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National credo of A. Dukhnovich: "I the Russinian was, esm and I will be"



mikhait ALMAShIY

NATIONAL CREDO of A. DUKHNOVICH: "I am a RUSSINIAN of BYL, ESM And BUDU"

Each people have the symbols in the form of banners of the state and public, city and regional and also various heraldic signs. But the most valuable and bright spokesman of the national idea is the image symbol of the living person. Ukrainians have such live symbol - Taras Shevchenko, Russians have Alexander Pushkin, Poles have Adam Mickiewicz, Hungarians have Shandor Petefi, etc. At Russinians a national symbol is the unforgettable, loved by many Carpatho-Russian generations Alexander Dukhnovich. Problems of development of Carpatho-Russian culture, literature, national education, pedagogics as sciences are connected with his name.

It is known that in the world it is slightly more than two hundred states, and the people, languages and their cultures - over 5000. What would be if the states (the dominating people) suddenly refused to other people (non-state minorities) development of their languages, the cultures, traditions, a national way of thinking? How here not to remember the erudite Russinian historian Mikhail Luchkaya who put the epigraph to the six-volume "History of the subcarpathian Russinians" of a word, approving the high-patriotic idea: "History even of the little-known people sheds light on the most nice people". Each people, the small or big, as well as certain person nice or disgraceful, have the national pride, own "I", the advantage, honor and the right for respect. Insult of the small people, its denial or dropping from a pedestal of history is manifestation of barbarity if to approach a problem with the current criteria of democratism and humanity. A. Dukhnovich about it wrote: "The honor, as well as to the nice athlete because the dignity is peculiar to everyone is also expensive to a poor zhebrak (to the beggar - M.A.)".

Russinians whose history is measured more than 2000, were always recognized as the states under the power of which they were, from -

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efficient Slavic people, Russinians. And suddenly they ceased to exist after 1945. There was an unnatural metamorphosis. As a result of signing of the contract between the USSR and Czechoslovakia on June 29, 1945 about accession of the Carpatho-Russian territory (Under - the Carpathian Russia) to the Soviet Ukraine (without participation in this process of Russinians - M.A.) and the Decree of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR on formation of the Transcarpathian region of January 22, 1946 Russinians suddenly became Ukrainians (?!). In the USSR an ethnonym "Russinian" was brought from the use. When new Ukrainian state (1991) was formed and the shy voice of the Russinians who declared the existence at all levels (the state, scientific and cultural educational institutions, law "was nearly cut through", etc.) fierce attacks to Russinians, insults and humiliations of representatives of the Carpatho-Russian movement began, and the movement was classified as separatism. It was the cruel preventive strike of Kiyevo-Lviv by the rights of Russinians! The ethnonym "Russinian" in this situation became a synonym of the insult humiliating any human dignity: "slabodu-hy Russinians", "indistinct concept", "unknown tribe", etc. The crafty axiom became official: Russinians are Ukrainians.

Due to told there is a wish to analyze A. Dukh-novicha's relation not only to the ethnonym, but also to the Russinian, the tribesman. All history of the little people in the center of Europe to which the destiny could not give the small state is connected with this name. For A. Dukhnovich "Russinian" - a sacred word which should worship, swear it an oath on fidelity. As did Dukh-novich. We find over 500 cases of the appeal to an ethnonym in its poetry, prose, drama works, scientific and pedagogical works "Russinian". Seldom the term "maloross" meets and we almost do not find the term "Ukrainian".

The frequent use of an ethnonym "Russinian" Dukhnovich proves the addiction not only to the term, but, mainly, to the historical fate of the edinoplemennik. Dukhnovich kind of wanted to tell national lost intellectuals about inaccuracy of her views of ethnic processes, sought to wake up at it pride for the historical past, for the in number small karpatoru-sinsky people which with advantage survived all storm and impacts of oppressors throughout a long historical way.

"Russinian" Dukhnovich determined by an ethnonym also the, and hundreds of thousands of fellow countrymen national credo: "I the Russinian was, esm and I will be, I was born the Russinian, I will not forget my honest sort - I will remain his son". In the comedy "Golovny Tarabanshchik" Dukhnovich glorifies calloused hands of the honest Russinian - the working person, shows the intellectual betrayed to the people, the native of country masses who in the environment where the working person Russinian is called the cattle, says: "I am a Russinian, and

my father poor peasant... I proud RusCom in my sort". In the poem "Vruchashe" (I the Russinian was...) Dukhnovich expresses the treasured thoughts of love and duties in relation to the people, makes a promise to serve it to the last forces ("I will not forget my honest sort, I will remain his son", "I yours will be, your friend and I will die").

Vruchashe has also another, the option somewhat remade - "Song It Is National a Ruska". Already title claims that this poem will become the Carpatho-Russian folk song. And it happened. In the last option the thought of readiness to serve the Carpatho-Russian people is considerably expanded. The last stanzas sound as an oath:

Proto to you, about a sort mine,

I swear living God,

For sad work and love I Will obey a debt.

Oh, I to you will not forget!

From all warm wombs I Will love tya, yours I will be a Son, the friend even on a coffin.

For Dukhnovich the term "Russinian" not an empty phrase. All thoughts of a buditel of the people, of his life-bytye, aspirations, pleasures and grieves are followed by it.

In the poem "Subcarpathian Russinians" which became subsequently the official anthem by the subcarpathian Russinians, Dukhnovich appeals to the edinoplemennik to wake up from a century national dream, to revive memory "about the". The poem address to Russinians is imbued with hopes that from Russinians "the storm will move away enemies". And not only Dukhnovich wishes approach of new day, but also the hidden national Carpatho-Russian mass of last generations all meanwhile and times kind of addresses our contemporaries: "The national voice calls you: Do not forget about the! Our people darling yes will be free!"

The example of survivability of the national Carpatho-Russian idea proclaimed 150 years ago A. Dukhnovich is very indicative. In one village of Svalyavsky district the girl in the room in which Dukhnovich's portrait hung was born in Transcarpathia in the sixties of the last century. The girl grew up and when began to understand many questions, heard such words from mother: "You, the daughter, were born under image of Dukhnovich". Then began to tell her about Dukhnovich as the national buditel. When the girl was 18 years old, she decided to go on foot to A. Dukhnovich's monument to Pryashev (nowadays Slovakia, then in Uzhhorod there was no monument to Dukhnovich yet) - distance in 100 km, to bow to it and to put the one and only red rose at the bottom. As we see, there lives Dukhnovich's spirit, the power of his national spirit and the Carpatho-Russian national idea is big.

Ted Schmidt
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