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The Russo-Japanese war in consciousness of a general population of Russia at the beginning of XX in

 © 2008 E.A. Gladkaya

The RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR IN CONSCIOUSNESS of the GENERAL POPULATION of RUSSIA at the beginning of the 20th century

Considering the relation to war in wide groups of the Russian population, it must be kept in mind that society was very non-uniform on social, national and religious composition, education level, I will increase, etc. All this, undoubtedly, influenced perception of the events which were taking place in the Far East.

The relation to war in many respects depended also on in what measure the residents of the empire were informed on Japan and Japanese, on the war purposes, on the course of military operations by land and by sea.

Before the war by far-away east country in Russia mainly diplomats, military, scientists-orientalists and a part of the Russian intellectuals which are carried away by art of the island state were interested, the Russian inhabitants practically knew nothing about Japan.

Complete ignorance of the country with which it was necessary to be at war, misunderstanding of the causes of conflict which arose in the Far East confirm materials of memoirs and periodicals. The participant of war A.I. Denikin writes: "While in Japan all people, from the member of the Supreme Privy Council to the last porter, perfectly understood both sense and the purpose of war with Russia... when the feeling of hostility and revenge to the Russian person collected there for years when all spoke about the future war with Russia and everywhere, our enterprises in the Far East were for all a bolt from the blue; their sense was understood only by the very few. Everything that could find out point of the forthcoming collision, the purposes and intentions of the government, either was suppressed, or appeared in the form of messages that everything is safely." [1].

The correspondent of the North Caucasus newspaper wrote about reaction of national layers after the announcement of the manifesto on the entry of Russia to war with Japan: ". Japan?! What Japan?! Remembered from a geography course that Japan is there and there that ten years ago she won against China that in Japan there are no women, and there are only geishas and that all Japanese are macaques." [2].

Tell popular songs which occurred before war about ideas of most of Russians of Japan ("The girl from Nagasaki", etc.). Idealization of an image of east neighbor was closely connected with interest in exotic of Japan.

Speaking about the relation in the Russian society to the Russo-Japanese war, in our opinion, it is necessary to consider that dominating at this stage in the autocratic country was conservative ideology. In the weight the Russians were the law-abiding citizens believing in God and the tsar. Only a part of society took the liberal and Left-wing radical positions. It is not surprising that a considerable part of residents of the country supported the government at the beginning of war, having shown "full confidence of the people to the government and

devotion to the emperor" [3]. It was shown that after declaration of war of an event got national and patriotic coloring. The country was stirred up by news of "treacherous attack of Japanese on the Russian ships". About it the people learned from the manifesto on the entry of Russia in war with Japan. The document demonstrates that all blame for initiation of war was laid "on the artful enemy". Mass patriotic demonstrations in which representatives practically of all population groups took part were a response to the manifesto.

In processions to the Winter Palace, prayers in health of royal family different population groups, etc. participated. Among them there were students and professors of higher educational institutions of the capital.

The North Caucasus newspaper so described the atmosphere of those of days to Stavropol Territory: ". Whether worried on the occasion of the begun war? No, one thousand times is not present. The belief in victorious Russian weapon was strong, and all waited for news of loud and nice victories. On Nikolayevsky Avenue under sounds of bravura music youths without mustache vigorously strode, deliberately loudly discussing the prospects of war. - The Russian weapon is invincible! - told some. - We will shower with caps! - others echoed them. - Will not pass also half a year as our troops will crush the capital of a mikado, - claimed the third. Protesters till the evening walked the streets with singing of the anthem, amicably shouted "ура" and somehow it was not trusted that Russia which was not knowing defeats would not overcome such insignificant people to what Japanese" were presented [2].

As a result of the efforts made by the power at first in the country the patriotic upsurge was felt, there was a confidence in a fast victory over Japan.

However in the first days of war it was obvious that not all unconditionally support the government. On January 31, 1904 in St. Petersburg the students participating in patriotic demonstration, moving a column with singing of the anthem "God Save the Tsar", faced group of students who sang "Marseillaise".

Besides demonstrations, were during the war used and other forms of expression of devotion I reign also to the Fatherland: solemn prayers, letters of congratulations and telegrams, deputations to "the adored monarch".

