modern Kazakhstan were turned originally into pastures for the uncountable cattle. However gradually by the end of HTTT of century the situation considerably changes under pressure of the objective reasons of political and economic development of Ulus Dzhuchi. There is a fast restoration of the cities and life in them under the influence of growth of handicraft trade, development of the international contacts and communications and in this regard functioning of caravan trade tracks between the East and the West. Blossoming of city life, as well as in all Ulus Dzhuchi, is the share of the first half of HTU of century. It is characteristic that in the considered region the settled centers revived generally on the place of the old destroyed cities. Kok Horde was the main zone of location of the city centers the basin of the Syr Darya (Burkhanov 2007b: 100-101). Let's stop on characteristic of bases -

* Work is performed within project No. ° 09-01-29105а/В/by RGNF-2009. History and present, No. 2, September, 2009 78-101

ny city centers of the Southern Kazakhstan of zolotoordynsky time.

Otrar. The remains of the ancient settlement are in 15 km to the west of the railway station Timur of the Chimkent region of the Republic of Kazakhstan, near the place of confluence of Arysi with the Syr Darya. Otrar in the Middle Ages held a specific place in the region in which there is present Southern Kazakhstan, and was the capital of the territory known as "the Otrarsky oasis" (the name - "District of Farab" or Otrar is more ancient than it) (Baypakov 1998: 47-61; Egorov 1985: 130; Akishev, Baypakov, Erzakovich 1972; Akishev, Baypakov 1979: 115-122; Baypakov, Erzakovich 1990). From the West the oasis is limited by Kyzylkumami, stretching between the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. The part of the territory of a right bank - flat (slightly wavy surface) - comes to an end at Ridge Karatau.

The Syr Darya and its inflows occupied in Otrar's life and all oasis the special place: for the population it was a wet nurse because her waters were rich with fish, and coast - vegetation, but on the other hand, the river created difficulties inconstancy of the water mode: flooded banks in the spring, flooded large territories. It defined also very advantageous strategic position of the District of Farab in the Southern Kazakhstan. Not accidentally Otrar is mentioned almost in all geographical and historical compositions of medieval authors. Call its sources and among the cities of the District of Ispidzhab (Sayram). Otrarov is told even about existence several. However Otrar was one: the city stood on a joint of various geographical landscapes and the place of crossing of trade caravan tracks. It was both the center of the agricultural area, and one of basic fortresses of nomads. From Otrar to Arysi there were roads to Taraz, Balasagun and further - to East Turkestan; across the Syr Darya up since ancient times the blazed way conducted in Shash, Sogd and then - to Merv and Nishapur; down the road went to Cisural area and to the Urals; through Kyzylkumy went west to Khwarezm, and from there - in the Volga region, Black Sea Coast and to the Caucasus (Burkhanov 2007b: 97-114; 2006: 51-58; Masson 1966; Belenitsky, etc. 1973; Fedorov-Davydov 1998: 38-59).

The archeologist A.N. Bernshtam so defines medieval Otrar's status: "It is difficult to find in Central Asia more favorable and more

dangerous situation" (Bernshtam 1951: 81-97). Really, it promised not only the benefits. Elements and wars destroyed the blossoming city, on its place there were only ruins of former constructions. Each hill on the place of former settlements has the name: Al-tyntobe, Dzhalpaktobe, Kuyuk-Mardan, other their old names are already forgotten.

The city of Keder was in Kuyryktobe's place, and to the ancient settlement Ok - Sousse corresponds the city of Vesidzh. Local legends connect modern names with those functions which the former cities of the district performed in relation to Otrar. So, Altyntobe ("Gold hill") received the name because there lived jewelers, Pchakchitobe ("Hill knife") was the settlement of armorers, Kuyryktobe ("hill in the form of a back part of a ram") - the habitat of butchers.

Otrar's ruins always attracted to themselves wanderers and fans of the past as the place where treasures of ancient tsars, treasures of coins and jewelry are stored.

The first archaeological works on Otrar were carried out by members of the Turkestan circle of fans of archeology to A.K. Klara and A.A. Cherkasov in 1904. They collected a collection of ceramics, bricks and copper coins. After that Otrar long time remained away from routes of researchers, and only in the late forties for 20th century A.N. Bernshtam conducted reconnaissance surveys. On the basis of the received materials the researcher offered chronology of ancient settlements and made preliminary classification of ceramics. However even these reconnaissance works showed Otrar's prospects as object for studying many problems of ancient and medieval history of Central Asia and the Southern Kazakhstan (Bernshtam 1949: 59-99).

