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Development of periodicals and library science by the Russian emigrants in China in 20-40 years of the XX century


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9 In literary tradition of the work of this genre meet up to the first quarter of the 18th century, in national reading keep popularity and in the 19th century. As the modern researcher of a genre of circulations N.I. Prokofiev writes, his principles and formal components are that "it is necessary to write only what was tested by the traveler that he saw own eyes..., to write not cunning, but simply, to create the finished small essays sketches and to group in the whole work on a basis or the temporary or prostranstvennotopografichesky principle; the bible or apocryphal legend - a necessary element in pilgrim circulations, but it has to be local, correlated to a certain historical and geographical area". (Book of circulations: Notes of the Russian travelers of the 11-15th centuries / Sost., podgot. text, vstup. article and comment. N.I. Prokofieva. - M, 1984. - Page 19).
10 Leonid, arkhy. A review of Tsaregradsky monuments and Shrines of the 16th and 15th centuries on the Russian monuments / ChOIDR. - 1870. - Prince 4. - Page 22-62.
11 Andrey Nikolaevich of Ants (1806-1874) is a poet, the playwright, the spiritual writer and the memoirist. His creativity holds absolutely specific place in the history of the Russian literature. Books by Muravyev had both educational, and promotional, and missionary tasks. Muravyev's identity bright and original, still causes ambiguous estimates as he did not limit himself only to literary work, but was one of the most authoritative and influential representatives of Russian Orthodox Church. So, within more than twenty years, he was epitropy (attorney) of three patriarchal thrones (Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem), the founder and a ktitor of the Andreevsky monastery on Athos, one of the best experts on the Biting and a temple ktitor for the sake of Andrew the First-Called where it was buried.
12 From a travel Andrey Nikolaevich brought a set of memorable things and "antiquities" which formed the basis of its well-known collection (See in more detail A.N. Muravyev. The description of objects of antiquity and Shrine, collected by the traveler on the Holy sites. - Kiev, 1972). Besides, at its insistance from Thebes to St. Petersburg were brought

two original sphinxes and in 1832-1834 are established on the embankment opposite to Academy of artists.

13 "Society it, - N.V. Davydov writes in the book, - aimed to promote communication on scientific ground of students and to serve as the cultural center to those who seriously treats education business got sympathies of university youth soon, expanded in number and has to was organized, having put the basis to library, having created reading room and organizing meetings with reports of members it on scientific subjects. Soon after its basis the society broke into several sections: economic, criminalistic, section of social sciences, literary. The first public meeting (i.e. open not for some members of society, and for all students) took place in the crowded large audience brilliantly and became an important event of the academic life. Among speakers professors and students acted, especially strong impression was made by the speech of professor P.I. Novgorodtsev. Happiness Sergey Nikolaevich's face when on it, and then and at section meetings his pupils and other students made scientific papers when between them the hot discussion was started shone, an interesting debate rose and because of the academic science the organic communication and the known proximity between teachers and listeners personally arose". (N.V. Davydov. From the past. Memoirs. - Part II. - M, 1917. - Page 132).
14 N.V. Davydov. From the past. Memoirs. - Part II. - M, 1917. - Page 166.

The list of the used literature

1. A.E. Ivanov. The higher school of Russia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries. - M, 1991.
2. A short historical essay of the twenty-fifth anniversary of activity "Societies of assistance to the needing students" Imperial Moscow technical school. 1889-1914 - M, 1914.
3. N.G Zavadsky Students and political parties of Russia in 1901-1914 - SPb., 1998.
4. Russian students at the turn of the century. Materials of the All-Russian student's forum. - M, 2001.
5. "And that saw everything the eyes" To the 900 anniversary of circulation of the abbot Daniil to the Holy Land. Exhibition catalog.

- M, 2007.

