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Category: History

Yakov Limansky's business



SOBYTIYA And DESTINIES

Alexander Simonov Anatoly Simonov Sergey Karpenko

YAKOV LIMANSKY'S BUSINESS

This essay - about the person of rare destiny. Very rare. The arrested in the 1937th bodies of state security and accused of "the organization of anti-Soviet harmful group", he did not give itself to break. After year of the investigation and imprisonment a military court found its not guilty. The firmness, conviction helped to come out in the correctness, life experience, education the winner to it. He not only kept the life and returned itself(himself) freedom - saved from execution and the subordinates.

His name - Yakov Timofeyevich Limansky.

The essay is art and documentary. It is written on materials of the remained investigative business, unpublished memoirs of his daughter, documents of the Russian state military archive, the Central archive Ministries of Defence, State archive of the Astrakhan region, the State archive of the Saratov region and the State archive of the contemporary history of the Saratov region.

At deaf November night the motor van upholstered with colored tin drove off from the Balashov regional department of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs. Having hard overcome seven just over kilometers of the primer punched by rains, in the fourth hour it reached the central estate of Agricultural correctional facility No. 1. Drove closer to the one-storey office lodges of a nachsostav standing alone, for no reason.

Jumped out of a cabin, having slapped a door, the tall young man in a black leather jacket and a blue-red peak-cap. To him already hurried, being confused in overcoat floors, the chief of an operational part of colony Kaverin. Waited how it was ordered, - lay down dressed. Jumped out of the lodge, hardly heard a motor tarakhtenye.

>- I wish health, companion Baryshev. How did reach?

>- Limansky where?

>- On the apartment at.

>- Vividly to the person on duty...

Having flaunted, Kaverin hasty walked to check-point in "zone". Did not need reminders: its task is to call the chief of guard, and then to go to office, to Tagus rny on colony and to remain with it a row, with phone. To warn both: to the central estate there arrived the operations group and holds a KGB event, guard to stand on the posts, there will be what noise - will understand without them. However, was sure, will do without noise: the sergeant of state security Baryshev though is young, and the business knows.

Strong holding rifles with primknuty bayonets, from a motor van three fighters pospry-givat. In long-skirted overcoats with crimson buttonholes of internal protection of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs. Without team directed for the senior of an operations group.

On familiar steps Baryshev easily ascended to the narrow summer terrace lit with an electric bulb. The house of the chief of colony was an ego. Knocked exactingly. Dexterously undid a holster and the tablet...

The chief of colony Limansky quickly rose from a bed. At a door got used to night knocks for the life. But this knock - special... Drenched with cold: the trouble came - open... Threw an overcoat over a next-to-skin shirt. Switched on light in the dining room. Without asking, cast away a hook. Saw Baryshev - understood everything before heard:

>- Citizen Yakov Timofeyevich Limansky! You are arrested! There is a resolution.

Heart broke. Tried though for a moment did not manage to look at the resolution on arrest and search.

Hasty thrusting paper into the tablet, Baryshev stepped inside. - now being - not that discharged the chief of colony, and bypassed rather.

He knew location of rooms and doors. This, long, - both the dining room, and kitchen. At the left, at the window, - a dining table. At an opposite wall - a chest. On a table - the device of field phone, a wire is stretched to the person on duty. One door conducts to the bedroom, another - in "hall". Both wide open. The gate and a door of the furnace are closed. Does not smell of the burned paper. The furnace cooled down, and in the house, celebrated mechanically, not too warmly, and not May outside.

Passed in dark to "hall", clicked the switch. Behind it, pushing the arrested, two fighters moved. The third slammed behind itself(himself) an entrance door. Having blocked an aperture, pulled together a rifle from a shoulder, distorted a lock, put "to a leg"

>- I suggest to hand over party and in-house documents! - the high pitched voice of Baryshev terribly ringed metal. - Weapon in the house is? Ammunition? The forbidden literature? I suggest to hand over everything!

What and where here weapon, Baryshev knew also without owner. In "hall" - an iron bed where the seven-year-old daughter of Limansky sleeps, a whatnot with books, a bedside table, on it - a record player. The door to the bedroom is slightly opened. There, except a wide iron bed, - two more bedside tables and a chest. On a wall - a fowling piece.