In 1969 the Otrarsky archaeological expedition was organized (since 1971. The southern Kazakhstan complex expedition of AN of the Kazakh SSR) which main object of researches was an ancient settlement Otrartobe. Here tool shooting of the plan and aerial photography of the ancient settlement were made, annually stationary excavation was carried out.

Studying topography of Otrar showed that the image of the ancient settlement is characteristic of the majority of medieval monuments of Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

The central ruins represent the pentagonal hill 18 m high, of 20 hectares. Parties: southern - 380 m, southwest - 145 m, western - 400 m, northeast - 380 m, east - 350 m. On perimeter the hill is surrounded with a wall which kept on some sites the steepness at 75-80 ° also now. On it there were towers: they look as the become swollen hillocks of rounded shape playing for the line of a wall. Behind the wall the ditch in the form of a hollow with sloping edges of 2-3 m in depth and 10-15 m wide is visible. To the city conducted three entrances: two are located one opposite to another in South and northeast walls, the third - in the middle of the western wall. Centralnaya Street connects the southern (main) entrance to northern and divides the ancient settlement into two unequal parts. The street has an appearance of a hollow 5-8 m wide. Numerous lanes and deadlocks depart from it.

Otrar's topography developed in the main to HTTT-HUTTT of centuries therefore the citadel is not allocated now, and only by means of decoding of aerial photographs it was succeeded to allocate its contour. The citadel was in the center of a hillock, had subtriangular shape with the parties of 220, 230 and 220 m. The dark strip can be understood as an ancient ditch around.

The hill occupied with a citadel and shakhristany is adjoined by the territory of the strengthened Rabat of 150 hectares. Walls around a ra-bad remained only on certain sites. Rabat is occupied with the remains of the constructions which are grouped in hillocks of various configuration (Akishev, Baypakov 1972: 43-50).

Emergence of the settlement on Otrar's place treats the first centuries AD, that is long before the beginning of TH of century when for the first time the names "Otrar" and "Farab" are mentioned in written sources. The period of X-XTT of centuries was time of raising of city life in Central Asia and in the basin of the Syr Darya, including in Otrar (Béla-nitsky, etc. 1973: 161-162; Baypakov 1998: 52-53). There were new cities, grew and old developed.

Expansion of the square of the cities went at the expense of rabad - torgovoremeslenny suburbs. Otrar occupied 200 hectares at this time. In the city, inhabited, public and cult constructions are under construction, crafts and trade develop.

Otrar's blossoming was interrupted by the Mongolian invasion just shortly after it was a part of the state of horezmshakh. In 1218 Genghis Khan sent to Otrar, to the yard of a horezmshakh of Muhammad, a trade caravan which was on arrival plundered: such is there was Muhammad's order to the deputy of the city - the famous kypchaksky commander Inalchik Kayr-hanu (a pagan name of Yagan-tugdi - "The elephant was").

Fall of 1219 Genghis Khan's army approached Otrar's walls. Even before their emergence in Urgench the Council of War where it was offered to give decisive battle to Mongols took place. However horezmsha Muhammad chose other way: it dispersed troops on garrisons of the cities, having provided to commanders to fight one by one.

Despite the heroic resistance, Otrar's fate and other cities it was solved. The city underwent destructions, and the population was expelled. A wave of destructions and disasters the Mongolian cavalry across the territory of Khwarezm and all Central Asia swept. Fell into decay of the city, earlier blossoming settlements became empty. Traces of riots, fires - the typical phenomena for cultural layers of the beginning of the 13th century. Many cities could not revive (Buniyatov 1986; Burkhanov 2007a: 15-16; Gafurov 1972).

However Otrar could rise from ruins and became the important political and economic center on the Syr Darya. To the middle of the 13th century the city turned into large shopping center on the way from the West on the East.

The excavation which is carried out in the central part of the ancient settlement and in the territory of the suburb revealed five construction horizons. The construction horizons give the following chronological column from top to down: XVII - the first third of the 18th century; the first three quarters of the 17th century; the 30th of the 15-16th century; the second half of XIV - the first third of the 15th century (Baypakov 1999: 42).

