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Some paleodemografichesky characteristics of the Kamensk culture of forest-steppe Priobye



NEKOTORYE PALEODEMOGRAFICHESKY CHARACTERISTICS of the KAMENSK CULTURE of FOREST-STEPPE PRIOBYE

N. P. Matveeva

The article considers sex-age grouping of human beings from 29 burial grounds of the Early Iron Age in the for-est-steppe Lower Ob basin, according to sampling of about 1100 individuals. A big family character of burial constructions being established. Average age at death, without regard to infant mortality, is identified as 34.7. Demographic indices for women are lower than those for men pointing to patriarchal relations in the society. During the final stage of the Kamenka culture, mortality among adolescents and youths would increase which reflects a growing number of military conflicts and a sanguinary nature thereof in the south of West Siberia by the end of the 1st millenium B. C., as well as their major impact on general demographic situation.

The mass character of paleoantropologichesky material and sufficient study of burial grounds of the Kamensk culture of the early Iron Age in forest-steppe Priobye allow to address problems of a demographic condition of society. Earlier these questions were considered as regards the available materials by A.P. Borodovsky and T.N. Troitskaya. They gave characteristic of gender and age division of society at the population of the Novosibirsk Priobye during an era of early iron, ratios of genders and ages of the dead are analyzed. Authors consider that the prevalence of men's burials in burial grounds of the Biysk stage indicates existence of certain female and children's cemeteries, in particular for babies [Troitsk, Borodovsky, 1994, page 80-81]. A.P. Borodov-sky, V.T. Voronin and E.G. Shpakova conducted a demographic research of a complex of necropolises Bystrovka-1, 2, 3, dated in the range of the 3rd one or II century BC of century AD. It showed steady increase of mortality of the young population of both sexes and shares of military traumatism. Results of creation of gender and age pyramids of mortality led authors to a conclusion about frequency of deterioration in living conditions and aggravation of a military-political situation in the Novosibirsk Priobye [Borodovsky, etc., 1996, page 32].

We managed to collect data on gender and age of the dead from 29 necropolises of different local regions of the Kamensk culture: The Novosibirsk and Barnaul Priobye and Baraby (tab. 1). Materials across Kulunda because of their singularity are not included in processing [1]. Today we have nearly 1100 determinations of sex and age buried [2]. It is the case of sources, very considerable for present level of study of the Siberian archaeological cultures. Nevertheless a number of necropolises are investigated not completely, there is no reliable information on child mortality that does not allow to define the general life expectancy of kamenets reasonably.

Table 1

The list of the burial grounds used in the paleodemografichesky analysis

The Novosibirsk Priobye Barab The Barnaul Priobye

Bystrovka-1 Bystrovka-3 New Sharap-1 New Sharap-2 Milovanovo-2 Milovanovo-8 Near Elbany-3 Near Elbany-7 Near Elbany-12 Zdvinsk of Osintsevo Myshayla Kirillovka-3 Elunino-1 Elunino-2 Chase Small settlement of Dresvyanka Thought-4 Thought-6 Stone-2 Rogozikha-1B Rogozikha-1A Novotroitsk-1 Novotroitsk-2 Maslyakha-1 Maslyakha-2 of Ust-Ishtovk Sokolovo

We will consider data on gender and age of the dead from the Kamensk burial grounds, grouping them in the chronological periods and local areas, being guided by a traditional periodization with division into two stages which correspond earlier allocated Biysk and to Berezovsky. Because of debatability of names, borders and the historical and cultural maintenance of the periods of the early Iron Age in forest-steppe Priobye, we refuse their names here, meaning by early UNU of centuries BC, and by late — 111-11 centuries BC. At the same time we use the gradation of age accepted at anthropologists: PapShe-1; Pap1She-2; iuyepshe; а^Киэ; tashgie; eepshe, having in addition allocated group of teenagers (12-16 years) that is of essential interest in terms of studying the social relations.