UDC 94 (4/9)

Development of periodicals and library science by the Russian emigrants in China in 20-40 years

The XX century

L.F. Goverdovskaya

Vladivostok state university of economy and service

The emigre press, perhaps, as any other source, absorbed in itself all nuances of everyday life of "east branch" of Foreign Russia. In total in Manchuria at different times there were about 270 names of various periodicals emigrantov1 the Russian diaspora in China surpassed many others In number of periodicals. The American researcher of the Russian literary emigration E. Stein noted that "the Russian Far East considerably surpassed the Russian America in the number of magazines" 2 V one Harbin in 1920-1945 more than 50 large newspapers, more than 20 social and political and literary magazines in Russian were issued. It were both the short-lived editions and leaving during ten and more years. Here

a number of large publishing houses worked. The publishing centers were also in Shanghai, Tianjin. The press in detail lit not only life of the Russian colonies in Manchuria and China, but also constantly paid much attention to life of the Russian emigration in Europe and America, to political situation in the Soviet Russia, world economic development. In general the press those years was a motley picture. Boulevard leaves and political newspapers in the conditions of fierce competition often disappeared, without leaving a mark, also quickly, as well as arose. Articles and essays devoted to dates from the history of the Russian state, life and activity of writers, composers and artists were constantly published in newspapers. Many announcements of concerts and theater productions were followed


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art criticism and historical information; papers of the read authoritative reports on literature and art, local history and economic information were published. These small particles of knowledge flashing in daily newspapers acquainted emigrants with richness of the Russian and world culture.

In the majority the press of the Far East emigration belonged to private owners. So, in the mid-twenties from 102 Harbin newspapers 72 were private. Approximately the same ratio and the appearing magazines. Only separate editions were official bodies. Among the famous publishers and editors in Harbin - E.S. Kauffman (Rupor newspaper and the Rubezh magazine), A. Chechulin (the Tribuna newspaper, the editor I.N. Rombakh, the manager. edition M.L. Schneerson), M.S. Lembich (newspapers "Zarya", "Vechernyaya zarya", manager. editorial office GN. Shipkov), Z.M. Kliorin and S.R Chernyavsky ("zhizni Novosti" newspaper, editor I.F. Bronkmiller (1924), S.T. Ternavsky (year-book "All Harbin"), etc.

All set of periodicals can be classified by belonging to political or public organizations, orientation to any given social group.

In the 20th the social and political organizations and their publications used relative freedom in statement of the views. Almost all political groups had the newspapers and magazines carrying various orientation: from the communistic edition "Day", the democratic newspapers "Vpered" (body of the Integrated conference, professional, political and public organizations of the Right-of-way of KVZhD), "Dawn", "the Homeland Voice", "Loud-hailer", "Kopek" - to monarchic (Svet newspaper), chernosotenny (for example, "The Russian voice", Harbin, the editor-publisher S.V. Vostrotin, the assistant A.M. Spassky, the secretary A.I. Korobov) and fascist (the Nash Put newspaper and the Nation magazine).3

gravitated To the left emigrant press "The Shanghai newspaper", "The Harbin dawn" and other editions. From the pro-Soviet newspapers - "Rumour", "Tribune", "Harbin Truth", etc. In Shanghai the left democratic newspapers "Shankhayskaya Zhizn" (1919-1922), "The Shanghai echo" and the moderate direction - "Word", "Daily news", "Shanghai Dawn" (1926-1928) were issued, in Harbin in 1924 there was a semi-week newspaper "Vestnik Soyuza Bespartiynykh" (editor A.P. Kuznetsov).

The centrist direction was presented by "The Harbin bulletin" - the semi-official organ of board of KVZhD published since 1903 In 1918 the magazine replaced the name. Since January 28, 1923 there is "An economic bulletin of Manchuria". This edition, as well as published by management of the road "Bulletin of the Chinese east railroad" (1922-1923), adhered to objective approach, giving many materials about various aspects of life and news from the Soviet Russia. Considering great value of the edition, KVZhD decided to call on January 1, 1925 it "the Bulletin of Manchuria" and to release monthly in large volume. Since 1933 the magazine was issued twice a month. In it the section "Scientific Chronicle of the Countries of the Far East" appeared. Questions of commerce and industry character and agriculture were the main subjects. In the magazine there were sections on KVZhD, on Manchurian

