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S.F. Platonov's cooperation in the Russian historical magazines



SOTRUDNICHESTVO S.F. Platonova.

In the RUSSIAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINES

Communications of outstanding Russian historian S.F. Platonov with scientific and popular scientific magazines were long-term, and forms of cooperation various. However their study only begins. So, researchers of its biography only mention Platonov's work, the authority on the scientific world, on the editorial office of "The magazine of the Ministry of national education" which did not have yet 1. This departmental magazine was issued since 1834, in the first decades was the scientific magazine on history and history of literature, in 1860-1865 became strictly pedagogical, then the pedagogics became one of sections, and in 1872 the section of classical philology (in 1917 it was closed by Provisional government) was added.

After L.N. Maykov's leaving in 1888 from a position of the editor of the magazine it nearly half a year remained vacant. Different rumors about it became important news to interested persons and in general all scientific community. On July 10, 1889 G. Druzhinin, the famous expert in the history of split and Old Belief, one of close friends of Platonov, told him that "a secret about the magazine of the Ministry opened. The editor V.G. Vasilyevsky, and the assistant F.D. Batyushkov" 2 becomes. Contradictory news reached also Platonov: On February 10, 1890 in the letter to P.N. Milyukov, in response to a request of that "to explore the soil for printing" the master thesis, wrote vaguely about rumors that changes in the management of the magazine "will be also depending on Vasilyevsky's election in Academy" 3. Vasilyevsky, the founder of a vizantinovedeniye in Russia, was one of Platonov's teachers. And, having held a post of the editor of "The magazine of the Ministry of national education" in 1890, he invited the pupil to the assistant's position, in fact - the deputy.

Platonov's appointment seriously strengthened his positions in scientific community, institutions of the Ministry of national education and at department C. - the St. Petersburg university. So, P.V. Shane who learned from M.A. Dyakonov (in student's years - one of close friends of Platonov on the university) about career jump of Platonov, wrote it on July 20, 1890: "So, you consist in quite close relations with department of this Ministry now" 4. In the letter of May 30, 1890 Maykov reported to Platonov about need "to start delivery of affairs". On June 27 Platonov wrote professor of the Moscow university V.F. Miller who was actively cooperating in the magazine about the begun procedure of transfer of affairs of edition by Maykov and already on behalf of the new management of the magazine hoped that Miller "and will not refuse from now on to the magazine cooperation" 5.

The position of the associate editor of the government magazine promoted rapid growth of the authority and popularity Platonov. Requests for assistance in publications arrived from different places of Russia. So, on June 2, 1894 the famous historian-local historian A.I. Markevich addressed to it with "the most obedient request". "Knowing about outstanding value" Platonov in edition, Markevich asked it to place in the list of new books the "Experience of the index of the compositions concerning the Crimea and the Taurian province in general" which is just published by it (Simferopol, 1894) and to ask "someone to make about it the review" 6.

Platonov continued to publish the articles and responses in "The magazine of the Ministry of national education". Among them there was also its first work on history Territorial soborov7. Everything, by our calculations, 42 articles, a response, the review were published in this magazine, 32 of which are specified in the list made by B.A. Romanovym8. And for incomplete five years of the activity on a post of the associate editor Platonov printed in "the" magazine only 5 works while in other editions - it is much more. For example, only in one 1893 it published "several reviews of new books" 9.

Using opportunities of the associate editor, Platonov helped the pupils and friends in the publication of their articles. With its participation P.N. Milyukov, N.P. Pavlov-Silvansky, S.B. Veselovsky, B.D. Grekov, A.V. Tyshchenko, P.G. Lyubomirov's works and others were published.

Work on this responsible post brought upon Platonov a lot of trouble and took away a lot of time - generally, was very burdensome. And meanwhile he needed to solve the main task - to be fixed at university department, and doctor's degree was for this purpose necessary. However to leave the magazine without good reason was for it unacceptable. Apparently from his letter to Dyakonov of February 26, 1895, he "looked for two years ways" to leave the magazine and hoped "easy to transfer farewell" with it. The suitable case was presented at the beginning of 1895: the Arkheografichesky commission charged it the edition of the Nikonovsky chronicle. And in the spring his friends and colleagues knew that it leaves the magazine: On April 27 A.E. Presnyakov, one of the first pupils of Platonov who was engaged in studying the Moscow annalistic arches wrote the mother about it ukhode10.