By excavation on wide platforms it is established that the main built-up Otrara components is quarter. Houses in quarters have no individual exits to the main streets, they come to interior area (Baypakov 1973: 186-

197). The street connected the people living on it, was the main focus for a quarter (Sukhareva 1976: 16-17).

One of quarters of HTTT-HTU of centuries was dug out on the area of 2300 m. It united 12 separate households from 30-40 to 250 sq.m. Quarter was created at the remains of monumental construction of XT-XTT of centuries. A part of walls of constructions of XT-XTT of centuries joined in a design of new plannings, however in general little inherited quarter of HTTT-HTU of centuries of the past, practically it was under construction according to the new plan. Also the direction of the intra quarter street changed.

The quarter of HU of century which was in this place, in turn, inherited planning of quarter of HTTT-HTU of centuries. Plannings of certain houses and rooms changed inside, the general planning of quarter as units of urban development remained and at this time.

- began with one of the most interesting constructions of the city of the end of HTU HU of century the cathedral mosque located in a southeast part of the central hillock is (Akishev, etc. 1986).

Construction of 60 x 22 m in size a long axis is extended by

on the line the East - the West. It is the cathedral mosque, but not quarter. Its sizes, characteristic construction materials (burned brick, tiles, majolicas), presence of minarets and the powerful portal demonstrate to it.

The Otrarsky cathedral mosque belongs to the constructions of stolpnoku-polny type well-known in medieval architecture of Central Asia (Mankovskaya 1980: 108-112; Baypakov 1986: 139).

Among traditional components of building of the cities of the Southern Kazakhstan and Central Asia of HTTT - the first half of HU of century there were baths. The bath dated by the last quarter of HTTT - began HU of century, is dug out in Otrar. It is located in 200 m to the west of the southern entrance, on the bank of a reservoir, on the place of a bath of XT-XTT of centuries

The bath represents rectangular construction with the cross figure which is accurately read in the plan. The bath had 10 rooms, among them there is a locker room (lyungi-khan), the central hall from two benyyuara-ma serving steam and massage. From the hall, entrances opened

to rooms for washing - the issyk-khan (hot) and the sauk-khan (cold).

Originally in an otrarsky bath there were two hot rooms in the western corner and one cool in east. Indoors for rest was house in the form of round, up to 2 m in diameter, the tank. Its floor was laid out by blue tiles of various format.

Water supply of a bath was carried out by means of the water supply system brought out of a reservoir. Ranks of pipes were laid in the adit. The water supply system approached the room of a bath where there were tanks for cold and hot water.

The Otrarsky bath was warmed with a fire chamber from which departed zha-roprovod, then the heat was divided by the system of columns and guides of walls into the streams warming floors of rooms. Smoke was removed through the vertical flues laid in the thickness of walls. They served at the same time as temperature regulators.

Walls of a bath are put from a burned square brick, for vymos-weave floors the brick and plates was used by the sizes of 40 x 40 x 10 cm. In a number of rooms for the calculation of floors glazed bricks and tiles were used (Baypakov 1999: 44-47).

In the second half of HTTT - the first half of HU of century new types of the dwelling appear.

The two- or three-chambered houses with a court yard located on one axis belong to the first type. As an example of anfiladny planning of the house it is necessary to characterize the dwelling of the potter in workshop T. It consists of two premises and an open court yard which connected to an intra quarter dead end.

The dwellings consisting of four rooms located on the crossed axes belong to the second type of houses. It is the crosswise or four-part scheme when the house has the subsquare plan, and storerooms are located at the left and to the right of an ayvan, the yard or the living room with the tandoor. Versions of this scheme a little. Houses which have premises with the center differ - the tandoor is in the second order of rooms (it is considered from the street); in structure of the house one premises; in the house two living rooms; in premises one tandoor; in inhabited komna-

those two tandoors. The number of rooms in such house can be more than four, five and six.

The houses consisting of two or more sections belong to the third type. Each of sections of the house consists of two or three rooms, one of which surely inhabited.

In an interior of dwellings significant changes are observed. The narrow sufa along walls G-or a P-shaped form gives way to a sufa which occupies the most part of the room. The small platform in front of the tandoor which is usually paved with a brick determines floor level. Existence in the center of the room for edge of a sufa of the remains of the hit executioner's block, logs, a brick vymostka, a stone plate demonstrates that the roof leaned on one wooden column standing in the center of the room.