"the faithful addresses" addressed to the Russian monarch and a number of ministers who arrived from different population groups were popular. On August 18, 1904 the Priazovsky Kray newspaper placed the notice of the army nakazny ataman of the following contents: "The Minister of War notified by the telegram me that on the vsepoddanneyshy report on expression of faithful feelings of the Don nobility and on donation for needs of war the Sovereign Imperator with own hand desired 11 this August

to trace: "I am sincerely grateful to the Don nobility for expression of feeling and donation and for the icon brought today наследнику"" [4].

The telegrams sent to the top military commander, commanders of the ships with wishes of a fast victory were very popular. Their texts were also published in newspapers. The telegram of workers of the Baltic manufactory sent to the commander of the cruiser "Oleg" who was a part of the Second Pacific squadron can be an example. In it it is said: "Workers of the Baltic manufactory... transfer to the admiral Rozhestvensky and a squadron a warm wish in success of the native fleet in a victory over the enemy" [5].

During the Russo-Japanese war material donations in favor of army and the fleet, the help to wounded, etc. became frequent. Donations gathered in many regions of the country, among different population groups. Newspapers dazzled with messages, that from St. Petersburg the car with warm clothes (the 4700th warm an onucha, 500 valenoks, 600 blankets and 509 pairs of boots)" is sent to the Far East "[6]; that pupils of the Platovsky men's gymnasium in Rostov-on-Don raised money for the Red Cross [7]; that by the Taganrog town council within April and May, 1904 it was brought together for needs of wartime 1280 rubles 54 to." [8]. Such examples it is possible to give a set.

Newspapers published messages about the most various forms of the help: Rostov - on - Don the theater "in favor of families of wounded and the killed soldiers in the Far East" gave the performance "In Gagra"; residents of Novocherkassk expressed desire "to offer to the Far East books and magazines" [8].

For maintenance of courage of warring army to the Far East with charity concerts there came the famous actors. The Novosti Dnya newspaper reported: "A.D. Vyaltseva came back from the Far East. In Harbin she gave several concerts in favor of "the Red Cross" and gained from them 40,000 rub" [9].

Throughout war the voluntary movement was observed. Volunteers the field was taken by many health workers. On fronts there were doctors, nurses and paramedics from different regions of the country. "The Moscow leaf" reported on December 12, 1904 about the nurse Yakovenko-Yakovleva who voluntarily was at the front, was involved in battle at the station Liaoyang, helping wounded under fire; in 1909 the Vestnik Europy magazine (prince 9) placed on the pages of reminiscence of the nurse who voluntarily left on the front.

Among volunteers there were famous publicists, such as N. Garin (Mikhaylovsky) and V.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko. Also the artist V.V. Vereshchagin who shared lot of Petropavlovsk appeared the volunteer. The Russkoye Slovo newspaper informed that L.N. Tolstoy's son Andrey Lvovich "arrived voluntarily we volnoopredelyayushchitsya" [10]. Newspapers repeatedly wrote about the young men who were running away from the house with hope to reach the Far East to be involved in military operations. "The Moscow leaf" reported that "two this -

nadtsatiletny young men disappeared from the house. Went to war. Are detained in Simbirsk, are delivered to Moscow" [11].

For understanding of mood of a wide people at large during war an important role was played by a question of in what measure they were informed on military operations in the Far East. The main source of information on what occurs at the front were newspapers which enjoyed wide popularity at city dwellers. The "thick" social and political magazines appearing monthly were not in time behind events. Besides, they were expensive to commonalty.

For inhabitants of rural areas the degree of knowledge of war depended on remoteness of the settlement from the cultural centers. However from the peasants who were coming back from the cities from the earnings happening in taverns where they could read newspapers or listen to reading competent people, villagers learned military news.

Contents of the newspapers "Novoye Vremya", Russia, "Moscow Leaf", "Russian Word", "Daily news", etc. show that irrespective of the political direction, subacceptable editions had no opportunity to give accurate and full information. It is necessary to remember that in the years of war censorship was strengthened.

The large role for growth of popularity of the newspaper was played by popularity of her correspondents in reader's circles. On the battlefield there were more than 25 special correspondents from different Russian newspapers. Among them there was such conventional "master of a feather" as V.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko. For several months 1904-1905 he kept a diary from which fragments were published in the free application to the Birzhevye Vedomosti newspaper - "The diary of war" [12].

Among war correspondents there was a writer N. Garin (Mikhaylovsky), the journalist and the artist Kravchenko, the correspondent of "The Russian word" A. Lody-zhensky, the Russia newspapers - N. Kuchinsky, etc. The official newspaper of the Ministry of Defence "Russian disabled person" was submitted podjesaul by P.N. Krasnov.

Also foreign correspondents followed the developments. The Russian newspapers quite often used materials of correspondents of the Reiter agency, reprinted notes from the newspapers "Times", Daily Telegraph, "Associated Press", "Berliner Zeitung", etc.

For informing the population of the newspaper entered constant headings: "War", "In Manchuria", "Near Mukden", "From sea theater of war", "On the overland battlefield", "From our war correspondents", etc.

In spite of the fact that in the majority of newspapers there were daily messages from fronts to understand to residents of Russia that it really happens in the Far East, it was extremely difficult. M. Surin wrote about it: "Hardly the rural reader understands weight contradictory and obviously false news from theater of war and does not know to what now to trust" [13, page 6].

Most of war correspondents in 1904 wrote that "serious fighting collisions were not"; "the Japanese trying to step on our advanced parts were beaten off by fire everywhere"; "mood of our troops, in a look udach, excellent. In the Japanese troops the energy decline is noticeable, - many give up in captivity.", etc. [14]. On the battlefield of the newspaper held back the true situation.

Defense of Port Arthur became one of the most heroic and tragic pages of war. As well as messages from fronts, the data arriving from Port Arthur were not full. Often newspapers used materials of the foreign correspondents who had access to information obtained from the Japanese sources.

From the very beginning of the events connected with defense of Port Arthur, the newspaper, informing the readers, tried to assure them that Port Arthur will manage to stand. "The Azov region" in June, 1904 wrote that "position of the Russian fleet in Port Arthur is incomparably more brilliant also more favorable now, than in the first days after treacherous attack of Japanese - 4 months ago" [15]. On the contrary, the provision of a squadron of the admiral of Togo considerably worsened.

In October the tone of the newspaper changed a little. It was reported that blockade of Port Arthur, "in which is 5000 people, it is supported very vigorously"; that Japanese intercepted all vessels and even junks which tried to escape from fortress; that her defenders "have no warm clothes, the lack of footwear is especially felt; soldiers a part wear the Chinese boots, often walk in footcloths. The garrison is exhausted by continuous fight. The city is crowded with wounded..." [15].

November issues of newspapers were full contradictory messages about events in Port Arthur. Wrote that "Japanese took control of the Russian trenches before two forts", and at the same time that "Japanese suffered several large failures last week, and move ahead not so soon as expected" that "all forts are in our hands", etc.

Disturbing messages that fighting supplies in Port Arthur on an outcome were published in December issues of newspapers; "the port-artursky squadron perishes slow death, shot from fatal height in 203 m"; "the situation of garrison becomes desperate", and "it is possible to expect delivery of fortress any day" [16]. It was difficult to understand to the reader, ignorant of military affairs, in what occurs in fortress.

Notifying readers in Russia on a situation in Port Arthur, the Russkoye Slovo newspapers, Russia, "St. Petersburg Leaf", "Daily news", etc. constantly reported about heroism "the nice garrison exhausted, the patient melting daily", but continuing "the feat", wrote about the bravery shown by his defenders ready to battle "to a man".

After on December 20 in 4 h 30 min. A.M. Stes-selem and A.V. Foky signed the act of delivery of fortress,

"The Russian word" reported about it next day, having given terms of surrender. In two days the message was published in the newspaper that on the Council of War in Artur "two opinions dominated: one about delivery, and another asking truces and to leave to the second line of strengthening. The first since it was difficult to stick to more than a day there triumphed. In garrison the typhoid, a scurvy raged.".

Since the beginning of January the Russkoye Slovo newspaper entered the new heading "Capitulation of Port Arthur". Data that "524 Russian officers released on the word of honor are sent by the French steamship to Russia" were provided in it; that Japanese evacuated "our over 2500 wounded" to Chifa that "the decree of a mikado it is authorized to call on a salary captured Russian doctors for treatment of the Russian prisoners", etc. Besides, "The Russian word" gave "exact figures of our killed and wounded for the last Russo-Japanese war". According to the newspaper, it was killed: officers - 646, the soldier - 18,530; wounded: officers - 3,689, the soldier - 115,556; was taken prisoner: officers - 4,946, the soldier - 175,000 [16]. Official figures show that human losses were 270 thousand people, including 50 thousand been killed in battles. Japan lost also 270 thousand, including 86 thousand the dead [17]. As we see, data of newspapers were far from reality.