Five years of work in the editorial office of the government magazine under the leadership of the outstanding scientist Vasilyevsky promoted acquisition of invaluable editorial experience of which Platonov made use further.

Platonov's leaving from a post of the associate editor did not mean a rupture of its communication with "The magazine of the Ministry of national education". Much

summer business relations developed at Platonov with the new editor of the magazine E.L. Radlov heading it since 1899 before closing in 1917. They were not just personally familiar: the relations had friendly character. Meeting on apartments at itself or friends, they frankly discussed both new historical works, and the colleagues historians. Everyone at the same time had all reasons to consider that all critical responses and estimates will remain between them. The same is characteristic also of their correspondence. So, Platonov with irony called N.I. Kareev whose doctoral dissertation caused a wave of criticism and big polemic, "the infallible historian" 11.

Good relations developed at Platonov with S.N. Shubinsky, the "Historical bulletin" heading nearly 40 years. Platonov actively cooperated in this magazine, especially in the years of his formation as the reviewer. He was even ready "to be applied" to requirements of the magazine and "to write well" that he emphasized in the letter to the editor of January 13, 1886, reporting about the direction in edition of the review in which he "made" "what could reductions" 12. Platonov's correspondence with the editor of "Historical bulletin" in 1886 was regular, he called the magazine "dear", and regarded the participation in it as "flatter" for himself.

In the letter of March 26 Platonov offered the services in writing of a response on the book by E.A. Belov "About historical value of the Russian nobility until the end of the 17th century" (SPb., 1886), noting that he on it will be accepted to a response with "pleasure". Shubinsky suggested Platonov to give a response on the book by V.A. Goltsev "The legislation and customs in Russia in the 18th century" (M., 1886). And that willingly agreed. "If you... entrusted me the review of the book of Goltsev, I would undertake it", - he wrote Shubinsky on March 28, 1886 - in spite of the fact that "was engaged in the 18th century a little" 13.

Platonov's disease did not allow to provide the promised reviews in time. But both were published: one in the June issue, another - in July. Soon in the magazine there was big article of Platonov "about the tsar Alexey" 14, and he asked the editor to make and give it in addition "30 prints or less, say, how many it is possible?".

On September 29, 1898 Platonov suggested Shubinsky to place on behalf of the managing director of Office of the Russian and Slavic archeology of the Russian archaeological society on pages of the "otchety o zasedaniyakh Otdeleniya" magazine as "all circle of the Russian archeologists" is interested in it. Having received affirmative answer, already on October 2 Platonov sent to the magazine the next minutes obshchestva15.

Similar communications were given up also the editor of "The Russian old times" P.N. Voronov with whom Platonov corresponded from 1900 to 1916. So, January 19, 1907, at once after an exit of the known work of Platonov "The Moscow government at the first Romanov" 16, Voronov wrote it

with content, without having failed to reproach friendly: "Received article... and with true pleasure read this fine work and regretted that it is not printed in "The Russian old times"" 17

The coming 200 anniversary of the Poltava fight promoted emergence of new researches about Peter the Great's era. On this subject Platonov also promised to send the new work to the magazine. On November 17, 1908 he received the answer from Voronov: "I will look forward your article, and it will be included into the January book and will decorate it". Having received the desired manuscript, he told on November 24 Platonov: "Received marvelous your article and sent it to printing house". In the same letter, expressing the joy and satisfaction, he asked the historian: "How many to do prints, we have 25, 50, 100". When number with its article was already almost printed, Platonov decided to attach the plan of the Poltava fight to work. He took an interest at Voronov whether it is possible to make it. For edition it was not simply, but a solution was found what on December 12 Ravens and reported to Platonov about: "The plan appeared perfectly. Ordered to paste it to the last page of your article, it is a pity that the inscription with the plan cannot be designated in article but only it is necessary to make it on a cover". Most likely, this option suited the author, but it was necessary to coordinate still an inscription there were three options offered for what: "plan", "the scheme of operational ways of Karl XII in 1709" or "to mark the plan or the scheme". As a result Platonov's article, as well as Voronov intended, it was published in the first issue of the magazine for 1909 18

In 1916 Platonov was invited to cooperation by edition of "Russian of the historical magazine" which is just based by the historian V.N. Beneshe-vich, professor S. - the St. Petersburg university, the famous expert in the field of history of ecclesiastical law and vizantinovedeniya19. The initiative of creation of this magazine was supported by many historians. Among them there were also numerous pupils of Platonov - P.G. Vasenko, B.D. Grekov, A.I. Zaozersky, I.I. Lappo, P.G. Lyubomirov, B.A. Romanov, S.N. Chernov. In total 147 people responded to this initiative. Among them there was also Platonov. However in practice he did not begin to take part in the organization of "Russian of the historical magazine" and to cooperate in it.