Opened the door, glanced.

>- Get up and put on! - ordered to the arrested wife. - Include electricity. And is more alive! Take the child.

The girl already woke up, tore off the head from a pillow, wiped eyes with cams.

The young woman, correcting a dress, left hasty. Shortly short-haired chestnut-colored hair are confused. Brown eyes are open, darkened to blackness from a fright. Hands were convulsively closed, having covered a mouth.

>- Anna, calm down... - Limansky by incredible effort of will gave to a confidence voice. - Companions will understand...

>- We will understand, of course... - Baryshev filtered, entering the bedroom. - Give documents here!

pointed

by the Nod to the fighter to the fowling piece hanging on a bleached wall near Lenin and Stalin's portraits. So far that removed a gun and checked whether it is loaded, Baryshev watched how Limansky gets documents from a breast pocket of a soldier's blouse. Did not notice a shiver in hands. Taking away from the arrested the party membership card and the special pass to Management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs across the Saratov region, took a look aside.

The evil broke a soldier's blouse from a chair back. One by one tore off brass "cubes" from buttonholes... From protective wide trousers pulled out a belt, clasped motnyu and jerked - tin buttons departed extensively. Transferred belts with a sword belt to the fighter.

>- Give an overcoat!

With the same rage poobryvat "cubes" from overcoat buttonholes.

Threw the soldier's blouse and wide trousers deprived of a military look and advantage in hands to Limansky.

>- Put on.

Limansky slowly put on. The first stupefaction subsided. Got it together, suppressed fear, humility. Movements found it the usual clearness and confidence. It is necessary to cope also with shame. But the dishonored commander regimentals - a real trifle in comparison with threat of death. A thought that it can happen, allowed. And here it - happened. The most terrible came in his 40-year life. More terribly than shellings and the gas attacks of Germans, the lancer is more terrible than breaks of the Ural belokazak and Polish, it is more terrible than a nedorod and hunger, it is more terrible than charges of "the right bias" and an exception of party... Now it is necessary to collect will, nerves, reason in a fist. The most important fight in his life is started - for life. And for the future of the daughter and wife - the closest people whom more native it does not have in the whole world.

The woman, having taken the sleepy girl on hands, leaned against a wall. It was driven in by a fever. By the shivering voice asked for permission to pass to a hanger and to take a coat.

>- Nothing, endure! - Baryshev cut off. - Not on the Solovki still...

Radiating with just severity, it posbrasyvat everything from beds on a floor -

at first with parental, then the nursery. Itself probed down pillows and feather-beds, cotton blankets.

From bedside tables threw out a different trifle, linen, patefonny plates. Touched everything, passed nothing.

Was accepted to chests.

Standing in the bedroom it was half filled with clothes. In the very bottom, under a sheepskin short fur coat, the tin, brightly painted box from under candies, a cross crosswise drawn by a cord lay. In it 24 boss to a gun and from gunpowder half-pound were found. Baryshev stirred clothes on a floor. Carefully examined it and probed, emptied pockets. The room was filled by a dreary smell of naphthalene.

Products were stored in other chest, in the dining room. Swearing, Baryshev together with the fighter turned him sideways. On a floor paper paper bags fell out. From them the pinned yellowish pieces of sugar, salt, flour, pasta, millet, semolina, dried fruits fell down. Old vodka bottles with sunflower oil and vinegar rolled.

Having examined clothes on a hanger, Baryshev allowed the arrested wife:

>- You can put on a coat.

The turn reached a whatnot - to books, notebooks, an album with photos, the pack of letters which is hardly tied up by a ribbon. After viewing everything flew to a floor... Among books the thin brochure - the resolution of a June regional party conference with the transcript of a speech of the first secretary of the Saratov regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Krinitsky got to Baryshev.

>- Do not you know unless that Krinitsky is exposed as the enemy of the people?! Also it is already shot...