The tandoor turns into the universal center. It serves as means of heating and the center for cooking and bread.

According to sources, Mongols, having occupied the city, first of all destroyed its strengthenings. So, Otrar's walls and a citadel were completely destroyed, the same fate comprehended Sygnak and Ashnas. Mongols interfered with their revival as fortresses. Marco Polo wrote that at Mongols "it is not allowed to cities to have walls and gate that could not interfere with the introduction of troops. So bridled people remain quiet and are not indignant". And only gradually the cities began to be surrounded with walls again.

In Otrar the new city wall was built at the end of HTTT - the beginning of HTU of centuries. The section of a wall showed that it represents the ostanets who is cut down in a cultural layer containing the material XT-XTT of centuries which is laid over by cases from an adobe brick (30-32 x x 20-22 x 8-10 cm). Wall basis width - 4.8 m, the remained height outside - 2 m, from within - 3.2 m. The maximum height of a wall from the basis to a parapet remained up to 10 m. The wall has the trapezoid form in a section.

Time of construction of a wall around Otrar treats the end of HTTT of century when fight for the Syr Darya cities between Dzhuchidami and Chagataidami amplifies.

Otrar's excavation allowed to reveal and explore places of concentration of potter's craft in HTTT-HTU of centuries both in the central part of the city, and in the suburb.

The potter's settlement Otrara occupies the space about 2 hectares. Two construction horizons from which lower (second) it is dated the second half of HTTT - the first half of HTU of century are revealed. The complex of coins connected with constructions of this horizon is presented mainly by chagataidsky dirhems of the second half of HTTT - the first half of HTU of century. The top (first) construction horizon is dated Timur's coins and Timuridov.

Six workshops belong to HTTT-HTU of centuries, characteristic of one of them is given below.

The workshop has the area of 157 sq.m from which 89 sq.m are occupied by a production part, and the rest - housing.

The furnace for roasting of ceramics located in one of two production rooms two-story. The fire chamber had spherical shape. Its diameter - 1.6 m, depth - 1.6 m

The arch of a fire chamber formed the basis of a floor of the calcination camera, in it there were 12 pro-spirits located two concentric circles. The manhole in the furnace camera had the arch form with a diameter of 45 cm in a section. The flue 1 m long was removed by a well in a wall of the yard and, probably, for strengthening of draft had a brick pipe from which the basis which is laid out from rectangular bricks remained.

The housing estate of a workshop is a two-room house with the yard.

The potter's workshop in the central part of Otrar at a city wall is interesting.

In one of rooms there was an earth furnace in the form of a hole 2 m long, 0.4 m wide and 0.4 m in depth. The furnace was filled with the white crystal powder received when burning reed - a necessary component of glaze.

The western wall under a canopy had two granaries with reserves of mineral dyes in the form of the powdery mass of green, gray, pink and white color.

In one of rooms there was a tandoor. Under a layer of the burned-down cane (the room died as a result of the fire) and the calcinated earth the vessels standing on a sufa crushed by the failed roof are cleared away. Among them - irrigation bowls, jugs. Most likely, in this room the drying of ceramics before roasting was carried out. In a workshop a large number of ceramics, mainly irrigation is collected. The research of ceramics allows to tell that the master working here was a specialist in highly artistic ceramics.

the Ceramics of HTTT - the first half of HTU of centuries in comparison with the previous period undergoes significant changes. Production of the modelled spherical covers decorated with prints of stamps, nalepa, a carving is reduced. Along with das-tarkhana, tables on three convex legs extend.

All ceramics was manufactured on a potter's wheel of the dense gray, yellow, light brown or reddish test in a break. Outside became covered with light engobe. Red engobe covered usually bowls, plates, Tagore, jugs are more rare. Coloring black and red, in the form of smudges, is widely used by dabs. In kitchen ceramics traditional forms of pots with manzhetovidny raids, flat handles remain.

Main types of not irrigation ceramics are khoums, khoum-chi, Tagore of a traditional form, jugs wide-necked table and water-bearing appointment, a kumgana and Aquariuses. Figuration of jugs - carved wavy lines. Some jugs have a difficult carved ornament from combinations of carved horizontal, wavy lines and vosmerkoobrazny figures.