edge, across the Republic of China, across the Soviet Union, the bibliography, etc. Economists and orientalists V.Ya. Avdoshchenko, E.E. Anert, E.A. Gerasimov, A.I. Grazhdantsev, V.N. Zhernakov, V.A. Karmazov, V.G. Kudrevatov, L.I. Lyubimov, A.A. Mita-revsky, A.I. Pogrebetsky, N.A. Setnitsky, V.I. Surin, A. Tikhonov, E.E. Yashnov, etc. took part in the magazine. Bibliographic indexes of the magazine expanded to the book chronicle of the countries of the Far East. Along with economic problems the magazine regularly printed articles on life of China and study of local lore (I.G Baranov, I.N. Veryovkin, I.N. Serebrennikov, etc.), on stories (B.F. Skvirs-ky, etc.), archeology (V.Ya. Tolmachev, etc.), the nature and geography (G.G. Avenarius, N.A. Baykov, A.V. Lukashin, B.V. Skvortsov, E.M. Chepurkovsky, etc.), to climate (P.K. Bedarev, etc.). The section of the bibliography was kept by I.G Baranov, A.D. Voyeykov, V.N. Krylov E.H. Nilus, etc. The advantage of the magazine was existence of summaries in English yazyke4

The left youth organizations in the 20-30th issued the newspapers: "Echo", "Pioneer's banner", "Manchurian life", Russia, "Harbin day", "Tribune", "Southern host", "Life news"; magazines "Edineniye", "Soyuz uchashchikhsya", etc.

Among the constant periodicals appearing in Harbin in the 20th it is necessary to call newspapers: "Life", "Russian truth" (edition prof. of Telberg 5), "New kopek" and "Commercial telegraph" (edition of VA. Chilikin6), "The Siberian life" (1920), the edition of the Zionist organization - the Siberia-Palestine weekly (editor A.I. of Kaufman7), "The Russian word" and the weekly evening newspaper in 1924. "The newspaper for all" (an edition A.V. Ovchinnikov) and "Speech" (edition of Simon8); for children and youth - "Swallow" (editors: A.Ya. Buylov (1926-1930), E.S. Kauffman (1930), M.S. Rokotov (1931-1935), M.O. Danilov (1935-1941), E.A. Vasilyeva (1941-1945), "Sun"; for military - "Military notes", "Army and the fleet", "The Russian army"; only the Cossack magazines by some estimates was around ten: "Atamansky call", "Beam of Asia", "Yenisei Cossacks", etc.; for scientists were issued "the Bulletin of Asia" (1909-1927), "the Bulletin of Manchuria"; for women - the weekly "Zhenskaya Gazeta", "Zhenshchina i zhizn". Especially it should be noted "female pages" of the Rupor and Zarya newspapers. Despite a large number of reprints from foreign press, in them something warm was looked through and sincere, aspiration to sincerity, to support of readers. Conversations of unknown authors under the pseudonyms "Cagliostro", "Princess Greza", "Modern Don Juan", "Fairy Tale of Manchuria" and others distracted people from life burdens, and it is possible, and became to someone a spiritual support.

The Cossack periodicals became widespread from 1929 to 1941 So, in Harbin 24 Cossack magazines were issued. "The Cossack echo", "The Far East Cossacks", "The Cossack way" were in special demand, "The Far East Cossack" and dr9 for the purpose of involvement of Cossacks to public work these magazines paid much attention to illumination of the questions connected with activity of ladies' circles, with synthesis of experience of the best women's Cossack organizations. In the published materials there passed the thought of an important role of the woman in education of younger generation which will return home and svo-



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to them work will promote revival of Russia. Many materials published in magazines furnished the clue to understanding of typology of revolutions, their common and special features, roles of the woman in social and political processes.

The great demand among emigrants was on three almanacs issued in Shanghai: Far East in 1920, "A yellow face" and China in 1921 (editor Magaram), "In the foreign land" in 1920 (editors E. Sem-chevskaya and P. Karelin). The first two almanacs acquainted the Russian emigrants with life of Chinese, history and the nature of the country, with all sides of the multilateral Chinese life difficult and unclear to the European. In it greatly helped published by the KVZhD economic bureau in Harbin the Economichesky Vestnik Manchzhurii weekly (an edition I.A. Mikhaylov) and "The economic bulletin".

Weekly newspapers in Russian were issued in Tianjin: "Revival of Asia", "Dawn", "New life" and in process of material accumulation the magazine of Manchurian agricultural society "Agriculture in Northern Manchuria"! 0

Were among the most popular editions of emigration in Harbin: newspapers "Zarya" (1920-1940), "Rupor" (1921-1940), "Gongbao" (1926-1939). But the weekly literary magazine of Rubezh (1927-1945) became the most famous edition of the Russian emigration in Manchuria. It left 18 years. In total 862 numbers were issued. Its complete set is nowhere. "Boundary" was extremely popular in China and is far beyond its limits. It had own correspondents worldwide who regularly supplied it with correspondence and essays. Being quite small on the volume (from 20 to 28 pages), Rubezh it is very interesting and various thematically. Long time his editor was M.S. Rokotov (Bibinov). As well as the majority of editions of the Russian China, the magazine stopped the existence in August, 1945

The former employee of the magazine Yu.V. Krusenstern-Pe-terets remembered how as opposed to the Parisian "the Illustrated Russia" there was desire to issue the weekly art literary magazine especially as it is not so much material how many supported by granting printing house Zarya publishing house (M.S. Lembich, G.N. Shipkov and E.S. Kauffman). So was born in Harbin of Rubezh under the editorial office GN. Shipkov.

In a year E.S. Kauffman left "Dawn". He created publishing house of Rubezh and appointed GN. Shipkov manager of edition and M.S. Rokotov's editor. Thanks to it the magazine strongly raised the prestige, increased number of subscribers and readers who watched closely its rapid growth and improvement under the leadership of the publisher E.S. Kauffman, popular in Harbin, and the editor M.S. Rokotov. To both of them Rubezh it is obliged by the success and the popularity. The first numbers were published in 1927, and since summer of 1929 it began to appear weekly every Saturday.

In each number there were not less than one-two original stories by the Russian authors, one or two - translated, seven-eight essays on local or foreign subjects (translated or from own correspondents) and two pages of serious translated novels. Always in the magazine there was "The woman's page" and the bibliography which used - neiz-

mine success.

Circulation of Rubezh in 1931-1936, in days of its blossoming, approached two and a half thousand. The majority of numbers dispersed in Harbin and on all KVZhD line, to three hundred copies went to Shanghai, Beijing, Qingdao, to Korea and Japan, and the others were dispatched everywhere where there were Russians: to the Baltic states, Poland, Czechoslovakia and other countries of Europe. There were subscribers in Persia, Turkey, North and South America in Australia.

The magazine had also own correspondents. Especially much the "African" doctor Un-kovsky living in Paris wrote. From Berlin sent the material Despotuli, from San Francisco - the poetess Taisiya Bazhenova (Postnikova), from Brussels - Mirolyubov, and later - P.P. Balakshin, from Australia - the priest Seryshev, and from North America - Bulygina's spouses.

The main contingent of staff of Rubezh was made by harbintsy-fiction writers and the whole army of poets and poetesses. There was no country from which the Russian poets would not send in Rubezh of the of the work. Having become widely known, Rubezh was always and to all it is interesting. On its pages the life story of Russians in Manchuria is imprinted: the Cossack settlements in Trekhrechye, pictures of religious processions to Songhua, bathing of many har-binets in ice-holes, theaters, school events, sport on the Songhua platforms and at stadium where the Russian Anfinogenov beat in throwing of a disk of the champion of Europe Frenchman Noel, and the Russian hockey players led by Antushevichami's brothers and Maximov won champions of Japan team of the Vaseda university where V. Dri-zul won two sets of the German champion in tennis, and the team of basketball players of HSML crushed the famous team of the general At which was present at a match; photos of balls; pictures of regattas with participation to two dozen yachts and high overshoes on the river; numerous beaches with bathers; pictures of a huge flood in Harbin in 1932; an entrance of the Japanese troops to Harbin in 1932; portraits of all guest performers coming to Harbin: Lipkovskoy, Mozzhukhina, Lemesheva. Pictures of streets of Harbin and street types which were taken by the engineer Skamoni-Shapshinsky were excellent.

Literary and art magazines were in great demand of the Russian reader in Harbin. At the beginning of the 20th there were magazines "Gong", "Val", "Siny zhurnal" here. Later - "The Beam of Asia", "the Bulletin of Asia" and others.

"Censorship is purely conditional, the main thing not to touch big persons who can complain to the administration. Books appear without any censorship so easily that it is simply amazing", - wrote Vs. Ivanov.11

The daily private newspaper "zhizni Novosti» (1914-1929) edited by Z.M. Kliorin, and then S.R Chernyavsky was the oldest newspaper in Harbin. After the February revolution the newspaper promoted, in process of the forces, to undermining prestige and authority of the Russian administration of KVZhD. At the beginning of the 20th she was supported by smenovekhovets, and after arrival on KVZhD of the mixed Soviet-Chinese administration in 1924 followed a way of open support of the Soviet power. "News of life" were closed by the Chinese authorities during the Soviet-Chinese conflict of 1929

In the same years in Shanghai the newspaper "Vre-was issued


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mya" which was edited by B.A. Suvorin, the son of the famous political figure of Russia of the end of the 19th century A.S. Suvorin.

The first private newspaper in Harbin standing on positions of uncompromising struggle with the Bolshevism and enjoying support of the ataman Semyonov and yapo-nofil was "Light" (1919-1924). The large St. Petersburg and Siberian journalist, the elder of journalistic corporation of Harbin, the populist of Satovsky-Rzhevsky was her publisher and the main ideologist. Circulation of "Light" in the Harbin conditions was quite big and reached 8 thousand copies at the beginning of the 20th. In September, 1924 by the time of normalization of the Chinese-Soviet relations the newspaper was closed by the Chinese authorities as inappropriate to the moment for the anti-Soviet orientation.

The Svet newspaper was adjoined by the "Russian voice" - the big daily anti-Bolshevist newspaper (19201926) directed by the cadet S.V. Vostrotin. It played an important role in protection of interests of Russians in China.


Since 1920 in Harbin also the Dawn evening paper began to be published big morning. The book magnate and the talented journalist Mieczyslaw Stanislavovich Lembich and Siberian Georgy Nikolaevich Shipkov directed its edition. Being her editor up to the death in 1932, M.S. Lembich made the newspaper of the most popular not only in Harbin, but also in China, Japan and other districts of the Russian east abroad. She took the leading place in cultural life of China.12

Publishers of "Dawn" wrote in the 100-th number that they since the beginning of the edition of the newspaper dissociated from the right and left camps, seeking to be the non-party, objective and democratic edition. Of course, - authors of "Dawn" noted, - it was met with obvious animosity from the conflicting groups. We do not know, - they noted, - whether there was in Harbin ever a newspaper to which address so many contradictory epithets and definitions how many our "Dawn" has them for the hundred numbers dropped out. In days of a revolutionary storm when the whole country turned into some gathering mad, and newspapers from honest press organs - into the obedient tool of political struggle, we aspired in process of the forces and means to be what were newspapers in far and peace time, - that is voice of public conscience, attendants of common sense, enemies of a routine and bias of judgments... "Dawn" - the newspaper non-party and independent. For hundred last numbers we never left this heavy position, without looking neither at the furious attacks, nor at dark underminings and dirty tricks at the left and on the right... We get in a right way. We hope not to descend from it and on the hundred first number". The newspaper adhered to the Russian nationalist positions, directly connected them with anticommunism. "Dawn" could not sympathize with communism and always opposed it. Acted because communism was never reconciled and it cannot be reconciled with independence of the press which freedom is incompatible with tyranny. Acted because communism continually harmed the Russian national business, violating its interests for the sake of the destructive purposes and creating hostility in the relations with other people which friendship Russia would have to value, especially in years, difficult for it".13

The edition of "Dawn" opened the new page in the history of the Harbin press. The newspaper entered multicolumn headings and various fonts on the strips, topical feuilletons on local subjects and special department of local information. This initiative of "Dawn" absolutely changed shape of the Harbin press, led to loss by a local press of the former "provincial" style and appearance. The competition between very numerous large newspaper editions of the beginning of the 20th years ("A foreign thought" (Manchuria), "Kopek", Russia", "Commercial telegraph", "Manchurian day", "Nov", etc.) resulted in very high speed of information service and, the main thing, the analytical depth of responses to the current events which were taking place in the Far East and in life of the Russian emigration around the world. The Harbin newspapers on wealth and a variety of contents had not equal at illumination of various parties of the Russian emigration and its views of events of political life of China.