Fighters of internal protection of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs are strong rural guys with rough, weather-beaten faces - were well trained and accumulated already experience. Were in time and to everything told to listen, and with his wife to look after the arrested, and to keep all windows with doors under observation. The enemy of the people in a window will jump, will run away, the swine, - their to a wall will put. The valuable thing what will be gone, hours there wrist or money, - too tribunal. Though in this house also does not smell of values. Also all simple is not enough clothes. Furniture is state. On everything - except unless a whatnot and a record player - oval tin labels with inventory numbers.

Limansky stood at the bared children's bed, slightly holding the brilliant nickelized back. Tightly linked teeth. "An ego some mistake", "this misunderstanding", "I, companions, the honest worker", "am devoted with all the heart to our party" - such sounding nonsenses of nothing, except harm now, will bring. All know: bodies are not mistaken. Twice stridently, exactingly looked to the wife in eyes - that understood and too was silent. Having sat down on a chair, put the dozed-off girl on knees, pressed to a breast. Chilly muffling up in the coat thrown shoulders, tried to cover it hollow.

How search is conducted, Limansky watched carefully. Of all people he knows these orders... Baryshev's severity suddenly seemed to him affected, affected. If so - it is designed, of course, for ordinary fighters.

The administration for certain will ask them then, and even the official report will order to write as the senior of an operations group executed arrest and a search. What said how behaved? Whether it was noticeable what signs of conspiracy between it and the arrested enemy of the people?.

The strange thought unexpectedly came to its mind. Ridiculous it is perfect - drove away it, waved away. But she returned and sat down strong. And why at night Baryshev decided to arrest him?. Where spodruchny would be to come with an operations group directly in its office office, in front of all in broad daylight. To humiliate, take on a fright, not to spend time for search, at once to begin "to prick", on hot to beat out recognition... No, came to the apartment, before the general rise. And did not take witnesses - the established order broke... For four of his closest assistants, month almost back, arrived before dark. First of all informed it, the chief of colony. Executed arrests and a search in the presence of witnesses - employees of office. And now whom it could take? Only the person on duty yes someone from guard. What, did not want to humiliate him before subordinates?. In a clothing personally dug. Shook up each book, a kayaedy notebook, everything revised photos. Now here touches letters, re-reads the return addresses. Excessively diligently... It is clear and without search: there is nothing forbidden, any "compromising evidence" at his place. Cannot just be! Even this brochure with party conference materials - any not a proof, it proves nothing... That Krinitsky is shot already - news. Baryshev could and keep the mouth shut...

Having taken away several letters, Baryshev carelessly threw the others to himself under legs.

Search took less than an hour.

Farewell was short, without words. The girl half asleep did not understand what occurred. The woman froze: the husband her was arrested and taken away. Perhaps, forever. Having clenched teeth to pain, hung on by the skin of teeth...

The first to a motor van the fighter widely walked. On a shoulder, near the three-ruler, it hung up a fowling piece of the arrested. Another, afterwards, bore a pillowcase in which coordinated other forfeits. Behind it, holding with hands wide trousers, - Limansky. In an overcoat wide open, without peak-cap. Nearly having set it against a back a bayonet, he was escorted by the third fighter. The rear was brought up by Baryshev.

The driver began to fuss, sharply turned a key - the motor zatarakhtet, began to knock.

Over colony there was muddy crude dawn of Sunday November 21 the 1937th...

The country family of Limansky starts from Little Russia, out of Poltava.

In the middle of the 18th century, at the empress Elizabeth Petrovna, the Russian government for export of salt from the Lake Elton and settling of uninhabited steppe open spaces of Zavolzhye began to invite maloross. Later, at Catherine the Great,

except maloross and members of the party Great Russia, hired and delivered the Germans, Molokans and dissenters fleeing Russia from abroad. Provided to each family free pass, gave lifting money. Allocated with the earth. For many years exempted from taxes and a compulsory military service. Promised also other privileges.

Immigrants from Little Russia and the chernozem provinces of Velikorossiya went without special hunting - from a gloomy nuyaeda, because of a pernicious malozemelya.

