The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

CONFESSIONAL FEATURES of INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN TURKESTAN (1910-1916)



ivan VOLKOV

CONFESSIONAL FEATURES of INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN TURKESTAN

(1910-1916)

At implementation of policy of tsar's authorities on integration of Turkestan into the Russian Empire the initial aspiration to encourage migration from Russia of the orthodox population was the major aspect. However the question of a possibility of resettlement to Turkestan of sectarians most was particularly acute.

The Tsarist policy of Turkestan’s integration into the Russian Empire was strongly influenced by the initial intention of central authorities to encourage Russian Orthodox population’s migration to the region. The most pressing issue was related to the possibility of different sectarian minorities being re-settled in Turkestan.

resettlement policy, integration, Russian Empire, Turkestan, sectarians, Old Believers; emigratory policy, Russian empire, Turkestan, sectarians, Old Believers.

Modern integration of Central Asia into world globalization processes has deep historical roots which can only be understood having addressed the past of the region.

A part of Central Asia (Russian Turkestan) before accession to Russia was not a subject of world integration processes. Integration experience (as well as economic development) was received by it within the Russian Empire. Let's note that, according to the Minister of Internal Affairs D.A. Tolstoy (1882 — 1889), "The Turkestan region represents an example of the colony rare in the history existing at the expense of the mother country" 1. And in 1912 the royal minister A.V. Krivo-shein, the head of Resettlement management, in the report "Is profitable or unprofitable for treasury Turkestan?" noted that the period of possession of Turkestan cost Russia more than 140 million rubles, apart from, for example, "extraordinary" expenses — constructions of the railroad costing 164 million rubles. At the same time the Orenburg and Tashkent railroad made considerable profit first of all for Muslims of edge.

In addition the Muslim population of Turkestan not only did not participate on an equal basis with other regions of Russia in nation-wide expenses and repayment of public debts, but also till 1907 even received from treasury benefits "for the daily needs" 2.

In this article we wanted to stop on some confessional features of integration processes in Turkestan. The initial aspiration to encourage migration of the orthodox population from Russia was the most important aspect of implementation of policy of tsar's authorities for integration of Turkestan into the Russian Empire. On the report of the military governor of the Semirechensky Region for 1904 concerning the device of the arrived immigrants Nicholas II wrote: "It is necessary to move persistently colonization of this edge" 3.

However at the same time resettlement to the Turkestan Governorate-General of the Russian sectarians and Old Believers was forbidden. After re-

1 Cuttings from newspapers across Turkestan, l are R1ADA, f.1385, op.1, 641. 62a.
2 P.P. Litvinov. The state and Islam in the Russian Turkestan. — Yelets, 1999, building 50.
3 P. Sharova. Resettlement policy of a tsarism in Central Asia//Historical notes, No. 8, 1940, p. 4, 5.

WOLVES

Ivan Vasilyevich is a candidate of political sciences

a volyution of 1905 the prime minister and at the same time the Minister of Internal Affairs P.A. Stolypin (1906 — 1911) adhered to the position directed to toughening of restrictions on immigrants — adherents of all "anti-orthodox" currents in Christianity. Including sectarianism some kind of "religious and revolutionary" element, Stolypin sought not to allow his penetrations into those regions of Russia where positions of a tsarism were insufficiently strong.

Also other high-ranking officials of the Russian Empire adhered to this position. So, one of heads of the Ministry of Finance A. Frey noted that in the Turkestan region in the face of the vast majority of Muslims "we have to be strong, and we will be strong only when we are united by one dominating religion in its main purity, out of bogoiskatelny stratification on sects and rumors" 1.

However, despite an explicit position of the central authorities, at the regional, regional and district levels dispersion of opinions on that to move sectarians to Turkestan or not, it was extremely big.

Was in the Turkestan administration understanding that the resettlement question represents exclusive importance for integration of the Turkestan region where against 6 million Muslims there live only 200 thousand Russian people many officials defending a possibility of more large-scale resettlement of sectarians in the region and even addressing in this occasion to the highest government authorities. In this regard the following example is characteristic.