Thanks to the political position, full information "Dawn" made huge success; its circulation quickly grew, having reached 12-15 thousand copies by 1924. The newspaper created around itself a big reader's asset. It allowed it to involve a number of prominent Russian writers and journalists of Europe and America in cooperation, to create wide network of the special correspondents. The Dawn Association publishing house since 1920 published the literary and comic and theatrical magazine "Zarnitsy", the daily newspapers "Nasha Zarya" in Tianjin and "The Shanghai dawn" in Shanghai. "Dawn" had one of the longest stories of existence of the emigrant periodical: it continuously left within 22 years. The Zarya newspaper of the power of puppet Manchzhou-Dee-Guo was united with the Harbinskoye Vremya newspaper on August 20, 1942. It contacted the 4th, and in the 30th on 8-16 strips of a big format.14

Soon M.S. Lembich founded on the Far East the Russian publishing house "Zarya" on which printing base, except newspapers, the Rubezh magazine was issued. M.S. Lembich's colleague of Satovsky-Rzhevsky wrote that "to him local had character of either the government, or tightly kruzhkovy editions which did not have public value and not reflecting the Russian national needs" 15 Being the emigrant newspaper with anti-Soviet orientation, Zarya differed in objectivity and efficiency according to various problems of the Far East and international life. The newspaper had the correspondents in Beijing (P. Gorvey), in Berlin (N. Ryazhsky), in Paris (N. Ukhtomsky), reprinted operational information from the American, European and Soviet editions. "Dawn" acquainted readers with life of Russians in other centers of emigration, in the USSR and directly in the Far East, published analytical articles and attestations of eyewitnesses.

On its pages it was featured the major cultural events, news of literary, theater, musical life. Annual "Days of the Russian culture" were quite fully lit. Feuilletons by the Harbin journalists were published in the newspaper: V. Serbsky, E. Shakhov, A. Yablonsky, famous Russian writers-satirists A. Averchenko, I. Ilf and E. Petrov. A keen interest of readers was attracted



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M. Aldanov, N. Roerich's works, Vs. Ivanova. The newspaper editorial office actively involved in cooperation of many scientists and public figures. In particular, often N.K. Roerich.16 published the articles in the newspaper

The evening democratic "Loud-hailer" (1921-1937) based by Ochag publishing house and edited by S.Ya. Alymov and I.I. Petelin, then I.L. Miller and the editor-publisher E.S. Kauffman, the secretary competed with evening "Dawn" since 1921 there was V.A. Skvortsov. Besides political news, in the newspaper events of cultural life of the Russian colony were covered, reviews of theatrical and musical performances, portraits of artists and writers of the Russian abroad and the Soviet Union were located.

Arisen in January, 1920. "The integrated conference" and "Council of the trade and production unions" of the Right-of-way of KVZhD (Union of Right Forces) began to issue the Vpered newspaper (1920-1921). The newspaper supported policy of RSFSR, polemized with white publications, criticized the anti-Russian actions of the Chinese administration concerning KVZhD. Circulation reached 1.5-2 thousand copies "Forward". The Tribuna newspaper (19221935) became her successor. It was the pro-Soviet body.