The big family of Limansky arrived out of Poltava already at Nicholas I. Together with the fellow countrymen mastered untouched a plow flat open spaces huge Novouzenskosh of the county. The settlement was named Poltavka. After them from otchy places there arrived other immigrants. And too to Poltavk based. Because the first began to be called Old Poltavkaya. Someone did not maintain - came back to Little Russia. Remained adapted to new, much more severe conditions, having shown radical lines of Little Russian character - economy, obstinacy, resilience. Kept both language melodious, and colourful clothes, and centuries-old customs.

One of Limansky, however, "начудыв": also married the Gipsy. Her features, swarty skin color, black hair, dense and wavy, were transferred to descendants.

Yakov, Timofey's son, on October 6 the 1896th was born. The Gipsy blood affected his appearance poorly: only magnificent black head of hear yes swarty skin. And here elder sister Maria and younger, Pyotr and Vasilisa, went to the great-grandmother.

Their carefree naughty childhood broke in the spring of the 1906th. Those years on average and Lower Volga area, as well as in other "feverish" areas of the Russian Empire, malaria raged. From it at once both parents - Timofey Pavlovich Limansky and Eudoxia Denisovna, in Chumakov's girlhood were also able.

Orphans were taken on education by the younger brother of Timofey - Fedor Pavlovich. Maria was put to a household at once. 9-year-old Yakov himself volunteered to help the uncle in the field. Three years later together with the grown-up Pyotr began to work for rich fellows villager. Sowed wheat and a rye, planted potatoes.

And the father late, and in family of the uncle Fedor, and many of neighbors ordinary spoke Little Russian "mova". The rural national school of Yakov trained in great Russian language - to read and write. Classes went falteringly, from late fall to early spring when there were no field works. From objects it liked arithmetics and geography. And most of all fell in love to read. At lessons of the Scripture put the book on knees and forgot about everything... More than once the father grabbed it an ear, extended because of a school desk and kicked out. In small uchilishchny library there were not only textbooks, but also recommended by the Ministry of national education of the book - Pushkin, Gogol, Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky's compositions...

Fedor Limansky's family grew. In the 1913th the boy was born. In memory of the elder brother named Timofey. Maria, almost already the bride, and Vasilisa nursed him. Yakov, as was tired of work, always found time to tinker with the kid, to it made toys.

War with Germany burst quite unexpectedly. Mobilization burst. Old Poltavka, together with all Russian village, in the eyes turned into the woman's kingdom.

At the beginning of the 1915th Nicholas II called up for military service recruits at the age of the 21st year. Who was 18 years old put under the law hurried to marry to an appeal, to leave the child: who knows it whether he happens live and healthy from war to return... Could zabrit in any day: the army receded, sustained terrible losses. Territorial mail regularly delivered from the front of the notice: "fell death brave for Vera, the Tsar and Fatherland". With the sprained trouser-legs, on crutches, or with empty sleeves cripples came back home. From their stories blood of a styl in veins. And war of the end edge not to see.

Yakov had also other reason to hurry with marriage: in family of the uncle Fedor lived in peace and friendship, but it could not wait to leave on independent bread.

Having got married to "divchyny" from the neighboring street - Varvara it was called, - Yakov as it is necessary, received an allotment from rural society. Moved to the parental house which fairly decayed. Not only managed to marry and become the owner, but also to take the newborn son on hands. Named Ivan.

Yakov on the plot devoutly worked. And war did the part: the farther - the stronger ruined the country. Especially village: working hands less, harvests fell, and the prices of the agricultural tools and all manufactured goods necessary to the farmer grew inevitably. Nothing remained to Yakov how to be employed in workers to the uncle Nikolay, the brother of the late mother, - on his steam mill. All worked to the seventh sweat, in flour on the head of hear. At the same time looked narrowly at mill business. And itself the 1916th strong hoped for good weather in the spring and in the summer, for a big crop... But at the beginning of a year everything was necessary to leave - both hopes, and the earth, and the house, and the young wife with the baby: the tsar called recruits of two age at once - 19- and 20-year-old.

At presence, district on military affairs, that knew an appeal.

Yakov Limansky

Saratov, 1916

it was checked for literacy, knowledge of arithmetics and keenness. Were satisfied. Also sent to the 4th substitute artillery crew.

