The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Creation of a territorial education system in Western Siberia in the summer of 1917 in the spring of 1918.


UDC 930.2


K.A. Chekhovsky

Yurga Institute of Technology of TPU E-mail:

The short history of creation and development of national education in Western Siberia during "the first territorial period is stated in the fall

1917 -spring of 1918". The task to define the place and a role of a sferya of education in the system of territorial self-government, and also approaches and metodya of young Siberian zemstvoes in creation of school network, control systems and financing of education was set.

The history of development of national education in Western Siberia in days of revolutions and civil war (1917-1921) the interesting, but insufficiently studied subject of the Russian history. Researches show that these years the sphere of national education of Western Siberia endured four changes of the power, four times underwent changes that could not, will not be reflected in key indicators of this sphere and life of Siberians.

The analysis of works and archival documents on stories of national education in Western Siberia in 1917-1921, allow to draw a conclusion that from fall of 1917 to spring of 1921 in development of this sphere two main periods were allocated: territorial and Soviet. At the same time each of the periods passed in two stages having the following chronological framework:

1. The first territorial (fall of 1917 - the middle of March
1918 ).
2. The first Soviet (the middle of March - the middle

June, 1918).

3. The second territorial (the middle of June, 1918 - December
1919 ).
4. The second Soviet (revkomovskiya) (December
1919 - March, 1921).

The offered periodization allows to investigate the processes proceeding in education of Western Siberia in the conditions of periodic change of the power, change of its paradigms and concepts. In the present article results of a research of history of formation and development of a territorial education system during the first territorial period are stated: in the fall of 1917 - spring of 1918

Changes of education in Western Siberia began to happen in the summer of 1917 when the governmental decree of June 17, 1917, in Siberia entered territorial self-government. The Siberian region from colonial and native, managed by the administrative authority, passed into the category of full Russian territorial territories, having acquired the right of local government. On new administrative division, the territory of Siberia - Western and East were divided into provinces and areas. The Altai, Tomsk and Tobolsk provinces, and also Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions were a part of Western Siberia.

In new provinces and areas of Western Siberia territorial self-government institutions in which structure committees on national education were created began to be formed by summer of 1917. At the same time experience of zemstvoes of the central Russia which activity, was highly appreciated by the Russian public was used. The Russian zemstvoes general education and professional educational institutions opened: elementary rural and city schools, gymnasiums and teacher's seminaries [1. Page 55], table. In the territorial provinces of Russia in 1917 the number of competent reached 50% of the total number of inhabitants, and in provinces where zemstvoes were not, this indicator hardly reached 23% [2].

Experience of city self-managements of Siberia had important value. City Councils and justices of Western Siberia by 1917 had well fulfilled procedures of the organization of school education and construction. Experience of of Tomsk, Barnaul, Omsk, Kurgan, etc. is an example of it

So, from 1907 to 1913 in Novonikolayevsk on the project of the architect A.D. Kryachkov, 29 special school buildings for initial schools in which 3 thousand pupils studied [3] were built. In general in the cities of Siberia from 1907 to 1917 the number of elementary schools increased by 2/3 whereas in rural areas on 1/3. The disproportion between city and rural primary education in Siberia was caused by what city self-government own funds for development of education had. So, in Barnaul in 1917 the cities were financed 18 classes sets, and 36 classes sets - on state. In 1917 city self-government in Western Siberia financed from own means from 1/3 to a half of city schools [4]. Therefore the education level in the cities of Siberia considerably exceeded rural. According to the Altai statistical bureau the primary education in the cities captured 62.2% of children of school age and 15.1% of rural areas [5].