A part of vessels undersign dark brown paint on coat hanger and a trunk. These are solar signs, vegetable sockets, spirals, zigzags, wavy and struychaty lines, epigraphic motives.

There are flasks which have a low throat with two handles and the convex trunk decorated with a stamped ornament of geometrical and vegetable character. As its elements there are 8-shaped curls, asterisks, spirals...

The group of highly artistic stamped ceramics - jugs and kumgana is allocated. The top part of vessels was decorated

an epigraphic ornament and in one case zoomorfny. In the top part in a frame the going horse and a cheetah are represented. The horse is bridled, the occasion of its bridle goes to a lobby onions of a saddle on which the falcon sits. The mane of a horse is transferred by wavy lines, a tail - in the form of a fir-tree. The gorbonosost, the extended proportions is characteristic of a horse. The cheetah has bright distinctive signs - high legs, a small head with small ears, a lean trunk and a spiral tail. There is one more belt decorated with figures of the birds similar to sitting on saddle onions below. The background of a jug is decorated with convex shishechka, shamrocks and convex dots. There are no analogs the image on the kumgena from Otrar, it is only possible to compare the "stretched" style of images with style on the stamped kumgan from Iran which is dated the same time. The ornament was applied on stamped ceramics by means of forms (kalyb).

Significant changes occur in production of irrigation ceramics.

K.M. Baypakov considers that the middle of HTTT of century is a boundary of various ceramic styles in Otrar (Baypakov 1999: 47-48). The ceramics from transparent lead field, put on white engobe, and with subglaze paintings brown, green, red disappears; the ceramics covered dark brown field.

Engobes - red, yellow, pink. Watering - transparent and painted in yellow, green, pinkish, blue and blue colors. Paintings are vegetable, geometrical, alphabetic.

The irrigation ceramics from Otrar has analogs in the neighboring regions. For example, in the cities of Central Asia the ceramics with green and yellow glaze and a subglaze engraving, with colourless field with marmoric and spotty paintings, with blue and blue glaze and with black painting was made. However such variety of color watering in combination with red engobe, except the zolotoordynsky cities of the Southern Kazakhstan, anywhere it is met yet.

Noting innovations in ceramic production Otrara and other cities of the region, it should be noted continuity between ceramics of HTTT-HTU of centuries and domongolsky time.

Except ceramic production on Otrar also other crafts were developed. In particular, here it is studied kirpicheobzhigatelny

the workshop existing (judging by archaeological data) 3 construction periods - from the second half of HTTT to the middle of HTU of century. The kirpicheobrazny furnace around which inhabited and production rooms were grouped was its center. To the left of the furnace there was a two-room house. During excavation, interesting finds are found here, including coins of the second half of HTTT are the middle of HTU of century, ceramics, a bronze Chinese mirror with the image of animals of a twelve-year cycle, nashivny plaques.

Three more HTTT-HTU kirpicheobzhigatelny furnaces of centuries were dug out in different places of the suburb of Otrar. Analogs these furnaces are numerous, including the HTTT furnace of century from the Shed, HTTT-HTU furnaces of centuries from Merv and other ancient settlements.

The metallurgical, in particular iron-smelting, craft is known on excavation of workshops HTTT-HTU of centuries on the ancient settlement Kuyru-tobe. Quarter of founders occupied the space of 0.5 hectares in the city. A stack of the rejected kritsa found in production dumps demonstrate that the city was the large metallurgical center in the south of Kazakhstan at this time.

Judging by a large number of finds of bronze mirrors, Otrar was the center of production of this type of products.

Tell about development of jewelry collections of jewelry, including products of a silver treasure which belong to the 70th of HTTT of century

In the second half of century the city was included in structure of possession of Timur and became an important military outpost on their northern border. In the middle of HU of century the vigorous steppe khan Abulkhair could subordinate to himself numerous tribes Desht-i-Kypchaka and head new feudal possession - the Uzbek state. However its power was fragile. Abulkhair was resisted by descendants Dzhuchi-hana Dzhanibek and the Weight. The period of HUT-HUTT of centuries represents continuous fight for political domination in the Kazakh steppes and on the Syr Darya. After the death of one of the brightest representatives of the Uzbek top of Muhammad Sheybani in 1510 the power passes to the Kazakh khans. At Kasym-hane the Kazakh khanate - one of Ulus Dzhuchi's successors - becomes stronger, his borders extend. Excavation demonstrates that From -

rar in HU_-Hou ІІ centuries are continued by the rapid development (Baypakov 1999: 52, fig. 11).

The final desolation of Otrar and other prisyrdaryinsky cities happened in the 18th century and is connected with the Dzungarian invasion, civil strifes, the general stagnation of economic life in regions (Akishev, etc. 1981; Baypakov 1999: 56-58; Baypakov, Hod-zhayev 1999: 157-164).

Dzhend was one of the oguzsky and kypchaksky cities and reached our days as the ancient settlement Zhankala which is located on the right coast of Zhanydarya, in 115 km west of modern Kzyl-Orda of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The ancient settlement is enclosed with a fortification and has the area about 40 hectares. In a northwest corner the citadel in the form of a square hillock is located. The fortification surrounding the ancient settlement on certain sites remained at the height up to 8 m. Around there were also courses of channels, irrigational network, sites of fields and gardens, building traces. The ancient settlement is dated the 1-18th centuries (Akishev, Baypakov, Erzakovich 1972; Akishev, Baypakov 1972: 123).

The name of the city is well known on medieval sources from 11th century. At the beginning of the 13th century Dzhend was the capital of kypchaksky association. During the Mongolian invasion the city showed strong resistance to troops of Dzhuchi, was taken and plundered. At the end of the 13-14th centuries the sources report that Dzhend - "the town with a brisk market". In particular, Jahmal is scarlet - Qarshi (beginning of the 14th century) writes that "the city of Dzhend was the considerable city, and since recent time is destroyed, and still this operating trade place where merchants compete in importance and profitability of transactions, and scales in its market (constantly) fluctuate" (Baypakov 1998: 73; Egorov 1985: 130). There are data that at this time in the city the coin (Bartold was minted 1891: 151), at least, the silver circle where the words "Dzhend" are looked through, was presented as a part of one of treasures (Tolstov 1962: 288291).

In the 13-14th centuries Dzhend was one of shopping centers of lower reaches of the Syr Darya (Baypakov, Nastich 1981: 51).

Sygnak. The ancient settlement Sunak-Ata corresponds to medieval Sygnak. Its remains are located in 20 km to the northwest of glands -

the nodorozhny station Tyumen-aryk, in 1.5 km to the right of the modern Turkestan-Kzyl-Orda highway (Kazakhstan).

The name of the city is well known on written sources and coins minted here in the 14th century (Tolstov 1962: 288-290).

The city of Sygnak is for the first time mentioned in sources of the 10th century, and in the 11th century he is called Mahmoud Kashgarsky among the cities of oguz (Yakubovsky 1929: 123-159; Baypakov 1998: 73-74). In the 12th century Sygnak becomes the capital of kypchaksky national association (Bartold 1891: 482; Yakubovsky 1929: 123-159; Ageeva, Patsevich 1958: 96-97).

The historian of the 13th century Dzhuveyni has a description of defeat of the city by Mongols in 1220 in revenge for the shown resistance. He writes that the Dzhuchi group moved down the Syr Darya, took one city behind another. Dzhuchi was accompanied by two local merchants - Hassan-hodzha and Ali-hodzha. Hassan-hodzha was sent to Sygnak to persuade to give up inhabitants, but inhabitants killed the traitor and showed resistance. Only after seven-day storm Sygnak was taken, the population is entirely cut out (Petrushevsky 1977: 124).

Despite destructions, the city it was quickly restored, and in the middle of the 13th century Sygnak (Sgnakh, so it is called in the description of a route of Getum) (Gandzakentsi Kirakos of 1976: 224; Baypakov 1998: 73-74) gradually turned into the political and economic center on the Syr Darya. In the 14th century Sygnak becomes the capital Kok Horde; in him construction of mosques, a hanaka (honako) and other public constructions is conducted, especially at the khan Erzena and Urus-hane (SMI-ZO 1941: 125, 130, 196, 211). Some time in the 20th of the 15th century the city belonged to Ulugbek (Bartold 1964: 116), and in 1446 he was captured by the Abul-Hayr-han. In the 80th of the 15th century of Sygnak Mukham-med-Sheybani, and then the Kazakh khan Burunduk took control. Then the city passed from hand to hand: it the Uzbek khans, and later, at the end of the 15th century owned in the 50-60th of the 16th century, it became possession of the Kazakh khanates. The final desolation of the city belongs to the 18th century (Pishchulina 1969: 16).