The crew stood in Saratov. At Ilyinskaya Square, before barracks, recruits were engaged in drill. Charters were summarized and learned by heart. Seized aim devices.

Mastered an equipment of tools. Both in study, and in discipline, and in appearance Yakov was "the spravny soldier". Officers distinguished it for quickness and sharpness.

When time of a practical training came - put the battery on the high coast of Volga and directed at different points of the opposite coast, and even at the floating barges, rafts. Such minutes Yakov represented: somewhere there it is far, beyond Volga, in the steppe, - its native village. There his wife and the son wait. The earth waits. Though not the, but another is not present... However, did not forget business. Having checked aiming accuracy, commanders praised it.

There passed several months, training ended. Appointed him a younger feyerverker (the cannon chief, he is a tipper-of) in one of batteries of the formed 117th artillery crew which entered then in the 117th infantry division. At the beginning of June the division was thrown on the Southwest front. Yakov participated in Brusilovsky break, in bloody encounter attacks with Austro-Hungarian and German troops in Galicia and in the Carpathians. He was at war, as well as krestyanstvovat, honestly. Ordered gun crew skillfully.

In the 1917th the division was thrown on the Western front, in the 2nd army.

Yakov met the February revolution joyfully, as well as all multimillion soldier's weight: peasants in overcoats began to hate long ago "imperia-

Yakov Limansky (the first row on the right) with colleagues

Saratov, 1916

dietary slaughter". Like a sailor cursed the tsar. Were eager for the world, the earth and will. Having had heard plenty of party speakers, having read newspapers, in the summer of the 1917th it sided with the Bolsheviks promising to stop immediately war.

And still - to divide all privately owned lands between peasants on justice.

After capture by Bolsheviks of the power in Petrograd, in November, together with other parts of the Western front which came over to the side of the new government - Council of People's Commissars, - the 117th art crew participated in an environment and capture of the Rate in Mogilev. The ensign Krylenko appointed by Council of People's Commissars the Supreme Commander directed operation.

Having seized the Rate, the first Soviet glavkoverkh created Special group for its protection. It switched on also the battery in which Yakov served.

Peace talks of delegation of Council of People's Commissars with Germans in Brest-Litovsk began at last. The old army collapsed. Including hated war finished, soldiers, having taken the rifles, crowds left parts and dispersed, parted on houses. Uncontrollably pulled to the native land and Yakov - to the wife and the son, to the promised earth.

In the middle of February of the 1918th he got demobilize.

Civil war measured to Yakov Limansky only three months of peaceful life, homeliness and economic cares. The house long ago needing repair waited for him strong, skillful hands - did not wait.

Younger feyerverker Yakov Limansky

In May of the 1918th, before a revolt of the Czechoslovak case, the Soviet authorities of the Novouzensky County called to the colors of veterans: to be protected from the Ural Cossacks. Hunger approached the Ural region, however Novouzensky Council by order from Moscow sent bread to the central provinces. And refused to the Cossacks who did not recognize the power of Council of People's Commissars bread. Here they were also moved to make attacks on the county - by force to select grain.

Among novouzenets was a lot of beginning to sway, evaded: "On - were at war to satiety, awaking from us!" But it was necessary to make nevertheless the choice whose party to accept. Yakov did not hesitate: The Soviet power needs to be protected. Many of his fellow countrymen arrived differently: being expressed local, "became Cossacks".

Yakov got to one of novouzensky regiments.

The camp of opponents of Council of People's Commissars was replenished with the risen Czechoslovak building and the Samara National army soon. In reply from red Zavolzhye regiments the 4th army of East front was created. By the end 1918-sh divisions and also Aleksandro-Gaysky crew entered into it the 25th shooting and infantry Nikolaev. In two last novouzenets were also at war. Yakov - in one of artillery batteries.

At the beginning of spring of the 1919th its battery was switched on in a howitzer division of the 25th Samara rifle division which since March was ordered by the former sergeant-major Chapayev.

In April Yakov was easily wounded. And then the divisional party cell accepted him the candidate for RCP(b). And at the beginning of June, in the middle of fights for Ufa, a political department of a division seconded it to Samara - in party school at a political department of the Southern group of East front.

