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Istoriya regional government state property of Russia: on materials of the Kursk and Oryol management of the state imushchestvo, 1875-1918.

o. E. Bocharov


Work is presented by department of history of Russia of the Kursk state university. The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor A.N. Kurtsev

In article the history of effective regional government by the state property on the example of the Kursk and Oryol provinces at a boundary is stated XIX and XX centuries.

The article represents the history of efficient regional management of state property at the turn of XIX and XX centuries by the example of Kursk and Oryol regions.

Now does not lose the relevance a question of efficiency of a role of the state in economy and also about a necessary share and value of public sector which makes an essential part of the national economy of Russia.

Also such problem as effective management of already available state ownership, such as subsoil and woods keeps the importance. In this regard the special relevance is acquired by a question of careful attitude to being in

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the country to natural wealth, their most rational use, prevention of the injurious relation to them without calculation for a long-term outlook.

On April 21, 1875 on the basis of the highest command of the emperor Alexander II made after the report of the minister of the state imushchestvo P.A. Valuyev, the Oryol management of the state imushchestvo was abolished and "all affairs on a forest part which are made in it, as well as the woods of the Oryol province are transferred to the Kursk Management with assignment to the last of the name the Kursk and Oryol Management State Imushchestvami" 1. Let's consider what represented officials of this management.

The managing director of the Kursk and Oryol management of the state imushchestvo was appointed by the Ministry of the state imushchestvo, transformed in May, 1905 to Head department of land management and agriculture. The head of body was obliged to watch inviolability of state property what annual audits of the state woods and other state property were made for. On shoulders of this head also function of care of increase in income from subordinated property lay. The management of financial statements, the personnel policy, supervision of activity of employees and also their encouragement and nakazaniye2 were under authority of the managing director.

Fedor Aleksandrovich Toppe-lius, the Russified German who was earlier holding a post of the managing director of the Kursk management of the state imushchestvo (from 1yanva-rya 1867 g) became the first head of again formed body. Graduated from Sea military school, in service since 1839, on April 16, 1879 it is made in the valid councilors of state. It is awarded with St Ann's awards of the 2nd degree and St. Stanislav of the 3rd degree and also a distinction of blameless service in five years, is familiar for the land device of the state peasants. Came from noblemen, Lutheran veroispo-

vedaniye. He was married. Salaries received 1960 rubles a year and 1000 rubles of dining rooms deneg3.

Officials of more low ranks were also appointed by the Ministry of the state imushchestvo, the management sending them to the order which resolved an issue of further service. An average link of officials having appeared la - whether the senior forest auditors, officials of special instructions and junior forest auditors. It is possible to carry inspectors and experts in agriculture to representatives of average officials. There were these positions after formation of management after a while. About one inspector and several experts of a different profile was the share of each province: on livestock production, gardening, culture and processing of hemp, etc. There were also an agricultural part instructors who should be carried to representatives of the lowest link of officials.

The lowest link of officials of Management of the state imushchestvo was presented by heads of a desk and their assistants, accountants, registrars, clerks. On places the interprovincial body was represented by forest wardens, assistants to forest wardens and forest conductors.

The top of management was made by officials of the V class, of fifty years and are more senior, noble origin, with the track record abounding with awards and rather high salary, the ended military educational institutions.

The average link was presented by officials of the VI-VII classes, forty-fifty years awarded with one-two awards with average income. Origins they were also noble, had the higher education.

The lower layer was made by the officials of H-HGU of classes of different age and a social origin who got secondary education. Were seldom noted by distinctions. Income had rather low,

owing to what sometimes they had material difficulties.

On places management was represented by the employees of the VIII-IX classes who got an education, necessary for this service, by a forest part, with average income, middle age, having considerable experience raboty4.

A main type of practical activities of the Kursk and Oryol management of the state imushchestvo was arendodatelny activity when the management leased to individuals state property in the form of state quitrent articles. State quitrent hundred - t represented "state immovable property, sent to urgent, from the public auction, or termless contents from payment in treasury of a quitrent. State quitrent articles essence: 1) earth and manor: arable lands, haymakings, meadows and steppes; 2) gardens and kitchen gardens; 3) bortny ukhozhya; 4) fish catching; 5) cretaceous mountains; 6) selitrenny burta; 7) mill; 8) recarts; 9) exhibition places; 10) doma, benches, tents, cellars, glaciers, anbara, taverns, shinko-Vyya houses, trade baths and slaughters; 11) copper-smelting hammers; 12) folvarka or estate" 5.

In the territory controlled by management land quitrent articles prevailed. Similar articles were formed of state lands. The management of the state imushchestvo charged to the employees scheduling of future state quitrent article.

The management leased state quitrent articles as an auction. A typical example of a similar type of activity was return for rent of Dikopolyach-kovsky quitrent article. It was in the Lgovsky County, comprised 17 des.

868.5 sazh. haymaking, 5 des. 2229 sazh. bush and 2300 sazh. lakes and a so-called polurechka borrowed. Thus, the total area of article was 24 des.
327.5 sazh. From January 1, 1871 to January 1, 1877 was in rent contents

the peasant has villages the Lower Villages of Ivan Poluyanov who paid an annual quitrent of 125 rub 25 kopeks 6.

After rent term management announced the bidding for the new term of return for rent. The auction took place in District weed - tseysky management in the presence of the representative of interprovincial body. Prior to the auction, announcements with necessary information were published. The starting price at the auction represented the size of an annual quitrent of the former owner statyi7.

Management of gosimushchestvo provided conditions on which signing of the contract on return for rent state quitrent statyi8 was possible. The auction took place in a form of a so-called English auction: the one who offered the highest price, that is the annual rent won.

Already in the late seventies of the 19th century the situation when there were no persons interested to lease the offered quitrent articles developed. In this case the management could quote the price and below that which was paid by the former owner, even without agreeing on this issue with higher body though preferred coordination, entering into a correspondence to Temporary department of the land device of the state peasants concerning competency of decrease rent platy9.

For state economy the value of quitrent articles by 1913 sharply falls. All articles of economic department both Hens - sky, and Oryol provinces were enlisted in so-called land fund. All articles intended to gradual sale, up to this point they a dale - zhna were to be leased. "Tenants are mostly country societies and associations. Certain peasants rent only small quitrent articles" 10.

Other important type of activity and a source of revenues of management was sale of the wood from state forest dachas. The most widespread combination of breeds

were the oak and a hazel grove with prevalence of the first, there were also dachas in which grew a maple, an ash-tree, a birch.

At sale of the wood the area intended for sale broke into so-called trade units or allotments. It is necessary to tell that the wood intended for sale could be left for development in the economic way as public works. From the wood intended to sale some part for sale without the auction and a free preferential holiday was allocated. The wood was auctioned in the fall upon termination of field works. Apparently, sale happened on favorable to treasury tsene11.

One more important type of activity of management was so-called forest management, that is works on disengagement of the state and private woods, drawing on the plan of quitrent articles, etc. and also afforestation, that is actions for preservation and resumption of forest fund guberniy12. Business of the fastest disengagement of state lands was very important as on this soil there was a set of problems.

Different nursery forests were under authority of Management of the state imushchestvo. For example, the Oryol wood nursery existing since 1845. Total area of nursery 14 des.

1356.5 sazh. The soil in nursery was the clay chernozem with insignificant impurity of sand, suitable for cultivation fruit derevyev13.

In nursery there were so-called fruit schools at which saplings of various fruit trees which then were implemented among local community for distribution more fructifying sortov14 were grown up.

The Kursk and Oryol management of the state imushchestvo carried out besides considered and some other functions: gave permissions to production of a smolokureniye in state forest dachas of the Kursk and Oryol provinces, released the wood to fire victims and for other needs according to special applications of various persons.

The interprovincial body was carried out large-scale by the educational educator - will hold down activity as which we understand actions for providing services to the population in education of younger generation and also activities for distribution among the population of knowledge in the field of rural and forestry. Content of educational and educational activity of the Kursk and Oryol management of the state imushchestvo is opening and the further maintenance of so-called lowest agricultural schools and schools and also periodic carrying out the lowest agricultural courses and readings for the purpose of education of the country population guberniy15.

Thus, activities of interprovincial establishment for management of the state property consisted in the effective order state land and forest lands, being combined with the various nature filling actions, since forest management and finishing nurseries of fruit trees. Besides natural increase in income from rent and sales the Kursk and Oryol department of the state imushchestvo tried to practice measures of charitable character: allocation of the wood to fire victims, etc. The interprovincial body successfully carried out the tasks, bringing to treasury annual income.

1 The state archive of Kursk region (further - GAKO). F.155, op. 1, 30, l. 1.
2 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. Volume XIII. Office first. 1838. SPb., 1839. Page 468-470.
3 GAKO. T. 155, op. 2 l, 3, l. 3, 57.
4 Cm: In the same place. 3, l. 1-77; 36, l. 1-218; 63, l. 1-174.
5 Charters: forest, about state quitrent articles and economic board of the state inhabited manors (edition of 1842). SPb, 1842. Page 2, Page. II.
6 GAKO. T. 155, op. 1, 64, l. 2.
7 In the same place. L. 2ob-3.
8 In the same place. L. 3-6.
9 In the same place. Of 95 l. 80-80ob.
10 In the same place. 3719, l. 138ob.
11 In the same place. 3142, l. 11-12.
12 Cm: in the same place. 32, l. 1-145.
13 In the same place. 89, l. 3-3ob.
14 In the same place. L. 7ob.
15 Cm: in the same place. 447, l. 1-65; 3466, l. 1-36; 3468, l. 1-367; 3470, l. 1-15.
Rhonda Miller
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