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Contribution of department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 2 KGMU in development of the Kazan school of obstetricians-gynecologists



ISTORIYA MEDITSINA

UDC 61 (091)

CONTRIBUTION of DEPARTMENT of OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY No. 2 of KGMU To DEVELOPMENT of the KAZAN SCHOOL of OBSTETRICIANS-GYNECOLOGISTS

I.F. Fatkullin, L.A. Kozlov. Z.R. Vafina

Department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 3 (manager. — prof. I.F. Fatkullin), department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 1 (manager. — prof. A.A. Chasanoff) Kazan state

medical university

Each teacher has pupils, but not everyone becomes the founder of big school. Sergeyevich Gruzdev who accepted department after moving to St. Petersburg of H.H became the special personality in the history of domestic medicine Victorine. Fenomenov, headed her from 1900 to 1931 and was a founder of the Kazan obstetric and gynecologic school. To become history as the founder of school when such persons as the pupil of H.H were his predecessors. Pi-rogova Alexander Aleksandrovich Kiter (further the founder of department of obstetrics of the St. Petersburg medico-surgical academy), pupils A.Ya. Kronid Fedorovich Krasovskogo Slavyansky, Vasily Markovic Florinsky (subsequently the organizer of the Tomsk university) and especially much Nikolay Nikolaevich Fenomenov who made for Kazan, it was necessary to be really outstanding personality. There is no such section in the field of gynecology and obstetrics which would not draw attention of V.S. Gruzdev and where he would not take creative part.

As the pupil and V.S. Gruzdev's successor Pavel Vasilyevich Manenkov notes, the scientific principles of gruzdevsky school consisted, first, in carrying out basic researches and studying theoretical questions of obstetrics and gynecology (embryology, anatomy, physiology, bacteriology, pharmacology), secondly, in formation of the clinical direction based on a harmonious combination of theoretical and clinical trials on the most almost significant problems of specialty. The Kazan obstetric and gynecologic school follows these principles and until now.

V.S. Gruzdev's school totals about 50 pupils, many of which created the scientific directions in 11 cities of the country, carrying on the traditions put by the teacher. The history of emergence of the second department of obstetrics and gynecology of the Kazan medical institute is connected with a name of one of them — Nvan Fedorovich Kozlov —.

In 1931 the prof. V.S. Gruzdev turns into the status of the consultant and gives management of department to the pupil Pavel Vasilyevich Manenkov. In the same time (1932) at institute the new faculty of protection of motherhood, an infancy and childhood and new departments open.

Due to the big tension and responsibility of educational process in an obstetrics and gynecology the decision on creation since September 1, 1933 of the second department on studying this subject is made. So there is a department of obstetrics and gynecology of pediatric faculty which continues to be located on one base with department of medical faculty, namely in V.S. Gruzdev's clinic up to 1943 Due to the features of wartime and departure to field army of many staff of institute, including the head of the department Garif Muginovich Sharafutdinov, the department stops the work. Again it is restored in 1951 as department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 2, but already on the basis of maternity hospital No. 5 of Kazan (nowadays city hospital No. 20) for training of students of pediatric, sanitary and hygienic and dental faculties.

From the moment of emergence of department the position of the manager was held consistently by pupils V.S. Nvan Fedorovich Gruzdev Kozlov (1933 — 1939), Garif Muginovich Sharafut-dinov (1939 — 1942 and 1951 — 1954), Husain Ha-limovich Meshcherov (1954 — 1969), pupils P.V. Ma-nenkova Zaynab Nazipovna Якубова (1969— 1984) and Bakhram Gazizovich Sadykov (1984 — 1995). Since 1995 the head of the department is the prof. Nldar Faridovich Fatkullin. In different years, associate professors Z.Che. Gui-lyazutdinova, F.A. Miftakhova, N.F. Polyakov, R.S. Zamaleeva, assistants, L.G. Sotnikova, Yu.P. Gracheva, Z.S. Sharafutdinova, K.A. Yurko, N.A. Shamova, L.F. Shilova, N.K. Bayteryak, B.M. Koshkin, G.A. Semennikova, S.Sh. Sattarova, etc. worked at department

The main scientific directions of department were continuation of search and V.S. Gruzdev's ideas.

Oncological direction. It is traditional starting with A.A. Kiter who, being the head of the department of surgery of medical faculty of the Kazan university, in 1842 performed successful operation of removal through a vagina of a cancer-stricken uterus. At the beginning of the XX century under the leadership of V.S. Gruzdev researches of influence of radiation therapy on tumors of female genitals begin. Discovery of radioactive radiation and activity of scientists Kazan

the imperial university played here not the last role. B.C. Gruzdev was one of the Russia's first, applied radium to cancer therapy of a uterus, and medicine was acquired by it personally from Zh. Curie. This referral was got by continuation in works of his pupils including. F. Kozlov and H.H. Meshcherov. B.C. Gruzdev suggested I.F. Kozlov to study influence of X-rays on a uterus of animals. The last, having opened an abdominal cavity of females of rabbits, irradiated one horn of a uterus. Having described the changes which arose in a uterus as a result of radiation in 1 — 2 month, I.F. Kozlov managed to prove direct impact of X-rays on tissue of a uterus and to explain the mechanism of therapeutic action of X-rays at fibromyomas. This work performed by Ivan Fedorovich Kozlov is noted as outstanding achievement in the multivolume guide to obstetrics and gynecology in volume & #34; Historical development of obstetrics and gynecology...".

The fate of the prof. I.F. Kozlov is interesting. He was born in the Samara province in a large country family, studied in the Saratov gymnasium. B of 1907 the young man arrived on medical faculty of the Kazan university. Then follow work as the territorial doctor, supernumerary intern in obstetric and gynecologic clinic of medical institute, mobilization in army in 1914, service in the revolutionary Red Army where for 3 years it grew to a position of the chief of sanitary management of the Volga Military District. B the same time of revolutionary hard times I.F. Kozlov combined work on military sanitary business with medical and teaching work at department at B.C. Gruzdev and then was prepared by fundamental work & #34; About influence of X-rays on a uterus животных" for which in 1921 received degree of the doctor of medicine. Follow it election at a position of the privatdozent, a training in Moscow and in Germany, work at the Omsk medical institute and, at last, return to Kazan to a position of professor of obstetric and gynecologic clinic GIDUVA and the assistant in B.C clinic. Gruzdeva. B of 1933 is assigned to it management of again formed department. 1942 — 1944 — time of its work as the director of the Kazan institute of improvement of doctors.

B with the name Husai-na Halimovich Meshcherov. A sort from wealthy family, got a fine education, knowing the Arab and Turkish languages, in perfection H.H. Meshcherov knowing Russian was one of outstanding personalities in the environment of the Tatar scientific intellectuals. Pupil of B.C. Gruzdeva and the associate professor at the beginning of war becomes the chief surgeon evakogospitalya the Red Army in Kazan. Without looking

on big employment (work as a time for 20 hours a day, hundreds of heavy operations), H.H. Meshcherov's house was the center of gravity of many intellectuals of Kazan. Academicians Krylov and Kapitsa working in Kazan in evacuation were his frequent guests. The academician Kapitsa made recalculation of an effective dose of that radium that it was acquired by Gruzdev from famous Zh. Curie and in many respects caused success of works of future professor.

Husain Halimovich Meshcherov fruitfully managed department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 2 from 1954 to 1969. Under its management there were such directions as perinatology and antenatal protection of a fruit, gynecology of children's age, health protection of women on production, studying gestoses (L.G. Sotnikov).

The endocrinological direction was originally put by B.C. Gruzdev and his pupil A.I. Timofeev, and at department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 2 it is connected with a name of Garif Muginovich Sharafutdinov who became to her managers in 1939. B to work & #34; To a question of functional development яичника" it conducted a morphological research of the follicular device and specified features of hormonal activity of this body. Eight serious scientific works devoted to functioning of endocrine glands issued from its pen.

On days of the Great Patriotic War, unlucky for the country, G.M. Sharafutdinov, having left teaching work, leaves on the front in a rank of the lieutenant colonel of health service and is involved in fighting of the 1st shock army and it is awarded the order fighting the Red Star. In 1951 it starts management of department again and develops the main clinical base in maternity hospital No. 5 of Kazan (nowadays city hospital No. 20).

Questions of gynecologic endocrinology were developed also by the assistant to department N.A. Shamova. She studied immunological methods of diagnostics of pregnancy and, in particular, showed their high informational content for early diagnostics of not developing pregnancy before emergence of its clinical signs.