Deserving attention was the literary and commerce and industry newspaper "zhizni Novosti". About life of the Russian refugees in China material was often published in the newspapers "Golos Primorya" (daily, nonparty, political and economic and obshchestvennoliteraturny newspaper) and "Will" (body of Vsesibirsky regional party committee of revolutionary socialists).17

In 1924 known in China and in the Far East became the Russia newspaper (editor N.V. Kolesnikov).18 It were issued in Shanghai. The newspaper turned into "emigrant" body of a national thought of the Russian foreign public. Being a vyrazitelnitsa of monarchic views, she took an uncompromising stand to the III International. The newspaper had communications with many emigre organizations in the largest cities and the capitals of the world in New York, San Francisco, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Alexandria, Damascus, Tokyo. The task edition put "full association of all emigrant groups and the organizations around a light name of its imperial Highness of the Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolaevich". The newspaper had the publishing house that allowed to organize release and other materials. So, with the purpose to give to the growing-up emigrant generation (from 10 to 15 years) national Russian education, the monthly for youth "Sacred Russia" began to be issued. In the magazine there were departments: historical, ethnographic, literary, religious and moral, sports, emigrant, bibliographic, mailbox and entertainments. Besides, under E.E. Kolesnikov's edition the almanac "Russia" with a circulation up to 5 thousand copies which was distributed over all countries where there was the Russian emigration was issued. Monthly appearing military and scientific magazine "Armiya I Flot".19 was in great demand

The major source for studying the Russian-Chinese relations in Harbin was the "Far East newspaper" appearing in Chinese as the KVZhD edition. It was edited by A.Ya. Spitsyn. Evge-

ny Nilus, estimating this edition, wrote in the second (unpublished) volume of "The historical review of KVZhD" about that huge role which the newspaper played in the relations between Russians and Chinese at the administrative and political levels. He died in Harbin. In the obituary published on November 25, 1941 in the Zarya newspaper it was told about its significant role in confidential negotiations of the general Horvat at the end of 1917 with the Chinese authorities. This time the ensign Ryutin tried "to grab" the power in the city, following V. Lenin's instructions. Spitsyn took refuge in the Chinese part of the city of Futszyadyane where continued the activity. Despite sympathies of Chinese for Spitsyn, the newspaper in 1921 ceased to appear. It was a consequence of implementation of "the additional agreement" on which KVZhD refused the rights to conduct any political activity.

In Harbin till 1938 the Societies of the Russian Orientalists (SRO) magazine "the Bulletin of Asia" was issued. It was printed in various printing houses of the city. In total there were 54 numbers. The magazine extended as on a subscription, and at retail. Frequency and its circulation were not constant. Circulation depended on the number of members of ORO. Editor-in-chiefs at different times were: I.A. Dobrolovsky, N.K. Novikov, A.P. Boloban, M.A. Polumordvinov, N.P. Matsokin, P.M. Gladky, P.V. Shkurkin. Since 1918. "the bulletin of Asia" was edited by the special commission with N.A. Gondatti's participation, I.G Baranova,

P.V. Shkurkina, N.K. Novikova, N.P. Avtomonova. Authors - members of ORO were published in the magazine. Various aspects of life and the history of Asia-Pacific countries and the Russian Far East were the subject of their articles.

"Position of the press in exile was very sad. Everything that it was stated within more semi-century that as if "the bourgeoisie pays in gold to the writers" that it "throws millions on business of information", everything was, speaking simply, nonsense, a nonsense" 20, - wrote Vs in the memoirs. Ivanov.

Abroad the Russian emigration needed legal protection in the financial and moral support. The Russky Emigrant magazine, showing their situation, wrote: "A revolutionary storm scattered from borders of Russia all over the world many and many Russian people. In the majority not having any means, at very unfriendly relation to them of the states where they had to settle, the emigrants drag the most sad, half-starved existence. The Russky Emigrant magazine set the task: "to try to connect the sprayed emigrant weight, to protect their legal, cultural and economic interests, to awake in them an initiative to call for public amateur performance" 21

Big monthly literary, scientific and the Russkoye Obozreniye political magazine, of 300 pages (editor-publisher V.D. Nosach-Noskov), began to be issued in December, 1920. In Beijing it was printed in printing house of the Russian Spiritual mission. In 1920-1921 on its pages dozens of novels of the Russian and foreign authors, articles about wealth and economic prospects of the Far East, memoirs of political figures of the period of civil war, works on pedagogics and philosophy, the biography of outstanding political figures, articles and notes from the field of law, economi-were published