Average age of death is determined totally for adults in 34.72 years that is close to the indicators characteristic of the cultures of the early Iron Age of adjacent territories of Western Siberia dzhetyasarsky — 32.4 years [Buzhilova, Mednikova, 1993, page 259], sargatsky — 34.98 years

[Matveeva, 1999b, page 93]. It is known that if length of generation is about 17-25 years, then it can demonstrate communications parents — children. In our case the difference between average age of death of adults and children is big (about 30 years) and indicates communication primogenitors — children or primogenitors — parents — children (tab. 2, 3) that it, thus, allows to assume the bolshesemeyny nature of the Kamensk burial grounds. Differences in age of death of men and women are from 2 to 9 years in favor of men (tab. 2, 3).

Table 2

Demographic structure of populations of the Novosibirsk Priobye and Baraby

Category Quantity % Average age of death, years

The general — early 20 100 34.26

The general — late 180 100 34.99

Men — early 9 42.86 32.81

Men — late 51 22.65 39.07

Women — early 7 33.33 35.71

Women — late 39 21.55 30.9

Children — early 5 23.81 7.86

Children — late 70 38.67 3.28

Table 3

Demographic structure of populations of the Barnaul Priobye and Kulunda

Category Quantity % Average age of death, years

The general — early 133 100 35.42

The general — late 758 100 34.45

Men — early 33 24.81 39.92

Men — late 287 37.86 35.02

Women — early 46 34.59 30.92

of the Woman — late 202 26.65 33.88

Children — early 54 40.6 4.79

Children — late 269 35.49 5.64

The demographic structure of the Kamensk communities of different areas cardinally differs on the periods (fig. 1). If at an early stage the ratio of floors makes 1.4 in favor of women, then on late the same ratio already in favor of men (tab. 4). Child mortality is calculated in 37.16% that it is impossible to recognize as an objective indicator and it is necessary to explain with bad safety of infantile graves (as their share appeared below a share _gg§agg ї іІі 5-2).

42
40
38
36
34
32
30
28

^нщины

Children

Fig. 1. Kamensk culture.

The schedule of demographic structure of the Kamensk populations in general (in %) It is possible to note the low teenage mortality, big mortality of women in the early reproductive period [3], a small share of old men, especially men (2.64% of all men, against an indicator of 3.74% at women).

If to analyze the Kamensk materials on local areas, then it turns out that in necropolises of the Barnaul Priobye the level of female mortality in childbearing age is higher, the share of young men is more and the indicator by the number of the dead in old age is lower that indicates some adverse social conditions of this region, perhaps, active military operations.

Table 4

The gender and age list of the dead in the Kamensk populations in general on the early and late periods

Age, years

17-25
26-35
36-55
56-70
17-25
26-35
36-55
56-70
0-1 1,1-11 12-16 Total In with e about
13
26
13
1
53
4
12
21
4
41

Children

17
29
13
59
153
69
76
86
10
241
60
118
154
6
338
105
199
35
339,918

It is possible to judge by materials Kirillovki-3 and Elunino-1 that at an early stage the ratio of floors was in favor of women, but mortality young and young is high, they lived up to a maturity in two, and till an old age — is three times more rare than men. According to demographers, mortality peak at women falls on the period of the increased frequency of detorozhdeniye [Mednikova, Buzhilova, 1993, page 272].

We will try to track dynamics of demographic structure of the Kamensk communities. At the same time it should be noted that representativeness of sources on early and late stages of cultural development different. The first stage is poorer in data (over 150 units), on the second stage they are more convincing (over 900 individuals). Thus, because of unequal imposing appearance of groups our observations on necropolises of the 6-4th centuries BC can be vulnerable by comparison to new data in case of mass intake of materials from excavation of early burial grounds. But after all, we hope, some trends within the big periods will manage to be revealed.