It reached Samara on June 11. Having arrived to school, filled out "The main map of the candidate". Specified "Little Russian" in the column "Native language". In the column about the got education - "public". In the column "Profession before Revolution" - "krestyanstvovat". Answering the 23rd question - "To What Work You Feel the Greatest Tendency", - diligently removed: "To the instructor propagandist."

At army party schools prepared a local asset of the party - the political fighters able and to carry out a political information and heart-to-heart with the Red Army man on political subjects to have a talk. Explained to listeners decisions of the VIII congress of Bolsheviks on construction of the regular Red Army, the most important works of Lenin and editorials in the Pravda. And, above all - learned to explain all this to Red Army men. The program was calculated for two months, but it was hurried "to be banished" quicker: The southern Frunze group conducted heavy fights with Kolchak soldiers. And already on July 14 Yakov was sent back to the howitzer division.

Arrived in Uralsk - the former "capital hail" of the Ural Cossack army, - when it only just managed to be got out of the Cossack blockade. And at once - on a front line, in the scorching heat. Each verst of the line of the Ryazano-Uralsky railroad was given to chapayevets by big blood.

After death in September of the 1919th nachdiv of Chapayev the 25th rifle division received his name. Kutyakov, the former unter ordered it now. For all fall and winter it got bogged down in bloody fights for the Ural region: Cossacks fought brutally. It also is clear: and for the lives fought, both for good, and for liberties Cossack... Many fellow soldiers were lost by Yakov. In January 1920-sh he participated in Guryev's capture.

Near Yakov also the younger brother Pyotr was at war. He who was born on August 23 the 1898th did not happen to serve in royal army. But he joined the Red Army before the elder brother, voluntarily - on February 20 the 1918th. Then in many regions of the country for reflection of the German offensive at Petrograd any military formations began to be created. In Novouzensk the Social Revolutionaries who are at the helm the local Soviet government organized "civilian team". However, did not manage to send it to "the German front". But in May it was included into the Red Army of the Saratov Council, and the fighter-combatant Pyotr Liman-sky participated in 1 - m a campaign to Uralsk. Then was at war in Novouzeneky and Ural divisions, and in March of the 1919th became the Red Army man of the 73rd crew of the 25th rifle division - the well-known "Chapayevsk guard". At the headquarters of the 4th army, in the city Pugachev (till 1918 - Nikolaevsk) ended courses of junior commanders, and in the Guryev operation already ordered a platoon. However weak sight - suffered from it since childhood - complicated execution of commander duties.

In May of the 1920th, after invasion of the Polish troops into the Soviet Ukraine, the 25th Chapayevsk division threw on the Southwest front. In June Yakov exempted Kiev from Poles, in August Kovel took, fought on the Western Bug... Also listened carefully to hot speeches of commissioners, and itself tried to explain to Red Army men: companions the Polish and German workers, world revolution - not far off wait supposedly for us. You give Lviv and Warsaw!. But very few people were eager to die on others earth for unknown world revolution. And in Poland which only just found independence the wave of patriotic, anti-Russian sentiments highly rose... "The campaign to Warsaw" turned back shameful defeat.

On October 18 military operations on the Soviet-Polish front stopped. the 25th Chapayevsk was thrown on fight against "gangsterism" in Ukraine. And the Red Army man Yakov Limanskosh was sent on October 20 to Kiev - on artillery courses.

To study as the red commander forcibly sent then all in the slightest degree the competent, owning military specialty Red Army men. What to tell about "party"... About any demobilization there could not be also a speech: Bolshevist leaders still dreamed world revolution.

Also Yakov had to pull a military strap again. But not in audiences and on training grounds, and in the 2nd Summary division of cadets. Until the end of spring 1921-sh it chased "gangs" of the father Makhno. Not too successfully: "gangs" were numerous, well armed and organized. And, above all - incredibly hardy. Because in "gangs" of that all rural Ukraine consisted slightly: each village is "gang". The cause is there was a surplus-appropriation system. It was held in Ukraine, by recognition of the people's commissar of education Lunacharsky, "extremely stupidly and cruelly" - here and resulted in universal hatred of peasants to Bolsheviks and the Soviet power.

The hereditary farmer, Yakov could not but think, not doubt whether so this surplus-appropriation system is correct. Really absolutely it is impossible to do without it? To what it is so zealous to forbid free trade? The peasant of the life does not represent without trade at the free prices: why to raise a harvest if it cannot be sold with benefit?. Here and letters of the family on their bitter life-bytye more often came from the Volga region. In everyone - desperate complaints to a ruthless surplus-appropriation system - "grabilovka".

The Kiev cadets gunners already returned to new educational institution: courses were transformed to the 4th artillery school.

the 4th art school was at the place of the former Nikolaev artillery school, in the Cadet grove. From school to it got generously taken away ground - 18 tithes, - several four- and five-floor buildings, the biggest parade-ground in the country for battery exercises. And still - the water supply system from an artesian well, the sewerage, power plant, bakery, a laundry. The hostel of cadets, classes, club, the dining room - spacious and light - were kept clean. And still cadets got sick with cholera, usually - during the business trips. The diseased were put to isolation centers of a school medical neighbourhood. There were not enough drugs, but skillful doctors and sisters almost put all on legs.

Taught at school the Russian and Ukrainian languages, mathematics, physics, chemistry, natural study, geography, history, social science, drawing. From military sciences - tactics, artillery, tactics of artillery, topography, fortification, a gippologiya (science about a horse), military hygiene.

There was also one more, special, a subject - "fight against gangsterism". Business trips of cadets in that also consisted: together with security officers and troops of internal service they hunted "gangs" of peasants, arranged round-ups.

It is possible to present what was created in Yakov's soul. It had a share there is no place more bitterly: on the earth of his ancestors to be at war with "rodycha" - malorossa, same "grain-growers", as well as he.

A in the Volga region the hunger - a terrible consequence of a surplus-appropriation system raged... The wife Varvara and the son Ivan hardly survived: thanks, relatives helped. Wrote official reports, asked to release the administration in a short-term holiday - brought money, products... The uncle Fedor of hunger did not worry. Timofey who was deserted 8-letnesh was taken on education by Maria who just married. Fair's fair...

Desperate, invincible resistance of peasants to a surplus-appropriation system forced Lenin to replace it with a natural tax, to return to free trade, to allow private business. The new economic policy of a pouspokoil of peasants, allowed them to begin restoration of the farms.

Having graduated from art school in May of the 1924th, Yakov Limansky got a secondary general and military education. Appropriated it office category "commander of a fire platoon". One "cube" in a buttonhole. Before it - with its country origin, bright revolutionary and fighting past, party membership, education - the possibility of fast career in RKKA opened. Red commander, and even political worker.

But it pulled to the earth - to the earth that waited for it in Old Poltavka. More often he remembered the uncle Nikolay, the miller. D ivyas once to diligence of the nephew, that distinguished it from the workers at once. Seeing off in the 1916th in army, promised: "Here you vozverntsya, Yashka, from war, - I will help to become a person".

The village came to life. Devastating hunger consigned to the past.

And in the Red Army as fights died down, affairs went worse and worse: there was catastrophically not enough money for its contents. The lack of everyone and everything habitual for commanders and fighters, quickly turned into humiliating need. In garrisons, a disturbing, burdensome talk about reduction of army inevitable soon went.

In June of the 1924th Yakov Limansky got demobilize and returned to the native village.

Their ways dispersed from the younger brother.

Pyotr served in the 25th Chapayevsk division placed in Poltavshchyna. The sight weakened, it became more difficult to carry out duties of the front commander to it, and in the 1924th it was transferred to a position of the foreman of a company. Here he quickly felt taste to economic work, to grocery and ware supply. In March the 1925th it was admitted to the party.

Reduction of the Red Army began. Terrible need, to impossibility to support family, and loss of hopes for fast promotion generated "decadent moods" among kraskom. The discipline reeled. On garrisons the wave of suicides swept.

In September of the 1925th Pyotr got demobilize. Also went to Astrakhan, rich fish land where got a job in working consumer cooperation - the seller in shop of Rybolovpotrebsoyuz.

By the time of Yakov Limansky's return home Old Poltavka, together with a part of the former Novouzensky County, entered the Republic of Germans of the Volga region, became the center of the Old and Poltava canton (area).

The earth, as it turned out, especially did not wait for it: all fertile, convenient grounds were divided between wealthy members of rural community. The wife with the 9-year-old son vegetated in poverty. The old saying is right: the husband on service - the wife in need. Varvara too with impatience did not expect him, met without special joy.

At registration in party committee of the canton to it suggested to work in administrative department of executive committee of the Old and Poltava Council as Sr. militiaman. Judged in a Bolshevist way: both party, and educated, and the veteran, and in general with experience the companion...

Agreed reluctantly: it was heavy country to refuse a dream. The judiciousness got the best: the salary let is also small, however at the power any and at weapon - it is possible and so in people to be beaten out...

So it got to Narkomat's department of internal affairs of RSFSR - then still the republican, being engaged generally in construction bodies of the Soviet local authorities and municipal services. But the Head department of Workers' and Peasants' militia entering it in the operational relation submitted to OGPU, the terrible successor of Cheka.

He had to observe an order on meetings and holidays, to bring round drunkards, to pacify brawlers, to catch thieves and robbers. The odes -

noselchan... Adjusted the charged business. His diligence was estimated: in August the 1924th was translated from candidates for members of RCP(b).

And here family life went wrong completely. Varvara said soon that she leaves to another. Filed for a divorce and, having taken away the son, left to Saratov where immediately married...

Lenin who abruptly turned economic policy in favor of peasants died. But the 1925th year strengthened their hopes for free managing, full and safe life: The Council of People's Commissars lowered the amount of an agricultural tax in the spring and transferred it to a monetary form, allowed to leave, like Stolypin, community, to create independent economy, to rent the earth and to use wage labor. Bukharin and other leaders of ruling party urged peasants to develop the farms, to grow rich.

But to Yakov it was not so simple to return to work of the farmer any more. And volition, probably, was reduced... In July the 1925th it was raised: appointed the instructor of executive committee. And in October the 1926th was directed to study in Soviet and party school of the Republic of Germans of the Volga region. There was it in the capital of the republic - the city of Pokrovsk (former Pokrovsk settlement of the Saratov province).

Sovpartshkola trained party, Soviet and economic workers. There loaded with knowledge "chock-full". In Ya.T. Li-manskogo's certificate on the termination full, biennial, a course, given out on June 15 the 1928th in the Russian and German languages,-18 objects. Among them - mathematics, natural sciences, economic geography, political economy, economic policy, historical materialism, the history of party, the history of class fight, a promotion technique, the agronomical diploma, "partstry", State Committee for Construction, "economic system".

So far he studied, these most "partstry", "shsstry"

Yakov Limansky (in the center) among pupils of Soviet and party school of the Republic of Germans of the Volga region

Pokrovsk, 1928

and "economic system", all situation in the country, sharply changed. As well as many, the Estuary - the cue clearly saw external signs of these changes. He knew and the fact that it was hidden from "the ordinary weight": already cooked in a copper of local party life.

In the Central Committee fiercely argued how to overcome annually happening economic crises how to build socialism. Hopes for world revolution, speaking in a Lenin way, "krakhnut".

It became clear: The USSR it is necessary to resist to all capitalist world alone. Because of these disputes, and even under their cover, between leaders of party the fierce race for power ran high. Limansky, as well as other ordinary Party members, struck that deprived of all posts of Trotsky. That Trotsky whom all propagandists and propagandists, all newspapers and magazines represented the leader of the October revolt and the founder of the Red Army. Together with him Zinovyev and Kamenev, the closest associates of Lenin got beaten. For leading roles the secretary general of the Central Committee Stalin and the theorist Bukharin, "the young favourite of party" moved forward.

And in the 1927th the next crisis burst: break in relations with England, threat of new war, the frightened population safely from shelves only all recently appeared goods, peasants paid a tax, but laid the main part of grain in store. The hunger threat hung. Came to much to mind: Bolsheviks easily can return to N?

Tonelli Giuditta Concetta
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