Platonov was the only thing from large Petrograd historians which was not participating in the organization of "Russian of the historical magazine" in 1916-1917. According to the researcher E.A. Rostovtsev, the reason was, "perhaps", that "A.S. Lappo-Danilev-sky" 20 was involved in it. The relations between two outstanding scientists were not simple: rivalry at department of the Russian history of the university, in the Circle of the Russian historians, the jealous attitude towards own pupils alienated them from each other, generated mutual hostility. Only after

Lappo-Danilevsky's death in February, 1919 Platonov undertook "the general management" zhurnalom21.

Also such specific form of journal work of Platonov as writing of critical reviews on magazines because they give an idea of what requirements to historical magazines were imposed by Platonov is of special interest. Even before appointment in Scientific committee of the Ministry of national education in December, 1890 (with a reward of 1,000 rub a year) Platonov was involved in reviewing of educational, methodical and scientific historical literature. Fruitful activity as the reviewer promoted growth of influence of Platonov in scientific, pedagogical and that is important, in governmental krugakh22. This circumstance facilitated also its appointment in the ministerial magazine.

Among numerous reviews Platonov wrote two detailed responses on the popular magazine "Kiyevskaya Starina". The first, dated on July 19, 1890, - on all issues of the magazine for 1889. On June second, 9, 1892, - on a selection of numbers for 1891

In the first response the materials published in "The Kiev old times" for 1889, Platonov divided into 3 groups: "raw" including, "materials of smaller volume", "scientific researches" on history, works in a fiction genre. He especially noted V.B. Antonovich, P. Vladimirov, I.I. Malyshevsky, F.I. Uspensky, D.I. Bagaley's articles. At the same time he considered the "extensive memoirs of M.K. Chaly" opening a condition of "Little Russian society in the first half of the century" "nothing special not allocated" why they, in his opinion, "cannot become level with scientific articles". At the majority of researches it found "qualitative advantages", having noted at the same time them "quantitative wealth". In this regard it allocated for the magazine which managed to attract to participate "many university experts", "respectable scientific value" 23.

The second response on basic provisions does not differ from the first, but in small particulars supplements and develops it. Platonov allocated works of authors, "having scientific and literary popularity": D.I. Bagaley, N.F. Sumtsov and Markevich. He characterized their researches as "well picked up, well processed material", having emphasized that they gave to the "harakter seryeznogo izdaniya" magazine. And Platonov defined a main goal of the magazine as "scientific studying edge" 24.

Platonov wrote a response and on the Etnograficheskoye Obozreniye magazine which was issued by Ethnographic department of Society of fans of natural sciences, anthropology and ethnography at the Moscow university. N.A. Yanchuk and D.N. Anuchin were his editors. According to Platonov,

they "sought to fill the existing gap" and decided to publish at first materials, being limited to "borders of Russia", and only then gradually expanding a geographical framework. Work of edition is characterized by it as "conscientious", caused "serious and at the same time live" interest. Editors involved in cooperation "the most authoritative scientists" - N.S. Tikhonravov, A.G. Antonovich, V.F. Miller, M.M. Kowalewski, R.F. Brand, E.I. Yakushkin, N.F. Sumtsov, P.N. Milyukov and others. It promoted transformation of the magazine into "very visible scientific edition in Russia". As Platonov especially noted, the subject of materials was not limited to ethnography problems in "narrow sense of the word" - in the issues of the magazine researches on "study in general life", "especially spiritual life, ceremonies, beliefs were located... the word that recently began to be called the general name RoShage". He considered serious achievement of the magazine its bibliographic department, having called it "useful" and "fine" as not only ethnographers, "but also in general the people who are interested our past" address it. Important he considered both the review of provincial periodicals, and systematization of articles on "single questions of the Russian ethnography". Platonov emphasized value of the publication in "An ethnographic review" of both "serious scientific materials", and "methodical and bibliographic instructions" 25.