the Ancient settlement Sunak-Ata (Sygnak's ruins) nowadays has the form of the wrong pentagon in the plan. In topography it is allocated shakhristan with a citadel, located in a southeast part. Sizes of the parties of a shakhristan: northern - 250 m, western - 360 m,

southern - 250 m, southeast - 450 m, northeast - 350 m. The total area of the ancient settlement - about 20 hectares. The area of a citadel of-7.2 hectares, is the most strengthened part of the ancient settlement. Shaft height into which the fortification turned reaches 7 m. On five corners functioned on three round the coming-out towers. Entrances on the territory of the ancient settlement was two - in the centers of the western and northern parties. The entrance to a citadel strengthened by two speakers on 20 m pieces of walls is arranged and in east wall is closer to a northeast corner.

Around Sygnak there were cultivated agricultural grounds irrigated by the channels brought out of the Syr Darya, Tyu-men-arykom and Buzgil-Uzak and also the small rivers which are flowing down with Karatau - Mynbulaky, Chulaky, Arslandi, Cornel-thawed, Kelte-Chagiz whose courses still remained near the ancient settlement (Ibn Ruzbikhan of Isfagani 1976: 116-117; Baypakov, Erzakovich 1979: 124-125).

Asnas. The remains of one more known city of Asnasa (Asanasa) are in 50 km to the southeast of Kzyl-Orda. Written sources report about it as about the city which showed resistance and conquered by troops of Dzhuchi in 1219. The ancient settlement is located on the bank of the dry course of Asanas-Uzyak. It has the irregular shape in the plan and is surrounded with shaft up to 5 m high. In east part of the ancient settlement the citadel was located. Now it is a hillock with a diameter up to 50 m and 1 m high. Thanks to archaeological researches it is established that life in Asnas proceeded from first centuries AD to HU of century (Vakturskaya 1979: 127-133).

The groups of ceramics connected with the culture of oguz, kypchak and the Golden Horde are brought together... (Baypakov 1998: 74).

Sauran. One of the most known medieval towns of the Central Syr Darya is Sauran. Its remains which kept the former name are in 35 km to the northeast from modern Turkestan. The first mentions of the city belong to the X century Maqdisi characterized it so: "Sauran (Savran, Sabran) - the big city surrounded with seven walls one by one, and in it is Rabat, the cathedral mosque is in the internal city. It - boundary fortress against State Healthcare Institutions and kipchak" (MIITT 1939: 125; Bartold 1965: 225). Subsequently mention Ibn it it is scarlet -

Acer and the Yakut as about the large cultural and trade and craft center (MIITT 374; Valine 1960: 86). In the middle of the 13th century Sauran under the name "Savran" is specified in a marshrutnik of the Armenian ambassador Getum - in the same row together with Sygnak (Sgnakh), Harchuk (Karachuk) and Ason (Yassa) (Gandzaketsi Kirakos of 1976: 224).

At Dzhuchidakh, in the first half of the 14th century, Sauran was even the capital center Kok Horde. In the city the governor Kok Horde of Sasa-Booke who died in 1320 is buried. His son Erzen built in Sauran and other cities of madrasah, a hanaka, the mosque (SMIZO 1941: 129). Kept a role of the capital center of Sauran also in the subsequent time. In the 80th of the 15th century the city Irenche-sultan, the son of one of the first Kazakh khans - Dzhanibek ran (Pishchulina 1969: 17). Sauran is in details described the 16th century by Ruzbikhan. Valuable data on the city contain in memoirs of the poet and writer Vasifi living here in 1514-1515 (Ibn Ruzbakhan Isfagann 1976: 116; Boldyrev 1957: 160, 161, 335).

Life in Sauran proceeded up to the middle of the 18th century, at this time the city turned into "the small town near Turkestan" (Rychkov 1887: 18-19).

Archaeological studying the ancient settlement Saurana began more than 100 years ago. It it is mentioned in P.I. Lerkh's compositions, in traveling notes of P.I. Pashino, in A.I. Fidchenko's reports. All of them write about good safety of the ancient settlement, its walls, ruins of madrasah (Lerkh 1870: 14, 21, 31; Pashino 1868: 59-60; Fedchenko 1950: 46).