In Russia the message about falling of Port Arthur caused the real shock. Newspapers and magazines of the different directions with indignation wrote about delivery of Port Arthur which could resist still the enemy, about treachery Stesselya and Foka. Among responsible called also the general Kuropatkin.

"With falling of Port Arthur, - the military publicist V. Novitsky wrote, - all felt that some inner meaning of our fight against Japan and from this day is lost. the whole country began to turn away from this war as some boring, everything the bothered and hopeless enterprise." [18].

Data on courage of soldiers, sailors and officers who repeatedly showed mass heroism and firmness could not soften feeling of bitterness from defeats of the Russian troops. Failures of the Russian army, obvious incompetence of military leaders, certainly, were reflected in the general mentality of the Russian society. The confidence in invincibility of the Russian weapon existing in it at the beginning of war cruelly was deceived. The disappointment and bitterness were even stronger from the fact that defeat was inflicted by "small and backward" the Asian country.

It was difficult for the ordinary person sacredly trusting the printed word to understand why the newspapers still yesterday writing that fortress will stand the very next day after falling of Port Arthur began to accuse of it everyone. Really after delivery of fortress search of guilty persons began. Articles which authors were indignant with publicists, "fooling the heads" to public, or "in a false manner understanding the debt", or "false understanding true patriotism" were published in newspapers. So, "Daily news" in a note

"Port Arthur fell." wrote: "This sad message was a little unexpected. We so many time read that all storms are beaten off that all forts in our hands!... And meanwhile it was obvious to the people able to read and wishing to penetrate soberly that no heroism of garrison will save distressful fortress that slowly, but gradually and truly Japanese approach the purpose" [19].

Falling of Port Arthur was shown in mistrust of the population of the country to the government. M. Surin wrote that the people "obediently endured the war hardships, fondly trusting all reports on our imaginary victories; but here it turns out that all this there was a lie that victories any were not, and were and there are defeats alone. - That it means, the depressed inhabitant thinks and pronounces a word - "измена""! [13, page 6].

The political atmosphere in Russia began to be heated not only from the fact that war led to noticeable deterioration in financial position of masses. Undoubtedly, also sense of shame for those who cannot achieve a victory in the Far East affected.

After capitulation of Port Arthur the hopes of the Russian society were directed on the Russian army again. In the back considered that the following large battle in Manchuria will surely bring a victory to the Russian weapon. M. Surin writes that when war adopted "the worst provision for Russia and offended national self-esteem. the people began to support continuation of war with the victorious termination that other people did not laugh at us" [13, page 16].

On the eve of the largest Mukden battle of the newspaper in the history of the Russo-Japanese war again, as before, calmed society, assured that the victory is inevitable. Within November - December, 1904 information of newspapers came down to phrases: "Situation on the battlefield still uncertain"; "near Mukden without changes"; "on positions calm..., there are almost. no wounded, people are full, vigorous, healthy."; "every day - mighty inflow of fresh forces to army from Russia", "our hunters continue to capture daily semi-frozen Japanese", etc. [20]. Thereby the courage and readiness for further fight of soldiers of the Russian army was shown. All this had to calm, according to the authorities, those who were far from Manchurian events.

From February 5 to February 25, 1905 when near Mukden bloody fights were going, no disturbing messages in newspapers existed. Still wrote about days of "painful calm", that Japanese "try to come, but sluggishly and indecisively" that "position of armies without changes", etc. Only on February 24-25 the Russkoye Slovo newspaper notified on "bloody fights" near Mukden, having notified that as a result of battle, "successful for the Japanese army", Russians "were forced out from important positions" [20].

Also the newspapers "Russia", "Daily news" did not give full accurate information on the Mukden events, etc. on March 2-3 the Novosti Dnya newspaper wrote about derogation of the Russian army from Mukden. At the same time

it was noted that "spirit of troops vigorous" that "the bigger loss", than to Russian is caused to Japanese three times [20]. This success, the newspaper writes, "gave to Japanese a lot of self-confidence. They quickly recover from the losses suffered near Mukden". The Russia newspaper called war "the bloody drama between white and yellow race" [21].

Avaricious information of newspapers did not promote that the people who did not have access to real data on events the front could understand them. Naturally, it is difficult to track direct link between information obtained in the back and reaction of the population to it. However it is known that after defeat near Mukden the newspapers printed messages about attacks of hooligans on officers. It demonstrates to negative attitude to the army suffering a defeat in certain circles of the population.