Table. Educational institutions of primary education of Western Siberia in the fall of 1917 - spring of 1918

Institutions of primary education Altai lips. Tomsk lips. Tobolsk lips. The Akmola Region The Semipalatinsk Region On provinces

The highest initial schools

Men's 3 5 - 4 3 15

Women's 3 5 1 5 2 16

Mixed 32 34 3 6 8 83

In total 38 44 4 15 13 114

Initial schools

One-cool 1042 1438 1492 1183 334 5489

Two-cool 81 37 86 73 19 296

In total 1123 1475 1578 1256 353 5785

With introduction in Siberia of zemstvoes, education received new conceptual, ideological and practical filling here. Zemstvoes brought in management and the organization of education public spirit and collective nature, intolerance to authoritative ignorance in all forms. The territorial educational ideology and conceptual bases of education in Western Siberia was formed in alienation, traditional for zemstvoes, to the government. The territorial public considered that education of the people is a care of society, but not the states. Zemets considered an ultimate goal of education creation of the educated society, as, they considered, from ignorance and darkness of the people there are public cataclysms. In a certain measure the zemets idealized education and exaggerated degree of its positive impact on individual and public consciousness. At the same time, practical activities of zemstvoes in education were pragmatic.

The main document defining activity of zemstvoes of Siberia in education was

"Provisional regulations for territorial institutions in the Arkhangelsk province and in Siberia" [6]. By situation (Paragraph 12, Chapter 1, Article 2), zemstvoes it was imputed: structure of network of elementary schools and other educational institutions; financing of territorial educational institutions and management of them; control of all educational institutions in the province. An obligation of zemstvoes also were: organization of preschool and out-of-school education; publishing house and book trade; structure of public libraries, museums and care of "protection of monuments and remains of old times" [7].

However, despite certain rights in the organization and regulation of all spheres of life of society, activity of the Siberian zemstvoes was under control of provincial and district commissioners of Provisional government. Zemstvoes had no right of the organization of armed forces, unlike councils which could organize the armed groups of Red Guard. Concerning protection of law and order and territorial institutions, zemstvoes had to address commissioners of Provisional government. Conceded to councils in the opinion of the inhabitant in this plan of zemstvo.

Establishment of zemstvo in Siberia coincided with carrying out in Russia reform of national education which purpose was an introduction in the country of universal, compulsory and free primary education. The Provisional government began reforming of primary education with laicisation of educational institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church. For this purpose Resolution of May 8, 1917 all general education and pedagogical educational institutions of Department of orthodox confession: parish schools and parish teacher's schools were transferred to the order of the Russian zemstvoes and the cities [8].

The following Resolution of June 20, 1917, the government founded the uniform system of elementary schools in Russia, having placed of schools of various departments under authority to the Ministry of national education. Management of schools on places was assigned by the same resolution to territorial and town councils [9].

On the basis of the above-mentioned documents the Ministry of national education of Provisional government sent the instruction of August 19, 1917 for creation of territorial and city school network to provincial territorial justices. In it self-managements were recommended to accept quickly on balance parish schools with all school property. For prevention of disputes and disagreements in the instruction it was offered to create at territorial justices special commissions of public members on transfer and reception of parish schools. In the instruction it was also noted that the credits which are released to Department of orthodox religion on the educational purposes will be translated on

accounts of zemstvoes upon acceptance by zemstvoes on balance of educational institutions of Church.

It should be noted that Resolutions of Provisional government of May 8 were issued also on June 20, 1917 without coordination with Russian Orthodox Church. October 2nd, 1917. The most sacred Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church considered the law of June 20 "About Transfer of Parish Schools to Maintaining the Ministry of National Education". In execution of a sentence of the Holy Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Holy Ruling Synod on hand to the Russian dioceses specified that the church reserves schools and school property which can concede to zemstvoes in temporary use for no more than for one year [10]. The most sacred Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church considered the law of June 20, 1917 as attempt of Provisional government of Russia to undermine authority and influence of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Merging of elementary schools of various departments in uniform network and creation of a territorial control system, demanded from young zemstvoes of Western Siberia of big preparatory work. Zemstvoes carried out inventories of schools, determined the contingents of children and illiterate adults in volosts and counties, the level and standards of coverage of territories by school education, investigated material and human resources. According to the conclusions of experts reports for district and provincial territorial meetings were prepared.

On the eve of territorial construction the system of primary education in Western Siberia was presented by schools of the Ministry of national education (ministerial), the Ministries of Internal Affairs (territorial), the Orthodox Christian Veroispovedaniya (parish), the Altai spiritual mission, the Siberian Cossack army, railway, national and confessional. Total number of schools of all departments in provinces of Western Siberia was approximately - 5790. From them 5500 schools of one-cool and 290 two-cool. Schools of the Siberian Cossack army was 190 one-cool and 10 two-cool [11]. A half of all schools was made by parish schools of Department of the Orthodox Christian Veroispovedaniya and the Altai spiritual mission, 30% were the share of schools the Ministry of national education, and 19% of initial schools belonged to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Other types of schools made less than 1%. At elementary schools of Western Siberia about 340000 pupils studied [12].

Exercised the general control of network of parish schools in Western Siberia the Tomsk, Omsk and Pavlodar diocesan uchilishchny councils through the offices in counties which were headed by priests. On places schools also parsons directed. Training of teachers for parish schools

carried out: 5 women's diocesan schools and 8 men's spiritual and also, two parish teacher's schools which were a part of a system of spiritual and secular teaching and educational institutions in Russia [13]. Also, in Department of orthodox confession there was a system of the external studies allowing graduates of two-great initial schools and the highest initial schools to take examinations for a rank of the teacher of parish school. Boards of spiritual schools knew these questions. Special public funds which were spent for salary to teachers and manuals were provided for the maintenance of parish and missionary schools. Construction or rent of rooms for schools, a household and other expenses were assigned to city and rural parish communities [14].

Unlike parish and missionary, the schools subordinated to the Ministry of national education so-called "ministerial", or MNP schools, were under construction and contained completely on public funds. They became widespread in Siberia during P.A. Stolypin's reforms. Such schools were from the very beginning provided with textbooks, library for pupils and teachers, and also all writing-materials. These schools, as well as parish, were with one or two offices. The first office was initial, the term of training was three years. It was considered as the first class, a course of the first office, corresponded to a course of one-great school. The second office: fourth and fifth of training, made a course of the second class [15]. The general control of these schools in 1917 in Western Siberia was exercised of provincial Directorates of national schools through regional inspectors. Provincial Directorates, were under supervision of the trustee of the West Siberian educational district. In 1917 N. Tikhomirov [16] was him.

Ministerial schools in Western Siberia were organized as "territorial", but those were not. The schools organized in the administrative management system of Western Siberia, which were under authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation at that time were considered as territorial. These one - and two-great initial schools still called schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. They from means of the state treasury and territorial collecting (taxes) were financed. Teacher's shots for ministerial and schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were prepared in the eighth pedagogical classes of female gymnasiums in Barnaul, Kurgan, Tomsk, and also in teacher's seminaries of of Omsk, Semipalatinsk, Novonikolayevsk, Tobolsk, Barnaul, Akmolinsk and Biysk [17]. Also at average educational institutions of Western Siberia, there were special examination committees which were carrying out the external studies on a rank of the national teacher. Results of examinations predsta-

vlyalis for consideration of the trustee of the West Siberian educational district and then, on a statement in the Ministry of national education [18].

Elementary schools of the Siberian Cossack army were the most not numerous category of schools in Western Siberia in 1917. It were the remains of a class system of educational institutions in Russia. The Cossack schools of the state and army treasury (70%), and also rural societies (30%) were financed. Control of teaching and educational work at these schools was exercised by Directorate of national schools by agreement with the army administration [19].

Fall of 1917 in the majority of provinces of Western Siberia there took place meetings of representatives of district zemstvoes on national education at which provincial committees on national education were founded. The principles of their organization were developed by the State committee at the Ministry of national education and presented in the guide "Provisional rules about management of schools and management of affairs of national education in provinces, counties and the cities" [20].