Table 5

The number of gender and age groups in funeral monuments of the Novosibirsk Priobye and Baraby [4]

Age, Early stage Late stage All

years Quantity % Quantity % Quantity %

17-25 0 0 9 5.63 9 5.0
26-35 5 25.0 13 8.13 18 10.0
36-55 2 10.0 13 8.13 15 8.33
56-70 0 0 4 2.5 4 2.22
17-25 1 5.0 6 3.75 7 3.88
26-35 2 10.0 15 9.38 17 9.44
36-55 5 25.0 29 18.13 34 18.88
56-70 0 0 1 0.63 1 0.55

Children

0-1 0 0 35 21.88 35 19.44
1.1-11 4 20.0 33 20.63 37 20.55
12-16 1 5.0 2 1.25 3 1.66

The number of gender and age groups in funeral monuments of the Barnaul Priobye and KulundyGB!

Burial ground zh1 zh2 zhz zh4 m1 sq.m m3 m4 d1 d2 dz All

Rogozikha-1a 2 2 4 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 14

Kirillovka-3 5 9 4 1 2 3 5 3 9 18 7 66

Elunino-1 3 7 2 0 0 5 4 0 6 3 1 31

Elunino-2 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 6

Chase 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 7

Small settlement 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 1 1 1 9

Dresvyanka 2 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 7

Thought-4 1 3 6 0 3 6 2 0 3 6 1 31

Thought-6 1 1 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 8 0 22

Stone-2 5 21 6 2 0 26 14 1 16 19 3 113

Rogozikha-1B 13 6 3 0 7 12 12 0 5 13 6 77

N-Troitskoye-1 17 14 25 1 12 18 31 2 12 39 7 178

N-Troitskoye-2 11 8 19 1 16 20 39 0 21 38 9 182

Maslyakha-1 4 5 6 0 14 12 16 0 7 30 7 101

Maslyakha-2 2 1 1 0 1 1 3 0 1 6 0 16

Ust-Ishtovka 4 2 1 0 0 3 2 0 2 4 0 18

Sokolovo 0 2 3 0 1 1 3 0 0 3 0 13

The calculations which are carried out totally on burial grounds show that in At!-! At centuries BC average age of death [6] at men was 36.36 years, women have 33.32 years. These indicators are significantly lower, than people of tagarsky culture have 42.6 years and 38.55 years respectively received totally on a number of burial grounds At!!-! At centuries BC A.G. Kozintsev [1971, page 152]. The gender and age structure of collectives differed in prevalence of women, female mortality exceeded men's (fig. 2).

The general indicator of child mortality (38.56%) looks underestimated as we think, because of bad safety of infantile graves as children about one year in burials much less, than PapShe-2. If to be guided by an indicator of mortality of children of group of age

1.1-11 years which makes 27% in Kirillovke-3, also and for babies the total value will be about 65%, the level, quite characteristic of primitive society [Gryaznov, 1956].
55
45
35
25
15
5
17-25 years 26-35 years 36-55 years 56-70 years

Fig. 2. The schedule of gender and age list of the dead from the Kamensk necropolises of the early period in general (in %)

For an example we will consider populations from several most considerable burial grounds of the early period: Kirillovki-3, Elunino-1, Bystrovki-1. Bystrovsky population gives prevalence of women for 5% over men and visually reflects high child mortality — 45.9%. Life expectancy of women quite low and for 9-10 years concedes in Elunino-1 and Kirillovke-3 to men's (tab. 7).

Gender and age structure of the dead from burial grounds Kirillovka-3 and Elunino-1

Age, years Kirillovka-3 Elunino-1

Quantity % Average age of death, years Quantity % Average age of death, years

of the Woman

17-25 5 7.56 - 3 9.68 -
26-35 9 13.64 - 7 22.58 -
36-55 4 6.06 - 2 6.45 -
56-70 1 1.52 - 0 0 -

Total 19 28.79 33.37 Men 12 38.71 28.46

17-25 2 3.03 - 0 0 -
26-35 3 4.55 - 5 16.13 -
36-55 5 7.58 - 4 12.9 -
56-70 3 4.55 - 0 0 -

Total 13 19.7 42.62 Children 9 29.03 37.22

0-1 9 13.64 - 6 19.35 -
1.1-11 18 27.27 - 3 9.68 -
12-16 7 10.61 - 1 3.23 -

Total 34 51.52 5.46 10 32.26 4.12

In with e about 66 100.0 31 100.0

Mortality peak at women falls on the period of 26-35 years; at men — on the following age group. Shares of teenagers and old men are insignificant.