In 1969 the department was headed by professor of Darlings emb. Nazipovna Yakubova. The clever and beautiful woman, the person with big talents, Nazipovn's Darlings emb. left a bright mark in the history of the Kazan medical school. She became the USSR's first Tatar female awarded an academic status of professor in an obstetrics and gynecology. Work of department gained accurate practical orientation. Sharply the number of clinical bases increased — the department headed treatment-and-prophylactic work in 6 maternity hospitals and women's a game -

sultation. Laboratory on toxoplasmosis, the Republican center for prevention of unwanted pregnancy and its branches for the republic were created. In scientific activity the main emphasis was put on development of almost significant questions — on prevention and therapy of obstetric bleedings and anomalies of patrimonial activity, conducting childbirth in pelvic presentation, to treatment of infertility. Big popularity departments got three scientific referrals: regulation of sokratitelny activity of a uterus, intrauterine contraception and prevention of professional incidence at women in the industry. Z.N. Yakubova took active public and living position, went over the country much and went abroad as the member of the committee of the Soviet women, the member of the Supreme Court of RSFSR.

Such direction as immunoconflict pregnancy and a neurosensitization, is connected with a name of Bakhram Gazizovich Sadykov. In 1957 at department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 2 Kazan GIDUVA Z.Sh. Gilyazut-dinova and her colleagues began study a Rhesus factor conflict in obstetric practice. The prof. P.V. Manenkov managing at that time department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 1 KGMI, having studied publications of domestic and foreign scientists and the first experience of study a Rhesus factor conflict in Kazan, with insight peculiar to it came to conclusion about need of detailed development of this question. In the expected results of this work he saw a real possibility of decrease in perinatal mortality at this pathology and put a lot of effort for the organization of scientific development of questions of immunology of pregnancy. Practical execution conceived was entrusted to the doctor B.G. Sa-dykov who successfully defended candidate and doctor's dissertations on this problem. He devoted more than 40 years to studying this scientific and practical problem. The carried-out work allowed to develop maintaining tactics a Rhesus factor - conflict pregnancy, and creation of the center and laboratory for immunoconflict pregnancy — is significant to improve perinatal outcomes. For this section of scientific researches B.G. Sadykov was conferred the State award RT. More than 20 years Bakhram Gazizovich department of obstetrics and gynecology No. 2 (from 1984 to 1995) and still him managed

remember as the Person from capital letter who had high internal culture, softness and intelligence as highly skilled doctor and as the talented scientist who prepared many pupils. In difficult years of reorganization and revaluation of values thanks to him at department the spirit of association and goodwill to students at simultaneous honoring of academism and love for a subject were kept.

Since 1995 the prof. Ildar Fa-ridovich Fatkullin manages department. Traditionally developed directions of department were complemented with new:

• Development of a problem of an abdominal rodorazresheniye in modern obstetrics.

• Preparation, conducting pregnancy and childbirth at women with the operated uterus.

• Development and deployment of modern methods of diagnostics and treatment of a gestosis.

• Treatment of extra-uterine pregnancy and rehabilitation.

• Studying opportunities of use of laser radiation in obstetrics and gynecology.

In 1995 the prof. I.F. Fatkullin was appointed to the position of the clinical director, and thus in practice the idea of integration of medical and diagnostic, pedagogical and research processes in one institution — clinical maternity hospital No. 1 of Kazan was realized. Only in recent years at department 3 doctor's and 12 master's theses are prepared for protection, 75 young doctors had post-degree training. Today the honored doctor of the Russian Federation and RT the associate professor F.A. Mifta-Hove, the honored doctor of RT assistant R.S. Ba-ryshkina, assistants A.F. Subkhankulova, R.I. Ga-bidullina, I.R. Galimova, S.V. Fedotov, G.R. Ba-siashvili, the laboratory doctor S.K. Khusainova, the laboratory assistant A.V. Katsapina work at department which was 70 years old.

Thus, the department carries on traditions of the Kazan school of sciences and regards as of paramount importance a combination of methodology of the university science based, on the one hand, on an experiment, studying morphology and a pathophysiology of processes, and to another — on accurate practical orientation of results of works, their primary importance for practical health care.

Arrived 16.12.03.

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