Archaeological studying the ancient settlement is carried out in the late forties for of the 20th century. Southern Kazakhstan archaeological expedition (A.N. Bernshtam). It was made a plan visual a monument, and on the basis of the received material the dating is offered (Bernshtam 1949: 82; Ageeva, Patsevich 1958: 107-110).

Its localization became one of debatable questions of history of the city. If Sauran's location the 13-18th centuries does not raise doubts and to it there corresponds the ancient settlement of Sauran, then localization of the domongolsky city was definitely not established. The fact is that on the ancient settlement of Sauran there are no layers with materials before the 13th century, that is this ancient settlement arose in the 13th century and existed till 18th century E.I. Ageeva and G.I. Patsevich suggested to look for it on the left coast of the Syr Darya.

Near Sauran, in 3 km to the east, there is Karatobe. Researches allowed to draw a conclusion that Sauran UT-HTT was centuries at the place of the called ancient settlement Karatobe, and Sauran HTTT-HUTTT was postponed centuries for the new place and to it there corresponds the monument of the same name (Baypakov 1998: 67-68).

The ancient settlement Sauran represents the oval platform in the plan surrounded with a wall which become swollen sites remained on height from 3 to 6 m. It is extended from the northeast on the southwest on 800 m and from the northwest on the southeast on 550 m. The square of the ancient settlement is ennobled over the surrounding area on 2-2.5 m. Its wall is put up on a stilobata 2-3 m high. Its external part represents a berm (a ledge on a slope). The wall is built from an adobe brick and a pakhsa, in it four round two-storeyed towers playing for the line of a wall are traced. The top floor is blocked by the dome leaning on trompa which remains remained still. Within the walls of towers, narrow cracks of loopholes are cut through.

In the ancient settlement conducted two gate. The main gate are in a northeast part of a wall and represent the powerful fortification construction flanked by two coming-out two-storeyed towers. The entrance represents the twenty-meter koridoroobrazny pass formed by speakers wall pieces. The second gate (safety their bad) are arranged in a southeast piece of a wall of the ancient settlement. In east part in a tower there was one more, probably, secret, an entrance to the city in the form of an aperture 1.2 m wide, 1.7 m high

At a wall the ditch up to 3 m in depth, up to 20 m wide was outside dug out. Magistralnaya Street divides the territory of the ancient settlement into two almost equal parts on the line the northeast - the southwest.

Except two main streets in topography of the ancient settlement the set of the small small streets and dead ends making a difficult extensive street network is traced. At distance of 210 m from northeast entrance, to the left of the main street, there are remains of a monumental construction - madrasah (known for written sources).

Around the central ruins, in a radius of 1400-1600 m, there are remains of the certain estates forming building various

density. Each estate consists of the house and the site surrounded with a wall. Sites were occupied with the melon cultures, gardens, vineyards and crops of grain. The area of the average estate approaches 1 hectare, small - 0.5 hectares.

Average estates prevail. By the calculations made on the basis of decoding of aerial photographs agricultural the District of Saurana about 350 estates are recorded.

Lifting material (ceramics, coins) allows to define lifetime of estates in the neighborhood of Sauran HTTT-HTU i HU-HUTTT centuries

Water supply of the city and irrigation of suburban gardens as medieval authors report, was carried out by means of kyariz (Boldyrev 1957: 161, 335). The remains of kyariz were noticed at visual inspection of the ancient settlement from the plane in the beginning, and then noted on aerial photographs (Akishev, Baypakov 1973: 76-78).

In the territory of Central Asia and Kazakhstan the kyarizny irrigation gained the greatest development in Turkmenistan and also Iran and Azerbaijan. Existence of a kyarizny system in Sauran demonstrates his importance for development of life of the city (Kikshin 1924: 75-76; Hamrayev 1948: 27; Rustamov 1964: 8; Petrushevsky 1960: 117-118).

The ancient settlement Sauran with its high, still (partially) survived walls, ruins of residential quarters and public constructions, with its unique kyariza, the remains of suburban building and ancient fields represents one of the most valuable archeological and architectural sites of the period of the Golden Horde.

Yassa (Turkestan). The Turkestan oasis was known in UTTT of century as the District of Shavgar (Bartol?

Mattie Cook
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