Distribution of maxima of mortality indicates rather stable and peace way of life of bystrovets during the early period (fig. 3). The high share of death at the age of 12-16 years (9%) that could be considerably connected with first labor at women, allows to assume existence of practice of early marriages. The settlement number of the children falling on one woman makes 1.56. It means what at each woman died on average two children, without having reached reproductive age. And if to consider incompleteness of data on child mortality, then more. Therefore, for reproduction of collective each woman had to give birth to not less than 4-5 children. Judging by average age of death, social living conditions of men at an early stage of the Kamensk culture were much better than women's.

Fig. 3. The schedule of mortality on the burial ground At!-! At centuries BC Bystrovka-1 (in %)

45
35
25
15
5

>-5--------------------------------------------------------------------

17-25 years 26-35 years 36-55 years 56-70 years

Fig. 4. The schedule of gender and age list of the dead from the Kamensk necropolises!!!-!! centuries BC in general (in %)

At a late stage the demographic picture sharply changes. In common cultural whole growth of female mortality in young and mature is observed, and men's — at young and mature age with the general falling of number living up to a maturity and an old age (fig. 4). In!!!-!! centuries BC average age of death at men was close to the size of 37.05 years, and women — 32.39 years. This indicator though is slightly higher, than Bystrovka-3 received by A.P. Borodovsky on a necropolis, but shows the general trend of the worst social and living conditions of life of women unlike men more objectively. And at the population of the Novosibirsk Priobye in late time even falling of average age of death of women in comparison with is noted At!-! At centuries BC. An indicator of child mortality also unfairly low — 36.9%.

Table 8

A ratio of age groups in necropolises of the Barnaul Priobye and a steppe zone of the different periods

Age, An early stage A late stage All

years Quantity % Quantity % Quantity %

17-25 13 9.77 Women 60 7.92 73 8.19
26-35 21 15.79 63 8.31 84 9.43
36-55 11 8.27 73 9.63 84 9.43
56-70 1 0.75 6 0.79 7 0.79
17-25 3 2.26 Men 54 7.12 57 6.4
26-35 10 7.52 103 13.59 113 12.68
36-55 16 12.03 125 16.49 141 15.82
56-70 4 3.01 5 0.66 9 1.01
0-1 17 12.78 Children 70 9.23 87 9.76
1.1-11 25 18.8 166 21.9 191 21.44
12-16 12 9.02 33 4.35 45 5.05

In with e about 133 100.0 758 100.0 891 100.0

For the late period the most representative in the demographic relation are Novotroitsk-1 and Novotroitsk-2, Maslyakha-1, Rogozikha-1B, the Stone-2. In!!!-!! centuries BC the index of a masculinization averages 1.4. In Rogozikhe-1B of the late period, the Stone-2 and burial grounds Novotro-itskom-1 the overweight of men is observed already: 1.1; 1.21; 1.4 (respectively). But average age of death of women it is traditional below men's.

Peaks of female and men's mortality in schedules on a necropolis the Stone-2 coincide (fig. 5). But one difference is observed: at young women, at mature — men died more often that is close to a normal demographic picture unlike other burial grounds.

Fig. 5. Kamensk culture. The schedule of mortality on the burial ground the Stone-2 (in %)

The demographic picture recorded in Maslyakhe-1 (tab. 10) is unusual. In this necropolis the index of a masculinization exclusively high — 2.8, in Novotroitsk-2 — 1.92, men's mortality is much higher women's, more average age of death of women (against 36.42 years men have 41.35 years in Novotroitsk-2; 34.67 years against 33.93 years in Maslyakhe-1). At the same time the level of child mortality — 31-43% is obviously insufficient, as well as the number of children on one woman in Novotroitsk-2 and Kirillovke-3 defined as 1.7-1.8 respectively. And on Maslya-he-1 this rate is 2.9 that hardly corresponds real because of the underestimated number of babies in these necropolises. If to accept infantile mortality as a little big, than teenage, then for these burial grounds the child mortality will be 55-65%, and indicators of number of the died children then will be about 4-6 on one woman.

Table 9

Gender and age structure of populations in burial grounds Bystrovka-1 and Novotroitsk-2

Age, Bystrovka-1 | Novotroitsk-2

years Quantity % Average age of death, years Quantity % Average age of death, years

17-25 4 6.56 - 11 6.04 -
26-35 7 11.48 - 8 4.4 -
36-55 6 9.84 - 19 10.44 -
56-70 1 1.64 - 1 0.55 -

Total 18 29.51 34.86 Men 39 21.43 41.35

17-25 0 0 - 16 8.79 -
26-35 4 6.56 - 20 10.99 -
36-55 11 18.03 - 39 21.43 -
56-70 0 0 - 0 0 -

Total 15 24.59 41.83 Children 75 41.21 36.42

0-1 16 26.23 - 21 11.54 -
1.1-11 11 18.03 - 38 20.88 -
12-16 1 1.64 - 9 4.95 -

Total 28 45.9 2.86 68 37.36 5.17

In with e about 61 100.0 182 100.0

Gender and age structure of population in burial grounds the Stone-2 and Maslyakha-1

Age, Stone-2 Maslyakha-1

years Quantity % Average age of death, years Quantity % Average age of death, years

17-25 5 4.42 - 4 3.92 -
26-35 21 18.58 - 5 4.9 -
36-55 6 5.31 - 6 5.88 -
56-70 2 1.77 - 0 0 -

Total 34 30.09 34.46 15 14.71 34.67

17-25 0 0 - 14 13.73 -
26-35 26 23.01 - 12 11.76 -
36-55 14 12.39 - 16 15.69 -
56-70 1 0.88 - 0 0 -

Total 41 36.28 33.03 Children 42 41.18 33.93

0-1 16 14.16 - 7 6.86 -
1.1-11 19 16.81 - 30 29.41 -
12-16 3 2.65 - 7 6.86 -

Total 38 33.63 4.25 44 43.14 5.88

In with e about 113 100.0 101 100.0

Apparently, Novotroitsk-2 the burial ground is left the group which endured military operations or migration that caused a lack of women of collective and frequent death of men of young age (fig. 6).

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

>? No. NS, I1-Y

Muzknina

17-25 years 26-35 years 36-55 years 56-70 years

Fig. 6. Kamensk culture. The schedule of mortality on the burial ground Novotroitsk-2 (in %)

Data on a necropolis of Maslyakha-1 differ in a high share of death of young, young men and teenagers, absence of old men that indicates extremely unfortunate demographic situation (fig. 7) in the society which is in a constant situation of destruction of men and teenagers. And schedules of mortality of men and women in necropolises of Maslyakha-1 and Novotroitsk-2 differ a little. Negative impact of a military factor on local group of kamenets is tracked also during detailed study of materials of the burial ground Bystrovka-3 [Borodovsky, Shpakova, 1999, page 156].

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

& gt; Nen Highway, Ina

*-■ 3. __-@

1 уж&-мны
17-25 years 26-35 years 36-55 years 56-70 years

Fig. 7. Kamensk culture. the schedule of mortality on the burial ground Maslyakha-1 (in %)

This observation gives the grounds for the assumption of catastrophic deterioration in living conditions for all age groups in the last third of the I millennium BC which led some populations to full decline, put them on a side of degeneration and assimilation.

It is possible that society sought to overcome depopulation by growth of birth rate as in schedules of distribution of the died women on age on burial grounds Novotroitsk-2, Maslyakha-1 and Rogozikha-1B observe two peaks, one of which is the share of age of 17-25 years, the period of the most frequent birth (fig. 6-8). Possibly, the polygamy and early marriages were encouraged. The high share of teenagers is noted not only at a late stage among the dead in Maslyakhe-1 and makes 6.89% (see tab. 10), Rogozikhe-1B where it is defined in 7.79% (tab. 11), Bystrovke-3 where it is calculated as 7.37% [Borodovsky, Shpakova, 1999, page 156], but is characteristic also of burial grounds of the early period in general, and the Barnaul region in particular — 9.02% (see tab. 8). For example, for Kirillovki-3 the indicator of mortality of teenagers is calculated as 10.61% (see tab. 7).

In literature there is a demographic characteristic of burial grounds Maslyakha-1 and Maslyakha-2 given M.P. Rykun totally. She specifies that the rate of child mortality is about 44%, average age of mortality falls on the maturity period that is explained for women by complications at childbirth, for men — military collisions, only 1% of the dead at senile age made men and 4% — women [Rykun, 1997, page 76].

20
16
12

& ^НИЦ&1И =. | - z-Muzhchiy

1
17-25 years 26-35 years 36-55 years 56-70 years

Fig. 8. Kamensk culture. The schedule of mortality on a necropolis of Rogozikha-1B (in %)

The nature of adaptation of kamenets to conditions of the natural and social environment is not studied. Pathological changes on materials of a postkranialny skeleton are studied insufficiently and tracked only on burial grounds at of Maslyakh. According to M.P. Rykun, age damages of bone tissues are characteristic of skeletons of 50-year-old men and women (osteoporosis, regional growths on vertebras and phalanxes), only 1% of dead men had accrete changes. Features of the structure of a body indicate essentially different physical activities of floors. Men have growth of category average — below average (163-165 cm), growth of the woman belongs to the average category (153-155 cm) that below average sizes during this era, for example, across Altai [Rykun, 1997, page 81].

Table 11

Gender and age structure of collectives in burial grounds Rogozikha-1B and Novotroitsk-1

Age, Rogozikha-1 In Novotroitsk-1

years Quantity % Average age of death, years Quantity % Average age of death, years

Women 17-25 13 16.88 17 9.55

26-35 6 7.79 - 14 7.87 -
36-55 3 3.9 - 25 14.04 -
56-70 0 0 - 1 0.56 -

Total 22 28.57 24.64 57 32.02 34.29

Men 17-25 7 9.09 12 6.74

26-35 12 15.58 - 18 10.11 -
36-55 12 15.58 - 31 17.42 -
56-70 0 0 - 2 1.12 -

Total 31 40.26 33.98 63 35.39 37.75

Children 0-1 5 6.49 12 6.74

1.1-11 13 16.88 - 39 21.91 -
12-16 6 7.79 - 7 3.93 -

Total 24 31.17 7.35 58 32.58 5.57

In with e about 77 100.0 178 100.0

Undoubtedly, the population of forest-steppe Priobye lived in a situation of escalating military danger and waged continuous bloody intertribal and defensive wars, the certificate to what is the high mortality of men at young age and teenagers in all groups dated 111-11 centuries BC Besides, we have rather large number of the direct evidence of military skirmishes throughout existence of the Kamensk culture in the form of burial of the beheaded corpses (Horde-1, Bystrovka-3) punched by chekana of skulls, signs of the wounds given by a spear [Rykun, 1997, 1999b], signs of heavy fractures and injuries (Kiril-lovka-3 — 2 cases; Novotroitsk-2 — 5 cases; Novotroitsk-1 — 3 cases; Rogozikha-1B — 4 cases).