VESTNIK MGUS №2 (2)/2007


ki, literatures and arts, statistical material on all branches of science and the equipment. Materials about life in the Soviet Russia, decrees, statistics, reviews of the press were regularly published in the magazine. A lot of place was allocated to questions of international policy and, in particular, problems of relationship of China and Russia. Scientific articles of group of companies were published in the magazine. Gins, P.V. Vologodsky, I.I. Serebryannikov, M.V. Abrosimov. Verses, stories, stories. The Russian Far East magazine (editor-publisher K. Lavrov) was of great value. Its material was devoted to economic life of the Far East: to questions of fish, fur, forest and mountain economy. The magazine appeared monthly in the Russian and English languages. On February 6, 1921 there was first issue of the satirical magazine "Harbinsky Tsiryulnik" which at once began to be in great demand as at adults, and children of emigrants.

In the 20th - the 30th of the 20th century it was much published by the Russian Spiritual mission in China. So, in Beijing there were books by members of a mission for oriental studies questions, dictionaries and textbooks, the Kitaysky Blagovestnik and Russkoye obozreniye magazines. The mission conducted cultural and educational, missionary and charitable work among emigrants in Mukden, Changchun, Dayrena, Port Arthur, Qingdao and in Kalgan, helped gymnasiums, schools and church.

Perfectly equipped printing house of the men's Kazan and Bogoroditsky monastery in Harbin printed prayer books, the "nebesny Hleb" magazine lighting church and religious life of the Far East Russian emigration and a problem of foreign orthodox church. The religious magazine "Vera I Zhizn" was published since 1925 under edition of the bishop Dimitrii (Voznesensky). In 1924 the Iversky brotherhood issued the Seyatel magazine, by the Sibirskomanchzhursky mission - the biweekly newspaper "Metodistsky Hristiansky Pobornik" and Christian Adventists "The family friend" 22

At the initiative of one of the former directors of Russian-Asian bank S.G. Yastrzhemsky in Shanghai the Russian printing house and publishing house were created. For these purposes the small capital on a subscription among members of the Russian colony was built and on it cars, a font were bought and the necessary room is employed. In several months the Russian printing house quite got stronger. It successfully coped with the considerable orders received in Shanghai and also from Harbin, Vladivostok, the cities of Siberia, employing several dozen Russian emigrants. Expansion of its activity caused the necessity of the transfer of printing house to the new extensive room. Advanced American cars and the equipment for printing of books, newspapers and magazines were for this purpose bought, cartographic production is arranged. N.I. Sokolov who had before revolution own printing house and publishing house and well familiar with publishing delom23

was the manager of printing house

Besides, in China emigrant publishing houses "Nauka", "Nation", "Monarkhicheskoye objedineniye" and others were open. The former Minister of Justice of the kolchakovsky government G.G. Telberg was a large publisher and the owner of several bookstores. Earned from sale of the Russian literature also about -

fessor of Gins. The owner of large bookstore "Russian-Manchurian Book-trade in Harbin" I.T. Shchelokov from 1909 to 1921 was a monopolist in this area.

In the 30th in Shanghai the Russian bookstore Our Knowledge with a wide choice of the literature in Russian published in many foreign countries used broad popularity.

In 1924 in China more than 20 large Russian books, collections and magazines which gained broad fame and recognition were published. A mirror of "ideological life" on that side of "barricade" V.I. Lenin called emigrant literature. He carefully watched it, was interested in all aspects of life of the Russian abroad. In its Kremlin library the collection from 267 books was collected. Among them "There are Russia and the Bolshevism" And. Ghana, "In fight for Russia" N. Ustryalova24

In view of the fact that the most part of the Russian emigration was pressed for money and it was forced to save means, the network of libraries where any could come was developed in the places of residence and read the necessary newspaper, the magazine or the book. So, in 1901 the first Harbin library opened the doors, and in their 1927 was already 25 with the general fund of books to 250 thousand volumes. All of them were available to local community.

Library science in Harbin there began the engineer I.I. Oblomiyevsky (builder of the Imyanpovsky site of KVZhD) who opened library in the New City. Later this library passed into the order of "Zhelsoba" and became a kernel "Fundamental" or the KVZhD Central library which was open on October 3, 1925. On its replenishment administration of the road about?

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