On November 6, 1910 for the Turkestan governor general A.V. Samsonov (1909 — 1914) his office prepared the report "About the list of the Russian immigrants, the most desirable for colonization of the Turkestan region" in which the opinion of the Turkestan administration on the issue of resettlement to the region of sectarians and Old Believers was stated. It was submitted by Samsonov for consideration of Council of the Turkestan governor general. Council at the meeting of January 13, 1911 recorded the following provision: "To allow resettlement on free lands in areas of the Turkestan Governorate-General on the general basis with persons orthodox

1 CGA RUz, t. I-7 (Management of agriculture and gosimu-shchestvo of the Turkestan region), op.1, 5146, l. 6.

go religions as well followers of all religious sects which are not recognized harmful" 2.

However this point was not approved by the governor general who categorically said: "I consider inadmissible the settlement of sectarians, except for Old Believers. As for to the sectarians who are already installed in the region, the decision on them has to be provided to the Turkestan general governor" 3.

The special right to draw Samsonova on own point of view gave categorically negative relation of administration of the Semirechensky Region to resettlement of inoslavny. And the opinion Semirechya was opinion of most of Russians in Turkestan (two thirds of all Russian population of the region lived in area). And it were mainly constantly living Cossacks, peasants and petty bourgeoises while in the Syr Darya and Fergana Region the temporary military and the official contingent was prevailing.

Taken place on January 23, 1912 in. True (Alma-Ata) the meeting of district chiefs and managers of resettlement subdistricts made the decision to try to obtain absolute prohibition to sectarians to move in limits Semirechya. This movement the bishop Turkestan and Tashkent (1906 — 1912) Dimitrii (prince D.I. Abashidze) at whom the number of temples in Turkestan increased more than twice (from 78 to 161) inspired and the publication "Turkestan diocesan sheets" began to be published.

On February 4, 1912 the bishop Dimitrii wrote the developed letter to the chief prosecutor of the Sacred Synod in which reported about "danger of gain" of the Turkestan region by sectarians and asked assistance in its prevention. On February 11, 1912 he addressed with not less extensive message and the Turkestan governor general.

The bishop wrote that Article 5 of "Rules" about resettlement extends to all areas of edge, and sectarians, nevertheless, "are installed" everywhere under the guise of Orthodox Christians and are capable to demoralize the Russian population of Turkestana4 absolutely. The Turkestan governor general made the corresponding orders to local authorities.

2 CGA RUz, t. I-7, op.1, 5146, l. 6.
3 In the same place, l. 1.
4 Turkestan diocesan sheets, No. 12, 1907.

In spite of the fact that issues of presence of sectarians in Turkestan at the beginning of the 20th century in practice were resolved, as a rule, negatively, attempts of resettlement to the region from sectarians continued. Therefore the campaign for eviction of sectarians from borders of the Semirechen-sky Region began with spring of 1912. However, despite all taken measures for restriction of inflow of sectarians to Turkestan and their eviction from its limits, in general on edge the number of sectarians did not decrease as many sectarians arrived under the guise of Orthodox Christians. In this regard the head of department of agriculture and the state imushchestvo in the Turkestan region in the letter to the governor general of July 6, 1912 suggested to carry out the next events: to notify all governors of "internal" provinces that did not send sectarians to the Turkestan region; to strictly forbid entrance to borders of the region and especially Semirechensky Region to walkers sectarians; to select certificates and to exclude those sectarians who managed to be enlisted in rural societies; to move all already installed sectarians.

However, he specified that the Turkestan administration "has no enough legal basis for exclusion them from legally busy sites only for belonging to any given sect". According to him, "only with the advent of such restrictive law it will be possible to destroy further that noxious influence of immigrants sectarians on purity of religious beliefs of the orthodox population" 1.

At the request of Head department of land management and agriculture of the Russian Empire, the Minister of Internal Affairs secretary of state A.A. Makarov sent on September 12, 1912 the circular to all governors in which demanded that territorial chiefs at issue of documents for resettlement strictly warned immigrants that sectarians are not allowed to all areas which are a part Turkestan kraya2.

The Turkestan governor general, having received the official report of the head of department of agriculture and the state imushchestvo of edge, demanded from the last to make the project

0 distribution of Article 5 of "Rules" about resettlement on sectarians also requested opinion
1 CGA RUZ., t. I-7, op.1, 5146, l. 37.
2 CGA RUZ., t. I-1 (Office of the Turkestan governor general), op. 17, 858, l. 96.

military governors of areas on this matter.