An important source which promotes clarification of the relation of a general population to war are letters of soldiers, sailors and officers-combatants. They contain the capacious information allowing inhabitants of the back to judge more objectively position of the Russian army and fleet in the Far East, transfer mood of participants of war.

Undoubted interest is attracted by the letters of the naval officer V.N. Cherkasov directed to his wife. The officer serving as the gunner on the eskadrenny Peresvet battleship, and then on the cruiser "Sevastopol" kept a diary. Cherkasov's letters contain invaluable data on the events which were taking place in Port Arthur from the very beginning of war. They help to understand the relation in the officer environment to commanders, war, to Japanese [22].

The officer describes attempts of the fleet to escape from fortress. On March 9 he wrote ". Now we will try to put out to sea. There will be a fight. Japanese - 17 ships. We are absolutely ready to fight, and, God will give, the fate of Japanese will finally be decided today - I am confident in our victory.". In the following letter, March 14, he noted: "We wander as in darkness, we do not know where Japanese and that they start. Makarov does not recognize small water, in any water we come for raid. and terribly are afraid of the fleet of our Japanese and now get away. Of course, I do not believe in what Japanese can come and occupy Artur, but, perhaps, they will manage to cut off him for a while" [22].

Even these small fragments from Cherkasov's letters show their importance for studying psychological state of the Russian sailors locked in Port Arthur.

The Priazovsky Kray newspaper reprinted article of the correspondent of the Novosti Dnya newspaper writing under the pseudonym "Wanderer" (by means of the dictionary of pseudonyms of I.F. Masanov it was established that O.Ya. Baltermants was the author of a note). It gives lines from the letter of the officer who was at war in Manchuria, sent to mother to Kislovodsk. It contains data on a moral and psychological condition of the people who were directly involved in fights. Addressing mother, the officer writes: "You, to -

nechno, would like to know what I felt in fight? I will tell you on the truth, both all and anything. The first bullets sounded terribly, terribly so deafly plopped down around, but did not pass also half an hour - as the health changed. All past was gone - and all future ceased to concern. Any thought of death. There was a wish to move, run, shout, shoot forward, forward!. The groan is near. Nothing! Farewell, brother! There is no time to cry!." [23]. So selflessly not one Russian officer who was believing in a victory, considering retreat of the Russian army a temporary phenomenon battled.

the Peculiar source characterizing the relation of various population groups to the Russo-Japanese war are literary and folklore works. Verses by Ya. Repninsky "Became widely known splash cold waves", also the verses by R. Greynts of "Memory of the Varangian" which became songs [24] enjoyed wide popularity.

The beginning of war found reflection in the folk songs, chastushkas carrying obvious hurrah - patriotic character. In the majority of similar works the confidence in a fast and easy victory of the Russian troops over the enemy, a sneer at it, etc. was looked through. It is possible to carry such to their number:

"Harness, daddy, hens, We will go to Port Arthur. To us Japanese - we Will replace a brick at all. We will replace the Japanese, to the Tsar we will render glory. We will not be happy that, And yes to the Turk we will win" [25, page 136].

About the changed attitude to war as the Russian armed forces suffered one defeat behind another, tells the changed tone of folklore works. In songs and chastushkas the attitude towards those who in Russia were considered responsible for failures at the front was reflected. Such chastushkas were popular:

"Kuropatkin-general Vse of an icon collected. Peele yes ate and fried hens - Protranzhiril Port Arthur". [25, page 137].

After capitulation of Port Arthur numerous anonymous alterations of songs, popular in the people, under the title "Soldier's song" began to appear. In them not only Stessel who handed over fortress but also the tsar were exposed to criticism. On motive of "Pedlars" or "There was a business near Poltava" was sung:

"There was a business under Artur - gloomy, friends. Togas, Legs, Kamimura did not give us life. Komendant baron von Stessel looked yes considered: - It is very interesting to take the capital from Japanese. The tsar with ministers trade, mother Rasseyu sell, - Why, he marakut, d, yekh, not to sell to me

Port Arthur!."

etc. [26, page 666-667].

In national consciousness of Russians the opinion on the one who is guilty of military accident was strongly approved. It found reflection in satirical verses, fables, jokes, parodies, ballads. Their creators were both writers, and anonymous authors, famous in Russia. The frank satire could not become property of the press therefore many works extended in lists. All this demonstrated strengthening of antimonarchical moods in Russia, falling of the authority of supreme authority.

Satirical verses appeared already by the end of 1904. The poem "Awakening of the Stream" by V.A. Zorgenfrey, "Nicholas II's letter to Wilhelm II" [26, page 43], the ballad "Revival of the Fleet" [26, page 479-481], the poem by the poet and playwright V.A. Dmitriyev "From an album of the visiting foreigner" [26, page 227], etc. belongs to their number

The considerable resonance was caused by verses by the poet symbolist K. Balmont. In April, 1906 he indignantly "branded" the tsar:

"Our tsar - Mukden, our tsar - Tsushima,

Our tsar - a bloody spot, a stench of gunpowder and smoke,

In which to reason it is dark.

He is a coward, he feels with a halt,

But will be, the day of reckoning waits.

Who began to reign Khodynka,

That will terminate, having risen on a scaffold" [26, page 120].

These verses show that military accident played a role in rapid "leftward shift" of the intellectuals - the poetic leaflet of Balmont to that the graphic evidence. Directly, the tsar is in plain terms called the main responsible for defeat in war. It is natural that the similar poem could be published only abroad. The works confirming loss of the authority by the power there was a set.

Events of the Russo-Japanese war found reflection in a number of art literary works. Part of them was written by participants of events soon after conclusion of peace with Japan, others were created later both on the basis of the personal impressions, and with attraction of archive materials. These circumstances allow to consider fiction as a source for studying those changes in national consciousness of Russians who caused damage in war with Japan.

Thus, materials of periodicals, letters of participants of war and other sources rightfully allow to say that among the Russians who were not involved in war the noticeable evolution in the relation to the Russo-Japanese war was observed. At the beginning of its many supported the tsar, participating in patriotic demonstrations, giving material and moral support warring army and to the fleet, etc., however already by the end of 1904 manifestations of negative moods in relation to those became noticeable,

who ordered armed forces of the country, terr- 11. The Moscow leaf. 1904. 27 noyab.; 1905. March 12;

pyashchy one defeat behind another. Especially considerably Russian word. 1904. 14 noyab.; Daily news. 1904.

the mood of Russians after delivery Port- Changed March 12.

Artur and defeat of the fleet in the Tsushima battle. 12. V.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko. From the marching diary

These events caused sharp rejection wide //The diary of war. 1904. No. 2, 3; 1905. No. 2, 28.

circles of the Russian society internal and external 13. M. Surin. War and village. 1907.

autocracy policy that begun- 14. Confirmed a daily news. 1904. Sep. 27-30; On Oct. 8, 11

sya in the country revolution. 15. Azov region. 1904. No. 143.

16. Russian word. 1904. Sep. 28; Oct. 8; 3.4 noyab.; Dec. 21;

Literature Oct. 13; 14 noyab.; Daily news. 1905. Dec. 16, 23; On Jan. 2

17. V.A. Fedorov. History of Russia 1861-1917. M, 1998.
1. A.I. Denikin. Way of the Russian officer. M, 1991. Page 98. of page 225.
2. North Caucasus. 1904. No. 97. 18. ApushkinV.A. Russo-Japanese war. M, 1910. Page 165.
3. Daily news. 1904. Oct. 2 19. Daily news. 1904. On Dec. 21
4. Azov region. 1904. No. 218. 20. Russian word. 1904. Dec. 7; 1905. January 5, 28; 24,
5. Russia. 1904. Dec. 8 Feb. 25; Daily news. 1905. March 2, 3.
6. Daily news. 1904. Oct. 27 21. Russia. 1905. On Feb. 27
7. V.P. Yadritsov. Pupils of averages educational zavede- 22. Daily news. 1905. On Feb. 28

Don niya in social movement of 1901-1907 23. The Azov region. 1904. No. 226.

Rostov N / D, 2004. Page 111. 24. Songs and romances by the Russian poets. M.; L., 1965.

8. Azov region. 1904. No. 147, 146. pages 885-886.
9. Daily news. 1904. Dec. 13 25. Chastushkas. Library of the Russian folklore. T. 9.
10. Russian word. 1904. Dec. 2 M, 1990.
26. Poetic satire of the first Russian revolution

(1905-1907). L., 1969.

Pedagogical Institute of Southern Federal University On September 13, 2007

Scott Byron
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