In a response on official body of the Moscow archaeological society the "Arkheologicheskiye Izvestiya I Zametki" magazine for 1895 he noted that the device of Archaeological congresses, the edition of "Antiquities" that for almost 30 years' existence created to it "honourable popularity" was important aspect of activity of society. According to Platonov, the magazine in two years instead of the "independent articles" stated the 24th published more than 40 researches and up to 300 of "different news" of "excavation and finds". "prominent experts" on "archeology historical and prehistoric", on art history, architecture, writings, an iconography were their authors. Platonov carried "the venerable scientist" of I.E. Zabelin, "the famous archeologists" of V.I. Sizov, A.A. Spitsyn, D.I. Anuchin, I.M. Sultanov and A.I. of Shvartsa26 to those.

In general it is possible to tell that active cooperation of Platonov in several historical magazines, his work in the editorial offices of "The magazine of the Ministry of national education", participation in work of Scientific committee of the ministry as the reviewer - the important party of the creative biography of the scientist. Both the edition of its own researches, and editing the received materials, and assistance to the pupils and colleagues in the publication of their works - all this had a great influence on development of historical science in Russia.

1 V.A. Kolobkov. Course of life of the historian//S.F. Platonov. Under Mo-nomakha cap. M, 2001. Page 480; Rogozhin N.M.S.F. Platonov - a career//S.F. Platonov. Russian history. M, 1996. Page 10; etc.
2 Department of manuscripts of National Library of Russia (RNB SHOUTING). T. 585. Op.1, Part 2. 2834. L. 18.
3 Letters of the Russian historians (S.F. Platonov, P.N. Milyukov). Omsk, 2003. Page 201.
4 RNB SHOUTING. T. 585. Op. 1, Part 2. 4610. L. 1.
5 Academician S.F. Platonov: Correspondence with historians. T. 1. M, 2003. Page 29; Mitrofanov V.V.S.F. Platonov and Ministry of national education: main directions of cooperation//Social and economic problems of regional development. Nizhnevartovsk, 2006. Page 218-219. Comment 14.
6 RNB SHOUTING. T. 585. Op.1, Part 2. 3485. L. 1-1ob.
7 S.F. Platonov. Notes on the history of the Moscow territorial cathedrals//the Magazine of the Ministry of national education. 1883. No. 3. Page 1-20.
8 B. Romanov. The list of works of S.F. Platonov//the Collection of articles on the Russian history devoted to S.F. Platonov. Pg., 1922. Page VII-XI.
9 The year statement of the Imperial St. Petersburg university on February 8th, 1894 for 1893 which is drawn up by ordinary professor of the Russian Federation. Zelinsky. SPb., 1894. Page 41.
10 Alexander Evgenyevich Presnyakov: Letters and diaries (1889-1927). SPb., 2005. Page 186.
11 Academician S.F. Platonov... T. 1. Page 68.
12 Platonov S.F. Rets.: K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin. Russian history. T. 2, vyp 1. SPb., 1885//Historical bulletin. 1886. No. 2. Page 466-470; Academician S.F. Platonov... T. 1. Page 18.
13 Academician S.F. Platonov... T. 1. Page 19.
14 Platonov S.F. Tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich (characteristic experience)//Historical bulletin. 1886. No. 5. Page 265-275.
15 Academician S.F. Platonov... T. 1. Page 24, 41, 52-53.
16 S.F. Platonov. The Moscow government at the first Romanov//the Magazine of the Ministry of national education. 1906. No. 12. Page 298-351.
17 RNB SHOUTING. T. 585. Op. 1, Part 2. 2565. L. 4-6.
18 S.F. Platonov. To the history of the Poltava fight (on June 27, 1709)//the Russian old times. 1909. T. 137. No. 1. Page 28-34.
19 RNB SHOUTING. T. 585. Op. 1, Part 3. 5062. L. 1.
20 E.A. Rostovtsev. A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky and S.F. Platonov (To history of personal and scientific relations)//Problems of social and humanitarian knowledge. Issue 1. SPb., 1999. Page 157.
21 In the same place. Page 162-163.
22 For more details see: Mitrofanov V.V.S.F. Platonov and Scientific committee of the Ministry of national education//Tyumen historical collection. Issue IX. Tyumen, 2006. Page 90-101.
23 RNB SHOUTING. T. 585. Op.1, Part 1. 1378. L. 1-2.
24 In the same place. L. 44, 44ob.
25 SHOUTING of RNB. T. 585. Op. 1, Part 1. 1447. L. 1.
26 SHOUTING of RNB. T. 585. Op. 1, Part 1. 1439. L. 1, 1ob.
Russell Richard
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