One of proofs of militarization of life of the population of the early Iron Age in forest-steppe Priobye is the skalpirovaniye established by A.P. Borodovsky and E.G. Shpakova on burial ground Bystrovka-2 materials. There skulls of men of early, young and mature age with traces of deep cuttings from below up and from right to left were found, and in one case there were traces of the cutting blows to a parietal part and a skull base for beheading [Borodovsky, 1997, page 165, 167].

But archaeological sources indicate, on the contrary, a low role of military science in life of society that is unusual to an era of early iron. They can be interpreted as the proof of military weakness of the Kamensk population. First of all this lack of ancient settlements, small number of objects of arms in graves, a low share buried with military stock.

For example, T.N. Troitskaya and A.P. Borodovsky determined a share of soldiers in 21% of all men's burials by materials of the Novosibirsk Priobye [1994, page 82]. The data received by us speak about a smaller presentability of military stock. In burial grounds to MIND of centuries BC on the region in general there are six burials with bone tips of arrows (4.5% of the total number of buried), from chekana and armor-clad plates, daggers — on two (1.5%), with kolchanny hooks — three (2.3%), swords, Celts are single. Sets of weapon in ordinary necropolises are inherent only in heads of family units and meet not more often than on one on a barrow, and they are not in some burial grounds at all, for example: Zdvinsk, Rogozikha-1A, Kirillovka-3, Elunino-1. In the social plan military inventory sets in combination with high labor costs on a funeral are characteristic only of elite groups of burials and indicate indispensable armament of the nobility.

The Bezoruzhnost of the main part of the forest-steppe population of the valley of Ob, lack of regular military formations and ancient settlements indicate very unusual picture for early glands -

leg of a century. The armament of heads of family units was nominal and expressed rather not real, but symbolical function of the male head and defender. Considering ethnocultural specifics of aristocratic necropolises [Matveeva, 1998, page 30], we receive the basis to see in traditions of the Kamensk culture carrying weapon as sign of privileges and belonging to a top. At high armament and activity of boundary sargatets, kulay-ets, juice expressly the peaceful character of the Kamensk culture is represented forced.

In necropolises 111-11 centuries BC the share of the armed men is slightly higher: with metal arrows — 1.8% (from total number buried), with bone — 8%, with daggers — 3.2%, with kolchanny hooks — 2.8%, from chekana — 0.92% [Matveeva, 1998, page 27]. It seems to us that this consequence of emergence of groups of rebels for defense against the coming kulayets and sargatets. In the same Novotroitsk-1 and 2 burial grounds and Maslyakhe-1 the sargatsky influence on a funeral ceremony is traced, and it is possible, there are also burials of migrants. But also a number of late burial grounds have no arms in general, for example, of Milovanovo-2 and Milovanovo-8. On the other hand, the refusal of the room of military sets in ordinary graves could be caused both by deficiency of metal, and great demand for arms objects, i.e. some rationalization of a ceremony under the influence of specific conditions.

Recorded at the population of forest-steppe Priobye earlier, than at men, the age of female mortality is manifestation of the general regularity operating from the most ancient stages of history of mankind. The difference of average ages of death made originally 3 years, then about 5 years in favor of men. This trend consistent with data on gender and age differentiation of a funeral ceremony declines us to assessment of the Kamensk society as patriarchal [Matveeva, 1998, page 27]. In it the population of the Kamensk culture is not allocated from the circle of communities of the early Iron Age of a skifo-Sarmatian circle: Scythians [Sour, 1995, page 115116], tagarets [Kozintsev, 1971, page 152], dzhetyasarets [Buzhilova, Medni-kova, 1993, page 257], sargatets [Matveeva, 1999b, page 89].

20 |---------------------------------------------------------------
16

& #34; & #34;1Мужчины

12
8
4
17-25 years 26-35 years 36-55 years 56-70 years

Fig. 9. Kamensk culture. The schedule of mortality on the burial ground Novotroitsk-1 (in %)

The considerable disparate in data on shares of the female and children's population in necropolises on our materials testifies against the thesis about insufficiency of children and women among the dead and existence of separate female and children's cemeteries stated by M.P. Gryaznov in relation to the destroyed blizhneelbansky necropolises [Gryaznov, 1956, page 57-66] and supported by T.N. Troitska, A.P. Borodovsky [1994, page 81]. On the contrary, the facts of excavation of small kurganchik No. 31 by A.P. Uman-sky only with children's burial as a part of the Novotroitsk-1 burial ground, the general trend of a construction for children of graves, small on depth, without fellings and facings [Matveeva, 1999a, page 120], under floors of embankments and in a ditch [Troitsk, Borodovsky, 1994, page 81] indicate bad safety of such graves because of plowing as the main reason of a disproportion of data. This conclusion, however, does not conflict to existence of separate female, children's or men's barrows as reflection of a specific situation in local group of the population.

Thus, we almost along with A.P. Borodovsky and E.G. Shpakova came to a conclusion about growth of number and a krovoprolitnost of the military conflicts in the south of Western Siberia by the end of the I millennium BC and their significant effect on the general demographic situation [Matveeva, 1998, page 30;

Borodovsky, Shpakova, 1999, page 156]. If to extrapolate data of the observations made by us for the period of the termination of the Kamensk culture in general, then it turns out that the undermined by continuous wars, Kamensk populations appeared incapable of the end of the I millennium BC to resist sargatets in Kulunda, Barab, and to kulayets in the valley of Ob.

This conclusion is confirmed by obvious sargatsky influence on a funeral ceremony of the Barnaul necropolises [Burial grounds, 1997, page 105; Matveeva, 1999a, will also be coordinated by page 121] with opinion M.P. Rykun about the ethnogenetic linkages of the sargatsky and Kamensk population caused by penetration of sargatets from Baraby [Rykun, 1999a, page 85]. Comparison of arms of kulaysky and more-rechensky (Kamensk) tribes also led A.P. Borodovsky and T.N. Troitskaya to a conclusion about military advantage of kulayets [1994, page 83]. In what measure the aggravation of the military conflicts in forest-steppe Priobye in berezovsky time should be connected with hunno-yuechzhiysky collisions and migrations [Borodovsky, etc., 1996, page 32], remains still not clear.

As we know, the kamenets who did not resist kulaysky pressure from the North and conceded a part of the territory were partially assimilated by them in Priobye [Troitsk, 1979; Burial grounds, 1997], and in Kulunda it were possible to assume, probably, are partially divided between other stronger neighbors — sargatets and usunyam.

[1] The author used data as of 1997. The burial ground Rogozikha-1 is divided into conditional chronological groups, and early is designated as Rogozikha-1A, late — as Rogozikha-1 of B.

[2] V.A. Dremov, A.P. Umansky, A.N. Bagashev's Paleoantropologichesky definitions, M.P. Rykun, S.S. Tour. A part of definitions is executed M.P. Rykun and S.S. A tour at the request of the author for what I express them profound gratitude.

[3] The beginning of the reproductive period is usually carried to 15 years.

[4] On materials of 12 burial grounds: Near Elbany-3, 7, 12; Bystrovka-1 and 3; New Sharap-1 and 2; Milovanovo-2 and 8; Zdvinsk; Osintsevo; Myshayla.

[5] Figures designated age groups of men and women: 1 — 17-25 years; 2 — 26-35 years; 3 — 36-55 years; 4 — 56-70 years; for children: 1 — about one year; 2 — 1.1-11 years; 3 — 12-16 years.

to

[6] In cases when the age of buried was determined not advanced in years, and by reference to an age interval, for calculation of age of death took an arithmetic average of this group that corresponds to rules of operating by interval variational series and it was recommended to me V.A. Dremov, namely: for infantilis-1 — 0.5 years; for infantilis-2 — 6 years; for teenagers — 14 years; for uvenilis — 21 years; for adultus — 30.5 years; for maturus — 45.5 years; for senilis — 63 years.

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