The military governor of the Samarkand Region (1911 — 1914) I.Z. Odishelidze, reporting on August 3, 1912 in office of the Turkestan governor general the opinion, noted that sectarians "it is perfect it would not be necessary to avoid at colonization of suburban areas because it cannot be considered the measure caused by the state purposes, in particular nowadays after the Royal decree on toleration and government policy of creation of unity of the Russian people because of national unity, but not religious beliefs" 3.

On August 18, 1912 the chief of the Zakaspiysky Region (1911 — 1913 ge) F.A. Shostak in the official report in office reported that in the territory subordinated to it Molokans, Baptists, "judaisers", Adventists and Lutherans generally live, and in the Askhabadsky County most of the non-Muslim population is made by sectarians. He wrote that when settling the Zakaspiysky Region of Article 5 of "Rules" did not extend to it, and therefore sectarians settled thoroughly here: "I believe that to deprive of plots of those poselyan-sectarians which are already installed in the area there is no legal basis and it is impossible" 4. Military governors of the Syr Darya Region A.S. Galkin (1911 — 1916) and the Fergana Region of A.I. Gippius (1911 — 1917) though supported prohibition of resettlement of sectarians to the Turkestan region, however at the same time advised not to touch those from them who "was installed" in the region earlier.

Only the military governor of the Semirechen-sky Region M.A. Folbaum was ready categorically against as again arriving sectarians, and those who already located in the Turkestan region.

On the basis of the data obtained from military governors of areas, the office made the corresponding reference for Council of the Turkestan governor general, and Management of agriculture and state imushchestvo in the Turkestan region prepared on October 26, 1912 the draft of the amendment about distribution of Article 5 of "Provisional rules about resettlement" on sectarians. The meaning of the project came down to the fact that the sectarians who moved under the guise of Orthodox Christians at deception detection immediately had to lose the received plots and be moved.

3 CGA RUZ., t. I-7, op.1, 5146, l. 55.
4 In the same place, l. 30.

The bill on distribution of Article 5 of "Provisional rules about resettlement" adopted on January 24, 1913 by Council of the Turkestan governor general considerably reduced number of the arriving sectarians by all areas of edge. Cases of their penetration into Turkestan, certainly, were, but they became sporadic. Also the number of sectarians in the region due to identification of "taynoposelenets" and their expulsion out of borders of Central Asia decreased.

At implementation of the adopted provisions, as one would expect, many places were carried too far. Often the authorities began to pursue sectarians who moved to the Turkestan region in the 80-90th of the 19th century. However cases when sectarians tried to obtain the positive solution of a question of the resettlement in the region (more true, about its legalization were frequent. — A bus) through the Turkestan governor general, and sometimes and directly through the Ministry of Defence.

So, for example, on October 10, 1914. The general staff notified the Turkestan governor general that the Minister of War personally allowed to rank 18 Baptist peasants as society of peasants of the village Lower Volynsk the Samarkand Region. It follows from this that tsar's authorities and regional administration, interfering with "settlement" to Turkestan of new sectarians, carried out quite soft

policy for "old" sektan-tov-settlers.

As for Old Believers, in relation to them measures of the Tsar's administration were much softer. They, as a rule, were pretty fast granted permission for resettlement to the Turkestan region in those highest state authorities on which it depended. The Turkestan authorities did not make them special difficulties too unless it was necessary to consider 10 percent qualification of resettlement of dissenters to the Semirechensky Region

Thus, it is possible to note that during the integration processes happening in Turkestan, the tsarist government sought to have in the region konfessionalno uniform, traditionally Russian society, without a revolutionary and explosive "sectarian element". At the same time it should be noted that, despite contradictory opinions concerning sectarians, all representatives of the Turkestan administration were united by the common "imperial" goal — desire to install in the Turkestan Governorate-General the Russian culture which would promote peaceful and positive arrangement of civilized life in Central Asia for the benefit of all people inhabiting edge irrespective of their religion.

Crystal Norton
Other scientific works: