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Carpathian Russia (historical and ethnographic essay) *



GOLOVATsKIY yak

CARPATHIAN RUSSIA (HISTORICAL and ETHNOGRAPHIC ESSAY) *

I. Galichina

From an era of classical antiquity we have no positive news of the population of the Carpathian pogorye and the adjacent countries. Ancient Greeks and Romans had an ethnology in former neglect; legends by their writers on others countries and the people inhabiting them are very confused, tangled and inexact. The father of history Herodotus writes that the Dniester River follows from the big lake which is on border of Scythia and the earth nevridov1. He places somewhere on inflows of mountain Dniester the people called galizona what other courageous scientists want to find a prototype of Galich and galichan in (?). From other writers of antiquity we know that during Alexander of Macedon somewhere at sources of Dniester there lived the bass-tarny and pevkina, the people of the Celtic or German tribes, occupying the first - east, the second - the western part of a slope Carpathian on-gorya. In the south of the Carpathians at sources the Yews lived agatirsa. During the emperor Augustus of a bastarna moved to the western Carpathians, pevkina receded to the North, and in the south from bastarn the Sarmatian tribe of yazyg occupied plains between Danube and Tisa. Moreover, since ancient times there lived in Carpathians Mountains the people of a karpiona or carps from whom as if and there is a name of the Carpathians. However it is impossible to determine by the data which reached us who were these galizona, nevra or neuritis, bastarna, pevkina, carat peonies, yazyg, demons, dava and other alleged inhabitants of the Carpathian pogorye and the adjacent countries.

Sketchy indications of the most ancient medieval chronographs about the people of Eastern Europe, in particular the Carpathian countries are not less confused and tangled. It is difficult to define as far as during so-called great resettlement of the people Carpathians Mountains were affected by a procession it is ready, gepid, Huns, Avars and other people and how many marks they left in the population of adjacent lands. After movement of the German tribes on the West and the South, Slavs in the history are, at first under a name of vened and ant, and later - under a name of Slavs. On North side of the Carpathians since the fifth century it is mentioned the people called by Croats and the earth by their Béla or Great Croatia in which Konstantin Bagryanorodny believes the area called by natives Briskly. Op-

* Excerpts from this article were chitana the author in a meeting of the third archaeological congress in Kiev on August 12, 1874

redely settling of Eastern Europe, Nestor supplies to us with the positive information about the population of the Carpathian region Slavs; it finds the same Croats in these lands. Thus, though it is impossible to prove with reliability to what tribe the first inhabitants of the Carpathian lands, but settlements of Slavs in them so drevn belonged in the ancient time that they can be considered primitive residents of the region. All topographical nomenclature of the Carpathian pogorye and nearby countries quite Slavic (Russian). All populated places, the rivers and mountains, streams and hills, keys and natural natural boundaries, fields and meadows, - a word, everything breathes and sounds clean Slavic peoples. It is occasionally possible to find the name indicating temporary prevalence of alien tribes.

However, there is no doubt that since the most ancient times the different tribes in the movement from the East on the West stopped at a northern foot of the Carpathians, and the remains of the people broken in interstine abuses escaped and found a convenient shelter in the Carpathian gorges. Salt sources, it is so rich beating on a northern slope of these mountains in present to the alichena and without effort delivering salt probably still for a long time attracted to themselves inhabitants who, having lodged here, valued this gift of the nature equally necessary for the wild nomad and for more educated farmer and the dealer. Without any doubt, in this country stayed in ancient time both chudsky, and Celtic, and the German tribes, and all of them left marks of the former life. Still numerous barrows and embankments tower through all subcarpathian country, hiding in themselves yet not studied monuments stariny2. But in any case it was in so remote time that in the ethnic relation there is no trace left neither in life, nor in life, nor in type, nor in a suit, nor in language, nor even in legends of the present population.

Since formation of the Slavic states - Velikomoravsky, Polish and Russian - the Carpathian pogorye was already constantly busy with the Slavic population to which no transition of ugr or the Magyar near Kiev (884 g) prevented in possession of the earth, followed then gaining of the Velikomoravsky principality (899 - 907) by them. Since then in Carpathians Mountains political borders of three states - Poland, Ugriya and Russia adjoined, but the people Slavic occupied the former settlements. It had to concede to nomads to Magyars only pritissky and pridunaysky stepi3. However, there are proofs that initial borders of these states were not on the Carpathians ridge, and at the southern sole of the Carpathian pogorye. The anonymous author, notariya of the king Béla, writes that the king Stefan signed the contract with the possessor Polish into the account of borders, drawing a line from the city of Ostrokholma (glories. Ostrihom, lat. Strigonium, is mute. Gran) and Erlau to river. A yew, later on river. Heat to the city of Slan (Sobvag) near Pryazhev, and here they put borders between Madyarshchina, Poland and Rusyyu4.

So, it is possible to tell positively that all subcarpathian country and the Carpathian pogorye were populated since prehistoric times with tribes Slavic. From there were probably (610 - 641) Serbians and Croats or maybe Czechs and occupied the lands which are nowadays occupied by them; here still Nestor of Croats, and in the neighbourhood with them - other Slavic tribes believed: buzhan, duleb, Drevlyans, tiverets, uglichy. From foundation of the Russian state the Russian princes of Ryurikov of the house owned all this earth; they started the Russian management and the Russian civil life here. In the XI century the power Rostislavichey was approved on the Carpathian pogorye that one of them, Vasylko Trebovlsky, could rush to conquer Poland with a thought and dreamed of distant campaigns and wars with the Danube Bulgarians and of victories over Cumans: "River, - Vasylko said,

>- to the brother the Volodarevi and David: the dayt mi the team it is young-shyuyu, and a piyta and veselitasya; and pomysly on the earth Lyadskaya I will step on winter and for the summer and I will take the earth Lyadskaya, and mshchyu the Russian land; and after this wanted esm reyat Dunayskye's Bulgarians and put I at a soba; and after this wanted you ask at Svyatopolk and at Volodimer of an ita - yes Ljubo I will fit Polovtsi to a soba glory, and Ljubo the head slozhyu for the Russian land... But for my vzneseniye depose mya God and restrain" 5. Unfortunate dazzle of the Cornflower prevented it to execute these haughty plans of powerful soul, but word so sincerely professed by the Cornflower picturesquely represent in what blossoming state there was at that time the Subcarpathian Russia and as the state of the Cornflower when he found it possible to make so important issues without the assistance of other princes was strong.

When in present Central Russia there lived still foreigners among whom the Russian life was just installed, - in Peremyshla, Yaroslavl, Terebovle, Galich, Belz, Buzhev, Zvenigorod and others gorodakh6 the Russian life boiled for a long time, the Russian civic consciousness thrived and the Russian culture developed.

Here, according to legends of chronicles, names well-known in the history of Volodar, Vladimirk and the Cornflower became famous; there was the main field of activity of Roman, Daniil, Lev. Here, in the Galich castle, Yaroslav Osmomysl on the zlatokovanny table highly sat, having propped up the iron regiments mountains Ugrian (still seen from ruins of the Galich fortress); from here he shut a gate to Danube, ryadit courts to Danube and shot with otnya gold of a table of a saltana for zemlyami1. Here Roman Mstislavich accepted the Greek emperor and with a proud bearing pointed to papal ambassadors to the sword at a hip which he defeated the enemies. From here, at last, came up lengthways across Dniester on one thousand boats the Russian troops which was so bravely battling together with the young prince Daniil Romanovich in unfortunate fight at Kalke8. From here the prince Daniil performed with the brilliant shelves on the help to the Ugrian king Béla IV, leaving on the beautiful horse on oby-

to tea Russian in a gold harness to which Germans were surprised and the king was enraptured with the fact that Daniil was in all splendor customs of the Russian fathers svoikh9, - quite blossomed life of the powerful Russian state was a word, here. And still there were Galich-Russian cities and places (though, however, in the changed look), and the most part of the areas and rivers mentioned in chronicles kept, according to the legend faithful to the nationality Luda, Old Russian nazvaniya10.

Except for invasion of Batyya before which infinite hordes the people headlong fled the ruined countries, being restricted to mountains and for Beskid11 and also having excluded ruinous campaigns-legged both Telebugi in Ugriya and Polshu12, to a half of the XIV century we do not notice any movement of tribes or big resettlement of the people in the Carpathian regions, except insignificant settlements of prisoners of war or voluntary colonies.

Invasion of Tatars to Galitsky Russia and ruin of all Carpathian country by them gave, however, a deep wound to national life to Russian, and these ruins by that were more pernicious that repeated periodically almost till the latest times. In folk songs there were memories of these attacks of Tatars and Turks.

After death of of the alitsky prince Yuri II Lvovich and after the termination of a princely sort in a straight line the galitsky throne was occupied by Mazowiecki the prince Boleslav Troydenovich, the son of Maria, elder sister of Yuri. Baptized and brought up by the mother in Orthodoxy and only in 1329 seduced in Catholicism, Boleslav abruptly handled Russia and committed violence over their orthodox belief; for this reason he was also poisoned, according to legends by Poles, and died of poison. After that the king Polish Kazimir under the pretext of relationship with the prince Russian and by the right of the strongest took control of the earth. Thus, in the first half of the 14th century the independence of the principality Galitsko-Russkogo, at the same time and the political history of independent Galitsky Russia came to an end. Hardly Kazimir managed to occupy Galichina as cruel fight between Poland and Lithuania which princes on the basis of relationship with the Russian princes coveted Red Russia, Polesia, Volhynia and Podolia ran high (Lyubart-Dimitrii Gediminovich, being married to the galitsky princess, Yuri's daughter

II, was the closest successor). Lithuanians in connection with Tatars devastated present East an alition on pp. Xiang and Dniester. After Kazimir's death (1370) during possession of the prince Vladislav Opolsky (for 1379) Ludovic Ougorsqui and his daughter Maria (for 1386) the same fight for Russian lands between Poland continued and the Lithuanian princes who, belonging to orthodox religion and feeding bent for the Russian nationality, always found sympathy and support in of alitsky Russia. After Vladislav Yagayl's marriage and connection of Poland and Lithuania the war, but soon Yagaylova's brothers, especially Svidrigaylo was appeased for a while, supporting desire of Lithuania and Russia to be released

from Poland, began new war with a crown. Svidrigayl was helped by Tatars and Russia in to the alichena, Volhynia and Podoliya. Meanwhile (1432) Poles managed to turn the alitsko-Russky principality which was into the Polish province, having called it the voivodeship Russian or Red Russia (Russia Rubra). When Turks took fortress Kiliya and Belgorod, and the Crimean Tatars (1475) move away in their protection, then attacks of Turks and Tatars began to repeat more often, ruining the unfortunate country which was brought to extreme obedneniya13.

Russia suffered, however, not only from attacks of Tatars, Turks and other enemies, but also in the unbridled Poland the gathered pospolity rushe-nye (militia) quite often rushed on quiet inhabitants and plundered the country not worse than the enemy as it is understood Polish istoriki14. Happened, the Polish army while will gather, Tatars left with captives and production long ago. Because of this not zeal about Russian lands attributed to the king after attacks of the Tatar, with impunity devastating Podo-liyu and Galichina in 1448, 1450, 1457, 1469 and 1474, this Polish disorder bothered all to the fact that representatives of the Russian nobility, despite the promised shlyakhetsky freedoms, threatened to elect to themselves another gosudarya15.

From the very beginning the Polish kings promised to observe the rights of Russia, but they never constrained the word. Kazimir Veliky promised not to constrain orthodox religion, but in 1370 in the diploma to the patriarch Tsaregradsky threatened to christen Russia in latinstvo16. Owing to the resolution of diet in Korchin in 1456. Kazimir Jagiellon published special privileges for voivodeships Russian and Podolsk, and in 1462 and for Belzsky, but only Catholics (that is newcomers Poles yes the seduced Russians) could use these privileges as still Vladislav Yagaylo excluded orthodox Russia from shlyakhetsky privileges. For this reason the notable and profitable advantages of voivodes, porridges-telyanov, heads, voyt (burgomasters) were distributed only to Catholics, and they had a voice and top on diets and in the royal senate. The Russian princes, boyars, noblemen were always and everywhere offended. The Russian clergy (popones ruthenicales) had to pay on an equal basis with other inhabitants (not shlyakhty) taxes (fertones), and that from soul, but not from the earth as other podatny estates, meanwhile as the Roman Catholic clergy was exempted from the national taxes, except for podymny (from the citizens) 17.

The boyars of Kerdeevichi seduced in Catholicism, Hodorovsky, Mozhen-chichi, Tsebrovskiye, Klyusa, etc. built on Russian soil churches and klyash-Torahs for Catholics and allocated them with rich funds, and the churches and monasteries left to poverty and ruin. Moreover, the Polish landowners assessed the Russian clergy with heavy taxes, appropriated jurisdiction over them, violently took away their dvorishch (estate) and banished them. In 1497 the Peremyshlsky bishop Ioanniky gave

the complaint to the king Albrecht that peremyshlsky heads at judicial proceedings with Catholics do not accept the certificate of Russians and consider them invalid and that heads force Russians to celebrate Latin prazdniki18.

Since gain of of alitsky Russia by Poles the political and religious oppression which proceeded nearly 500 years began. It is necessary to notice that in to the alichena oppression of the Russian element began earlier, than in the adjacent areas which got to the Lithuanian princes, and the Polish yoke of all pressed galichan stronger. The king calling himself gospodary (that is the sovereign) and the hereditary possessor of Russia (dominus et haeres Russiae), disposed without ceremony in Galichina whereas in the Lithuanian lands he had to respect the agreed laws. In the XV century the Polish kings charged management of Red Russia to the known surnames Odrovonzhov, Buchatsky, Hodechov which operated autocratically so-called voivodeship Russian. From the sort Odrovonzhov were voivodes Pyotr, and since 1450 the son his Andrey, and povremenno with them two other of the same sort occupied the highest degrees of Latin hierarchy: Ioann Odro-vonzh was an archbishop Lvovsky and Nikolay - the bishop Peremyshl-sky. The despotic board Odrovonzhov finished Russians excessively, and the zemstvo which is brought together in Lviv begged the king Kazimir Jagiellon to give them other chief of edge. Zemyan agreed to special contribution on the fertena (1/4 hryvnias) and on an ox with lana19 and to payment of a royal debt of Odrovonzhu only to exempt the native land from the hated governor. After that the Galich head Stanislav Hodech gave the Galich diocese to the wordly person Roman from Ostalovich which not only managed the Krilossky monastery and manors belonging to it, but appropriated judicial authority over orthodox clergy, collected from priests of a tax, solved marriage disputes and even terminated matrimonies, autocratically allowing divorced to enter new brak20.

Thus, the government had enormous influence on public life of Galitsky Russia. The Polish kings, favoring manors of the close people (Poles, Catholics), gave them and judicial authority over locals, and almost absolute power not only over peasants, but also over free owners Russian pravoslavnymi21, from where, without any doubt, the main source of political and religious oppression resulted. The landowner judged, awarded and executed the peasant in criminal cases without everyone apellyatsii22. Let's add to it that in the cities and places the Russian Orthodox Christians considered at Poles by gentiles were excluded from all rights, freedoms and privileges of the right Magdebourg which so generously was distributed not only to the cities and places, but even to some villages, with elimination of the ancient Russian rights and obycha-ev23. Now it is clear that the Magdebourg right granted to newcomers suppressed estate of the Russian citizens.

So far, however, the shlyakht the Russian was not balanced by the constitution in Edlna of 1432 in the rights with crown shlyakhty, and before recognition of the Vislitsky statute obligatory for Red Russia (at a territorial congress in Erasnos-tava in 1477) landowners of the Russian land had to by the Russian right leave territorial duties and duties in the attitude towards the king and to pay taxes. After the equation of the rights and privileges all weight fell on peasants. Since then all rights of the sovereign over peasants passed to the landowner (shlyakhtich); he acquired the right to impose new taxes terrestrial fruits and even money. The subear tax from peasants ^^топ є is since then got, poglowne), at preservation and former taxes, and peasants were obliged to pay festive, a serebshchina, martens, a dyakla, to give hens, eggs, capons, ssypa of a rye and oats, tithe, to work with a sickle, a braid and other.

Owing to replacement of the Russian right with the right Polish Russians suffered free estates: boyars, bortnik, clerks who were since ancient times subject to one prince and at Kazimir Veliky were ranked as free estates (on an equal basis with shlyakhty). What honourable value boyars in ancient Russia had, it is known: Poles, having deprived of them former advantages, divided boyars into three estates - boyars armor-clad, acceptable and altar boys (servitores) - and undermined all the rights and privileges. Clerks were competent people who probably took up a position of clerks or assistants at different departments. They signed by witnesses on diplomas on an equal basis with landowners, boyars, priests and bortnik; some of them received plots, manors and left a military duty. The estate of bortnik was absolutely depressed, their grounds were appropriated by landowners. Former owners of lands and free estates (dvorishch) - boyars, bortnik, clerks - are turned into domestics or enslaved in serfs; even priests are the priests sitting on the lordly earth, were forced to execute country duties. Moreover, in many places the Russian Orthodox Christians had to give to Catholic priests of tithe or a ssypa of a rye and oats (meszne) and to pay them taxes, festive and so forth 24 Sometimes lands with the peasants who lodged on them were given to lifelong possession to Jews with providing total freedom to them to dispose of grounds

25

krestyan25.

Living memories about good free times of ancient Russia remained in national poetry:

To dobra bulo to our fathers for davny years of life,

Docks our fathers did not know a robita panshchina.

Folk songs, especially ceremonial (Christmas carols, shchedrovka, gank, a harmony-kanya), often narrate about military campaigns, about a magnificent zbrua, precious furniture, infinite riches and all magnificent whimsicality of the highest princely and seigniorial estates.

But under heavy Polish possession the estate of boyars was brought in Galitsky Russia; one part, saving the privileges, had to merge with Polish shlyakhty, another is turned by judicial hooks, administrative tricks or just violence into serfs. However not all free people could sustain this outrage and quietly give in to enslavement. The former owners of free lands deprived of the manors oppressed by extreme poverty driven to despair and driven by Catholics threw the native land, united to busurmana and, revenging proud thieves of the property, entered Tatars into the native land, into the same manors which they are deprived by slyness polyakov26. In all the time of possession of Vladislav and Kazimir Yagel-lonov (1434-1492) especially often there were these ruinous devastations which proceeded also in XVI, and 17th centuries. Jan Zamoysky counted thirty big attacks of Tatars on the memory, without mentioning smaller. In this desperate time unfortunate bezdomovnik gather in distant naddneprovsky steppes and together with diverse natives form teams which in 1469 for the first time under a name of Cossacks attack Galitskaya zemlyu27.

The Polish kings, Catholic clergy and the Polish administration took great pain to suppress the Russian element in the areas acquired by them. They promoted the settlement of Germans and Jews on the cities and mazur on villages with violation of the rights of aboriginals; entered others customs, foreign language and someone else's law in the Russian land. Germans and Jews forced out the Russian citizens to suburbs and villages. Pining in unequal fight against the Polish and Magdebourg rights, petty bourgeoises hardly kept the belief, the customs and nationality. One rural people preserved the nationality, the language and the ancient traditions. Settlements of mazur in Russia did not follow in such quantity that could suppress and muffle the Russian people. Only the Belzsky principality given (1388) by the king Yagay-lom to a dowry to the sister Alexander and remaining in connection with the Principality of Mazovetskim for 1462 underwent resolute influence of Catholic management and exclusively Polish narodnosti28. Thus, though settlements of foreigners in Galitsky Russia began with the second half of the XIV century and constantly proceeded, however the mass of the people remained the same: the indigenous Russian people prevailed everywhere and lived up to now, remaining right customs of ancient Rusi29. Only on the northwest outskirts the integrity of the Russian population was undermined. Since the time of Kazimir Veliky the Visloka River (not the Vislok falling in Xiang) and Vistula were from the West borders of Rusi30; nowadays Re-shovsky County which was considered before the fall of Poland in the voivodeship Russian, all opolyachenny and catholicized, lost the initial nationality.

The best proof that prior to occupation the Peremyshlsky and Galitsky principalities Kazimir Veliky were not in Russia arrivals,

churches Catholic, unless in several settlements on border on Visloki's coast and Vistula, the list of Catholic parish churches which dad Kliment V on the Vienna cathedral 1326 and 1328 of years imposed with a tithe and a tax St. Petra31 can serve. In this list there are throughout present Reshovsky and Yaselsky Counties only 18 Catholic parishes which are located on the right coast of Visloki in Izdryatsinsky dean's office - in the town of Yasle, Novom and Old Zmigoroda and in the villages of Zryatsin, Bezdezhe, Klete and Shebne, then in Forest or Dubitsky dean's office (in decanatu de sylvis vel Dambitia) in Saudiszow, Chudetsa and Dobrekhov, at last, in the corner between Vistula and Xiang of 9 churches which are due to the Sandomierz archdeaconate namely on the right coast of Vistula in the villages of Mekhotin, Magna Villa, Chereshne, Gorichakh, Vryava and on the left bank of the Syana River in Zaleshanakh, Harevi-chakh, Radslavichakh and Belin.

Fathers constantly sent the missionaries of monks for the address of Russia to Catholicism, but without any success. If they managed to base the Catholic community somewhere, then fathers would not fail to claim from them so strictly collected by them Saint Pyotr's denariya. And as it did not happen, therefore, all other population, without any doubt, was Russian, having the orthodox priests from whom dad had no right to demand tithes,

32

nalogov32.

The Polish historians take great pain to prove that Roman Catholic parishes in the Russian cities and villages are founded long before taking of Galicia by Kazimir, but these verbalizations are based on documents obviously false. So, for example, they write that on an oak board of an ancient Peremyshlsky church of St. Pyotr there was an inscription that the big altar local was consecrated with the Krakow sufragan Ioann in day of Rise on May 16, 1212. But this note, obviously, a poddelna, therefore, first, that at this time there were no sufragan in the Krakow episkopiya; secondly, in 1212 there was Easter on March 25, therefore, and Rise was before May 16; thirdly, St. Gedviga who between other Saints erected an altar in 1212 was in live and could not be canonized as she died only in 1243. The same Polish historians, referring to ancient diplomas, say that arrivals to Chermne and Gogolev are founded in 1312, in Tarnov-tsa - in 1313, in Zabezhov - in 1318 by some Maltese knights Frikachy, Brandishy and Pakoshy (as they say in documents); meanwhile it is known that an award of knights of St. Ioann Iyerusalimsky only with

1530 years began to be called Maltese when he from the emperor Charles V received as a present the island of Malta. Here is how it is carefully necessary to handle the Polish historical sources and to subject them to strict criticism!

Since 1772, that is since the occupation of Galichina the Austrians, the German colonists special villages on the Galitsky earth, but they are stretched

live independently and have no influence on life, customs and legends of the Russian people.

Speaking about settlements Polish in of alitsky Russia, it would be curious to learn time when where and in what quantity the Polish or mazursky colonists settled. There is no doubt that else during independence of Russia the Russian princes lodged the Polish captives on the earth. Taking into account that at that time the name Poland, the Pole and so forth was not used yet, we can conclude with fidelity that the areas named by Lyashki, Lyakhovichi, Lyadskoye or Lyatskoye belong to the most ancient colonies Polish in to the alichena, long ago absolutely Russified. As the proof of antiquity of these settlements still that circumstance that these villages have very narrow Polish and Catholic population and that, opposite to that, in many of them the Russian population is numerous can serve; these villages have the Russian parish or filial churches, but we find a church in one of settlements that could not happen if settlements were formed during the Polish dominion. Let's take, for example, some of these villages and we will compare the population of both nationalities:

Russian Poles

Lyashki Gornye (Berezhansky County) parish 650 d 12

Lyashki Dolnye (in the same place) filial 398 9

Lyashki (Lvovsky county) " 345 8

Lyashki Korolevskiye (Zolochaysky County) arrival. 688 151

Lyashkov (in the same place) " 974 19

Lyakhovich Roadside (Sgryysky County) " 853 29

Lyakhovich Over the river (in the same place) " 739 14

Lyakhovtsa (Stanislavsky of the county) " 1144 31

Lyatskoye (in the same place) " 1417 11

Lyadskoye (in the same place) " 745 128

Lyatskoye Velikoye (Zolochevsky County) " 830 149

Lyashki (near Ship Cherry) " 921 1

Lyashki Dolgiye (Peremyshlsky County) " 1658 624

Lyashki Gostinnye (in the same place) " 1046 at all N

Lyashki Zavyazannye (Samborsky County) " 695

Lyashki Muravannye's

(in the same place) " 681 180

Lyatsko (in the same place), assigned church 734 40

Valcke Mazovetskaya (Zholkovsky County) arrival. 1622 9933

Alitsky Poles claim that they are the same ancient inhabitants of the country, as well as Russians that of an alichin was absolutely an obezlyudnena that the Polish kings and sirs occupied her the Polish people, cultivated the Russian heathlands, got the Polish plow wild fields and gave them kulture34 and that as if the Polish peasants and shlyakhtich in thousands lodged in imaginary Russian deserts; some of the Russian writers, taking Poles a word,

echo these fragments, proclaiming a cultural mission of Polshi35. For the proof that all these verbalizations have no historical reasons and that the Polish colonies were not so numerous we will consider documents and we will take from them dannye36.

The Polish settlements on Russian soil began actually with occupation of of an alichina the king Kazimir called by Veliky; till that time there were in Russia neither Poles, nor priests, nor churches, nor klyashtorov37. As creation of a church and establishment of arrival was caused by the number of the lodged Catholics, and any case of establishment of Catholic parish can show us if not time of new colonization then strengthening Polish the population in Russia.

Kazimir, having occupied the city of Lviv, did not find in it any Catholic church in which could even bring thank goodness for capture goroda38. During Kazimir's possession (from 1341 to 1370) Catholics did not make almost any progress in distribution of the belief in the Russian land. Fathers as if sent some bishops in Peremyshl and Vladimir and monks missionerov39 for the address of the people to Catholicism, but their works were vain. Except three or four churches in Lviv, throughout thirty years the Poles did not manage to construct in Galichina of any Catholic church. Kazimir threatened Tsaregradsky to the patriarch that he christens Russia in Latin veru40, but did not dare to make that, without feeling strong in possession of violently appropriated earth.

However earlier and more successfully Catholicism was installed by much in the west of the Peremyshlsky principality. For ensuring the possession taken from Russia, Kazimir constructed locks in Oseka, Krosna, Sanoke and other places; he settled the German colonists and in the western Galichina, established arrivals to Zagorye (1343), in Gartlyov (1360), in Oseka and Sambora (1363-1370). Establishment of arrival in Resho-va Pakoslavom Reshovskim in 1354 belongs to the same era. In many places of the Peremyshlsky diocese the creation of churches and establishment of arrivals is attributed to the same king though these legends have no reliable evidence.

More safely Ludovic, the king Polish and Ougorsqui arrived. He founded a Catholic arkhiyepiskopiya in Galich and episcopal department in Pere-myshle then Vladislav Opolsky based about 1372 a church in m. The town and in 1375 founded Catholic parish in Yaroslavl under Xiang, and the prince Mazowiecki Semovit constructed churches in 1388 in m of Liu-bacheve and in 1394 - in Belze.

All the king Yagaylo, perekreshchyonny from Orthodoxy, started distribution of Catholicism more resolutely. During its possession from 1386 to 1433, throughout 48 years, Catholics constructed 24 churches in one Lviv diocese and founded as much Catholic parishes, namely: in 1391 - in m to Shchirtsa, in 1397 - in m Glinyanakh, in 1399 - in m Kulikov, in 1401 - in Buchache and Maryampole m, in 1410 - in m Borozdovichakh, in 1418 - in m Malchichakh, in 1423 - in m Koroptsa, Potylich and Terebov-

le, in 1427 - in Galich and Strye, in 1431 - in m Yarychev and in 1433 - in Bushche m.

At this time there were churches even on some villages, especially near Lviv: in 1397 - in the village Sokolniki, in 1399 - in the village of Krotoshin, in 1400 - in the village of Vyzhlyanakh, in 1414 - in the village of Lopatin, in 1420 - in the village of Chizhikov, in 1421 - in ss. Puppeteers and Petlikovtsakh, in 1426 - in the village of Zhelekhov, in 1429 - in the village. The island, in 1430 - in the village of Koshcheev.

There was Yagaylo in establishment of Catholic parishes in the western Galichina even more jealously. He constructed more than 30 churches in the Peremyshlsky diocese and founded at them arrivals, namely: in 1386 - in the village of Yasenke and Kroshchenke m, in 1388 - in the German colony Gachev, in 1391 - in Pere-myshle, in 1392 - in Drogobiche, in 1393 - in m. To ship Cherry, in m of Krosne and in the village of Rudolovichakh, in 1398 - in Krivche m, in 1399 - in m of Porokhnike and the village of Koseniche, in 1400 - in m Yasliskakh and the village of Rokitnitse, in 1404 - in m Mostiskakh, in 1406 - in ss. Near and Equal, in 1407 - in Dubetske m, in 1408 - in m Gusakov, in 1409 - in ss. Gumnisk and Pribyshovke, in 1410 - in Morigolode m, in 1412 - in Peremyshle and in the village of Lyubatov, in 1413 - in m Beryozovo (Brsozow) and in the village of Prisetnitsa, in 1415 - in the village of Chukov, in 1416 - in the village of Zhuravitsa, in 1419 - in the village Vyshati-chakh, in 1425 - in the village Lyutcha, in 1430 - in ss. Hunters and Zarechye, in 1432 - in Radymne m. Moreover many churches over river are constructed by Yagayl. Hanging and which in Reshovsky, Tarnovsky and Yaselsky Counties.

Some of the Russian boyars seduced in Catholicism were founders of arrivals and builders of churches, except the king, the archbishop and chiefs of edge: Hodorovskiye, Klyusa, Kerdei-Buchatskiye, Motonchi-chi, etc. However, many churches and arrivals were established on excess jealousy of Catholic sirs without special need as the Catholic population in them could not be numerous if throughout four centuries it increased not higher than 300 souls, and even with assigned these ancient arrivals have no more than 600-700 souls; for example, in Malchi-chakh 65 souls, and with 7 assigned villages of 672, in m Kulikov 161, and with 20 assigned villages of only 846 of Catholics are considered nowadays; in m Borozdovichakh of 388 and from 13 assigned 604, in the village of Vyzhlyanakh of 259, in the village of Zhelekhov of 282, in Puppeteers of 80 souls. In m of Krivche of the same Peremyshlsky diocese where Catholic parish in 1398 is founded, 250 souls of Catholics, in m Gusakov where arrival arose in 1408, only 117, in m Nitakovichakh where the church exists since 1431,-389, in m Krukinichakh where arrival is founded in 1439, only 394 of Catholics are considered only. On many assigned villages no more than 5, 10 or 20 souls consider and nowadays Catholics, that is, landowners, their servants, salesmen and so forth, and there are no Polish people at all.

Under nondurable dominion of Vladislav Varnensky (14341444) the prozelitsky activity continued, and 5 more Catholic parishes are founded: in 1436 - in m to Yazlovtsa, in 1439 - in Mikhalche m

and in the village of Davidov, in 1441 - in the village. To a squirrel, in 1443 - in m Kopachintsakh. In the Peremyshlsky diocese it is founded at this time as much arrivals: in 1434 - in m Rikhchichakh, in 1439 - in m Krukinichakh, in 1440 - in the village of Yatmire, in 1441 - in m Zarshin and in 1442 - in the village of Myshlyatichakh.

In Kazimir Jagiellon's reign (1447 - 1499) during frequent attacks of Tatars and Turks the new network of churches and arrivals on places and villages of Galitsky Russia is stretched: in 1449 - in the village of Rodatichakh, in 1452 - in m Gologorakh, in 1453 - in the village of Zimnavode, in 1454 - in the village. An old mudflow, in 1458 - in the village. Bugs, in 1459 - in the village. Valve cores, in 1460 - in m Hodorov, in 1463 - in Podgaytsakh and Podkamen, in 1469 - in m. To the valley, m of Kolushe and in the village of Semenivka, in 1470 - in m Ugnov, in 1471 - in m to Kamenka Strumi-lova, in 1473 - in m to Yagolnitsa, in 1475 - in m to Gvozdtsa, in 1481 - in m Olesk, in 1484 - in Svire m, in 1485 - in m Dunayev, m Tolmach and in the village of Prussakh, in 1488 - in Zhuravne m. Total throughout 45 years 22 arrivals. At the same time arose in the Peremyshlsky diocese of 29 parish churches, namely: in 1447 - in the village. To a glade, in 1448 - in the village of Goltsov, in 1451 - in m Nizhankovitsakh and the village of Nebeshchanakh, in 1453 - in the village of Klimkovke, in 1454 - in m Yavorov, in 1460 - in ss. Garth and Korolike Polsk, in 1462 - in m to Novotantsa and in ss. Lanovtsakh and Wessel, in 1463 - in Novome-ste m, in 1464 - in m Zynov and the village of Ivoniche, in 1469 - in the village of Lyashkakh, in 1470

>- in m to Yasenitsa, in 1471 - in ss. To Gromna and Bakhortsa, in 1473 - in Komarne m, in 1476 - in the village of Radinichakh, in 1477 - in the village of Milchichakh, in 1478 - in the village of Birche, in 1480 - in the village of Pnikushe and the village of Yasenove, in 1484 - in the village of Voyutichakh, in 1487

>- in the village of Didne, in 1488 - in the village. A little finger, in 1490 - in the villages of Uykovichakh and Vorotsin-ke.

In the XVI century during the religious debate and distribution in Poland of Protestantism and freethinking the former eagerness to the structure of churches so at Jan-Albrecht (1492-1501) in the Lviv diocese there did not arrive any Catholic church cooled down in Poles, in Pere-myshlsky them it is constructed five: in 1493 - in ss. Stoyantsikh and Lyubene, in 1494 - in the village of Stremovichakh, in 1495 - in the village of Torgovishche and in 1501 - in m. Old place to Sambora. At Alexander Jagiellon (1502 - 1506) in the Lviv diocese only one arrival is based - in 1505 in m of Narole and in Peremyshlskaya three: in 1502 - in m. Old Salt, in 1503 - in m Lisk and in 1506 - in m Korchin. The fact that in forty years' reign of Sigismund I (1507-1548) in the Lviv diocese only 10 parish churches are founded is more surprising than everything: in 1509 - in Dobrotvore m, in 1517 - in Sokale m, in 1520 - in the village Sokolov, in 1521 - in the village of Malekhov, in 1522 - in the village of Bavorov, in 1525 - in m Oleshitsakh, in 1528 - in Varyazhe m, in 1530, - in m Nemirov, in 1533 - in m. To a bear spear, in 1545 - in the village of Zholtantsakh, in 1546 - in Boberke m, in 1547 - in m Zaloztsakh. Meanwhile in the Pere-myshlsky diocese the following 22 arrivals are founded: in 1508 - in m Babich, in 1510 - in m of Domarazhe and in the village of Gochev, in 1511 - in the village Luzyny, in 1512 - in the village of Osobnitsa, in 1514 - in the village of Brukhnale, in 1520 - in

page Swizciany and in the village of Chermne, in 1525 - in the village of Blazhev, in 1529 - in m Bukovsk and tt. Gribovnitsa and Width, in 1530 - in the village of Fulshtin, in

1531

Paul Kory
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