Provincial committees on national education were formed as advisory representative bodies. Representatives of district zemstvoes and the cities, the union of teachers, parental committees, the union of cooperators, financial and industrial circles, cultural sections of councils of soldiers, workers and peasants, the ministries of national education (inspectors of national schools and national education inspectors) were their part. Members of provincial territorial justices (provincial executive committees) headed provincial committees on national education. In full strength provincial committees were periodically convoked for the solution of fundamental issues and coordination. The current work on planning and management of education was carried out by departments of national education which were created in structure of committees. For work in departments experts were invited. The salary the manager of provincial departments of national education, as a rule, was appointed by provincial territorial meetings in the amount of 4800 rubles. (Altai lips.), up to 5400 rubles a year (Tomsk lips.) [21].

The organization of territorial committees on national education in provinces occurred unequally. In counties where there were already institutions of the power and before, there territorial justices and committees were created quickly enough. In again formed counties of Western Siberia as, for example, in Slavgorod the Altai province and Kalachinsk of the Tobolsk province, the organizational periods of committees on national education dragged on till January, 1918. The absence of qualified specialists in education affected. By the employee of district committees on national education the size of a salary was determined district territorial

meetings. The salary of managers of district departments averaged 4500-4800 rubles a year [22].

In some counties the initiative of the organization of committees and departments of national education proceeded from teachers as, for example, in the Kamensk County of the Altai province. There at an organizational meeting of the teacher of the city on August 29, 1917 made the decision to address in city and, district justices, with the requirement to organize school departments in each of them. The Kamensk district school department was organized only on September 19 as a part of representatives from district administration and the teacher's union [23].

District committees on national education in Western Siberia were formed the same as a part of departments: on national education and on out-of-school. Departments of national education consisted of two sections: preschool and school were also engaged respectively, preschool institutions (kindergartens) and elementary schools. Out-of-school departments dealt with issues of education of adults and also the organization of cultural and educational work in the county. In counties (New Nikolaev the Tomsk province, Biysk of the Altai province) where committees on national education were headed by heads of district zemstvoes, as a rule, work was put better. There earlier than in other counties the main documents were prepared: the provision on district department of national education, estimates of expenses of district zemstvo on education, and were also introduced innovations.

So, in the Biysk County (district the head M.K. Zyatkov) for the first time in Western Siberia the territorial system of school popechi-telstvo was organized. By situation, developed in the Biysk district committee on national education, school guardianship were created as public bodies of assistance to education in volosts and villages of the county. Teachers of schools, representatives from parents of pupils, local cooperatives and zemstvo were their part. Guardianship dealt with economic issues of schools, the organization of school meals, transportation of pupils, the help to pupils from needy families, with opening of Sunday and evening schools for adults. They conducted financial activity within the functional duties. In the wide plan these public institutions carried out all range of cultural and educational work in the village: organized public lectures and readings, folk theaters, festivities, collecting charitable means and many other things. Officially school guardianship did not enter a district control system, but had a direct connection with district Committee on Education through representatives from zemstvoes. Experience of the Biysk district zemstvo on the organization of school popechitelstvo in a consequence became widespread in provinces of Western Siberia [24. Page 33].

The process of the organization of provincial territorial education systems which is dragged out in general in Western Siberia delayed execution of a number of governmental decrees. Only at the beginning of January, 1918 the provincial departments of national education distributed in district justices the bill of the Ministry of national education "About abolition of educational district administrations and the temporary structure of managements of educational districts". In the bill it was told about creation of interim district committees and their institutions - district meetings for implementation of the procedure of transfer of the educational institutions which were under authority of trustees of educational districts to zemstvoes and the cities. Upon termination of transfer, positions of trustees and their office were supposed to be abolished. However at the beginning of 1918 in Russia the district control system of education continued to exist. It was connected with the fact that V.I. Lenin's Government is time did not start creation of the Soviet education system in Russia yet and tried to direct old. Therefore the credits for institutions of formation of the former Ministry of national education (with delays and with interruptions), went to the order of trustees of educational districts including West Siberian [25]. Through educational districts and their instances in Russia and in Western Siberia all educational institutions of the higher, secondary and professional education, and also the highest initial schools and including the MNP and Ministry of Internal Affairs elementary schools were financed.

The basis of this system of financing of elementary schools was formed by the state credits which were released on the estimates of the Ministry of national education approved for 1915-1917 to those departments under which authority educational institutions were. The credits were called allocations and were released, as a rule, for a half-year. In Western Siberia it was carried out through the Omsk, Tomsk and Tobolsk Treasury chambers from where the credits came into accounts of departments to provincial, and then to district treasuries. Allocations for ministerial and schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs monthly were confirmed by the Ministry of national education, and then the trustee of the educational district, and after that came to directorates from where went to inspectors [26]. Such order of financing ministerial and schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs was formally observed in Western Siberia, till January, 1918 [27].

Departments distributed allocations through own financial systems. Teachers of schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs got paid in volost committees, and parish - at parsons [28]. Such financing was bulky. Money transfer happened slowly, systematically there were interruptions in delivery of pay-sheets and confirmations. Such system put the school teacher in a dependency from volost committees and arrivals. Were not rare

cases of an arbitrariness of volost administration and priests concerning teachers. Cases of a delay of payment of a salary took place [29].

in the Fall-winter of 1917 the former tax system in Western Siberia was in crisis state, and new (territorial) was just formed. Zemstvoes experienced difficulties with financing of school network. As a result in the fall of 1917 of the teacher of elementary schools did not get a territorial rise to a departmental salary. The salary was rather regularly paid to teachers of schools of the Ministry of national education (through inspectors of national schools) on average from 47 to 51 rubles a month. From MNP credits, on 18 rubles 80 kopeks a month, received a salary of the teacher of the former schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The credits from department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs did not come to zemstvoes and completely receipts of the credits for schools from Department of orthodox confession stopped. The salary from means of arrivals was irregularly paid to teachers of parish schools 28 rubles a month. Besides, since March, 1917 the teachers of parish schools and the Ministry of Internal Affairs did not get (departmental) military rise to a salary of 35 rubles a month [30].

Numerous letters of teachers in which they recognized that they did not live in such conditions before revolution came to territorial committees on national education.

From the middle of December, 1917 into accounts of provincial and district zemstvoes of Western Siberia territorial collecting (taxes) began to arrive. Zemstvoes at once started payment of a salary to teachers in full for all overdue months. In some zemstvoes of payment of a territorial increase to a salary for 1917 were postponed for new 1918 financial year and began to pay since January, 1918 [31].

Along with the organization of a system of the lowest elementary schools, zemstvoes of Western Siberia in the fall of 1917 started drawing up development plans for network of the highest initial schools (HIS). The highest initial schools were the finishing step of full primary education and, in Western Siberia were under authority of the trustee of the West Siberian educational district. Under the law on the highest initial schools of June 25, 1912, from means of treasury the salary of teachers and technicians and also household and office expenses were financed. Construction or tenancy for VNU were provided by city or rural societies. These educational institutions in the provincial, district and volost centers were located. In 1917 15 men's, 16 women's and 83 schools of the mixed type [32] worked in the cities and counties of Western Siberia. The majority of VNU fell on the Tomsk and Altai provinces. Training in VNU was 4 years. Graduates of VNU had the right to pass without attending lectures of examination on a rank of the national teacher of ministerial schools and to come to the 5th class of a gymnasium, teacher's seminary or teacher's institute.

Practically all VNU in Western Siberia had one or several parallels. Financing of one-complete VNU at one parallel class made 13345 rubles a year. From them 8570 rubles from the state and 4775 rubles from local means. The staff of such school consisted of 7 teachers. The salary of teachers of VNU was twice higher than a salary of teachers of initial schools. In some VNU professional courses worked. 2100 rubles a year were allocated for their carrying out from treasury in addition [33]. In Western Siberia the professional classes, classes of manual work and professional courses worked in 25 VNU [34].

Considering the growing need of the population for the Highest initial schools, zemstvoes in the fall of 1917 started opening of these educational institutions on own means. To office of the trustee of the West Siberian educational district from zemstvoes applications on inclusion of again opened VNU in the state school network and were sent to estimates of the Ministry of national education for 1918. Expenses of zemstvoes on the maintenance of VNU in

1917 academic year of zemstvo carried on a debt of treasury to zemstvo. So, fall of 1917 it was open on average from 8 to 10 VNU in each Province of Western Siberia. Because of the shortage of teacher's shots, often transformed two-great or second-class schools to VNU as, for example, in the New Nikolaev County. There transformed 2 second-class and 4 two-great schools to VNU, and for completion of the second classes, transformed 15 one-great schools - to second-class [35]. 150045 rubles were allocated for the maintenance of these new 15 classes sets and 6 VNU district zemstvo [36].

At the beginning of December, 1917 the political situation in Western Siberia became aggravated. In some cities of Siberia the power of councils was established. So in Barnaul on December 6-7, 1917. Council of workers with assistance of soldier's committee of garrison displaced the provincial commissioner A.M. Okorokov and established control over treasury, telephone and railway stations [37]. By an example of Barnaul in. A stone the local council of workers organized revolutionary-military committee and on December 12, 1917 abolished a position of the district commissioner of Provisional government, having announced the power in the city and the county [38].

Then, on December 6, 1917 in Tomsk the Extraordinary Siberian congress of representatives of provincial zemstvoes for the purpose of creation of the all-Siberian power took place. The congress founded Temporary Siberian Council and Temporary Siberian Region Duma. About two representatives from provincial zemstvoes of Siberia were a part of the Duma. The first meeting of the Duma was appointed to January 19, 1918 [39. Page 27]. So in local government in Siberia the oblastnichesky trend began to be shown. The Siberian zemstvoes showed readiness for creation of the Provisional Siberian government, that is, from the local level of zemstvo competences reached level state.

18 December, 1917 the Council of People's Commissars issued the decree "About a holiday of 200 million rubles of the credits in the order of the interdepartmental commission for delivery of loans to the cities and zemstvoes". For receiving the credit as it was told in the decree, zemstvoes and city self-government had to submit the conclusions of local councils together with petitions for loans. In other words, zemstvoes had to get permission in local councils for submission of the petition. This decree Bolsheviks tried to subordinate zemstvoes to councils [40].

Zemstvoes of Western Siberia did not recognize the Decree of Council of People's Commissars of December 18, 1917 and continued construction of own system of managing and financing of territorial institutions without participation of councils. In January, 1918 the Council of People's Commissars did not finance zemstvo, and the credits on the Ministry of national education did not come to treasury chambers of Western Siberia. In this situation the provincial territorial committees took under control funds within the provinces and areas of Western Siberia and began financing of education on estimates for 1918, approved by territorial meetings.

In January, 1918 practically all provincial and district zemstvoes of Western Siberia had estimates of expenses on national education for 1918. In estimates (on the example of the Biysk district zemstvo), three types of elementary schools were presented: one-great schools with one teacher which annual maintenance made 2615 rubles; two-great schools with three teachers - with keeping of 7090 rubles a year and the highest initial schools with annual contents - 13820 rubles [41]. The average salary of the teacher of territorial school was 117-150 rubles in month [42]. 55...60% of the total amount of expenses on average fell to the share of zemstvoes in these estimates. Other part of expenses belonged to state means, so-called "to grants to zemstvoes on national education".

In February, 1918 in Western Siberia under the influence of Bolshevist propagandists and with the assistance of raspropagandirovanny soldiers deserters, coming back home, the bolshevization of councils and activization of a part of the population, as a rule - the former immigrants from the central Russia began the armed masses. By this time in the majority of provinces of Western Siberia among various councils (soldier's, working, country) showdowns concerning "legality of claims for the power" came to the end and leaders were defined. In the provincial cities the power passed to councils of working and soldier's deputies. In the district centers, councils of country deputies dominated. At the end of February - the beginning of March

1918 Sovietization of Western Siberia began. Those days the contemporaries noted the political metamorphoses happening to people, that is, mass appearance of "new Bolsheviks" [43]. At the beginning - the middle of March, 1918 of zemstvo and go-

rodsky self-government of Western Siberia under the threat of physical violence from retaliatory groups of councils, stopped the activity.

A third of the Siberian teaching did not recognize the Soviet power and did not make the decision of the All-Russian teacher's union to cooperate with Bolsheviks for the purpose of blasting their power. As a rule, it were teachers of the highest initial and real schools, and also teachers of gymnasiums. They made an exclusive part of teaching of Western Siberia and in the opinion of the inhabitant on Bolshevist classification treated to the bourgeoisie. As well as employees of department of education. So the inspector of national schools of the 3rd district of the Xie-mirechensky area was sentenced to execution

19 June, 1918 commander of retaliatory krasnogvardeysky group Ivanov [44]. About a hectare


1. National education in Russia / Sost. I.P. Belokonsky, E.O. Vakhterova, V.P. Vakhterov, etc. - M.: Type. I.D. Sytina, 1914. - 351 pages
2. A.P. Kirshevsky. The immediate tasks on on native formation of the Siberian Zemstvo//the Siberian Dawn. - 1919.-№3-4. - Page 117, 121.
3. M.G Hitaryan Began construction of the Soviet school in New Nikolaevsk (1917-1920)//From the history of Western Siberia. - the Issue 1. - 1961. - Page 65.
4. Bulletins of the Altai provincial statistical bureau. - Barnaul. 1920. No. 1. 2-3 it (is counted).
5. Center of storage of archival fund of Altai Krai / TsHAFAK / Df-51, Op. 1, Unit hr. 20, NN. 316 about., 319, 320.
6. TsHAFAK of Df-233, Op. 1, Unit hr. 15, NN. 002, 016 about.
7. TsHAFAK of Df-233, Op. 1, Unit hr. 15, L. 015.
8. TsHAFAK of Df-233, Op. 1, Unit hr. 15, L. 015.
9. TsHAFAK of Df-226. Op. 1, Unit hr. 5, L. 1.
10. State archive of the Russian Federation / GARF / Fr-320, Op. 3, Unit hr. 14, NN. 171-172.
11. GARF Russian Federation-320, Op. 3, Unit hr. 611, NN. 1-19.
12. GARF Russian Federation-320, Op. 3, Unit hr. 611, NN. 1-19 it (is counted).
13. GARF Russian Federation-131, Op. 1. Unit hr. 329. NN. 4, 4 about., 5, 5 about.
14. TsHAFAK of Df-51, Op. 2, Unit hr. 39, L. 33 about.
15. TsHAFAK of the Russian Federation-582, Op. 1. Unit hr. 2, NN. 1, 2.
16. State archive of the Tomsk region / GATO / Df-126, Op. 3, Unit of Hr. 538, L. 9.
17. GARF Russian Federation-320, Op. 2, Unit hr. 190, NN. 3, 10 about.
18. GATO Df-126, Op.3, Unit hr. 384, L. 12.
19. V.N. Kislitsin. National education in the Siberian Cossack army//Development of elementary school in Altai: Theses dokl. scientific and practical konf. - The Barnaul state. ped. in-t. - Barnaul, 1994. - Page 82-84.
20. National teacher. - 1917, No. 21-22, No. 23-24.
21. Report on activity of the Altai Executive committee in time from August 10, 1917 to January 20, 1918 Barnaul. 1919. Page 15-25.
22. TsHAFAK of Df-233, Op. 1. Unit hr. L. 9.

a part of teachers of Western Siberia took part in creation and work of Councils for national education of all levels. The rest of teachers took in general a neutral position [45].

So in Western Siberia the first territorial stage in development of national education was completed. Zemstvoes in the conditions of acute shortage in qualified personnel at the volost and district levels [46. Page 17] during the period since fall 1917 till spring of 1918 also control systems and financings of this network in provinces and areas of Western Siberia created territorial school network, and. Further development of structures of a territorial education system: preparation of pedagogical shots; remontnostroitelny; productions evident and manuals; supply and economic ensuring and also the system of professional education, it was interrupted with the Soviet power.

23. TsHAFAK of Df-226, Op. 1, Unit hr. 6, L. 1 about., 5, 6.
24. Chekhovian K.A. National education in Altai in the fall of 1917 - spring of 1921 Dis... to. and. N - Kemerovo: KEMGU, 1998. - 217 pages
25. TsHAFAK of Df-226, Op. 1, Unit hr. 6, L. 16 about.
26. GATO Df-126, Op. 3, Unit hr. 538, L. 9.
27. GARF Russian Federation-320, Op. 3, Unit hr. 59, NN. 2-3.
28. GATO Df-126, Op. 3, Unit hr. 583, NN. 12, 15.
29. TsHAFAK of Df-226, Op. 1, Unit hr. 5, L. 12.
30. TsHAFAK of Df-226, Op. 1, Unit hr. 5, NN. 12, 12 about.
31. TsHAFAK of Df-226, Op. 1, Unit hr. 5, L. 12 about.
32. TsHAFAK of Df-225, Op. 1, Unit hr. 5, L. 54.
33. GARF Russian Federation-320, Op. 3, Unit hr. 536, NN. 1-13.
34. GANO Df-160, Op. 1, Unit hr. 18, L. 28.
35. GARF RF-320, op. 3, Unit hr. 651. NN. 3-5.
36. GANO Df-160, Op. 1, Unit hr. 18, L. 43.
37. TsHAFAK of Df-233, Op. 1, Unit hr. 17, L. 20.
38. TsHAFAK of Df-225, Op. 1, Unit hr. 5, NN. 5-25.
39. The report on activities for carrying out territorial reform in the Tobolsk province. Tobolsk provincial committee on introduction of zemstvo. (on July 2nd, 1917 - on February 1st, 1918). Made for the first extraordinary session of the Tobolsk Provincial Territorial Meeting. Tobolsk. 1918. - 63 pages
40. Newspaper of the Temporary Worker and Country government. On December 21 (on January 3). 1917. No. 3.
41. TsHAFAK of Df-233, Op. 1. Unit hr. 17, NN. 30-35.
42. TsHAFAK of Df-225, Op. 1, Unit hr. 22, NN. 2-4.
43. TsHAFAK of Df-226, Op. 1, Unit hr. 6, NN. 7-23.
44. GARF Russian Federation-320, Op.3, Unit hr. 521, NN. 1-2.
45. Chekhovian K.A. Reorganization of national education during formation of the Soviet power (March - the middle of June
1918 ). - Barnaul: BGPU publishing house, 1997. - 38 pages
46. The report on activities for carrying out territorial reform in the Tobolsk province. Tobolsk provincial committee on introduction of zemstvo. (on July 2nd, 1917 - on February 1st, 1918). Made for the first extraordinary session of the Tobolsk Provincial Territorial Meeting. - Tobolsk, 1918. - 63 pages

Arrived 01.12.2005

Bruce White
Other scientific works: