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Historical prerequisites of creation of children's public organizations in pre-revolutionary Russia

r. V. Kovshov


Work is presented by department of history of pedagogics of the St. Petersburg academy of post-degree pedagogical education. The research supervisor - the Doctor of Philosophy, professor M.V. Zakharchenko

In article the perspective of a historiography of the children's movement is considered and historical prerequisites which led to emergence of children's associations in pre-revolutionary Russia are defined.

The article considers the problems of historiography of children&s movement and defines the historical reasons for creation of children&s public organizations before the Revolution in Russia.

In recent years at the state level the process of the solution of the problems connected with future generations of Russia was intensified. The power and society united in understanding that the further delay in care of tomorrow will lead the country to enormous troubles or possible territorial disintegration. From 1990th in the state dozens of all-Russian problems collected: demographic, ethnotolerances, savings of natural resources and others.

One of them is a problem of maintaining health, intellectual and moral potential of younger generation.

On May 30 this year the President of Russia V.V. Putin at a meeting of the State Council devoted to questions of culture emphasized need of constant attention of authorities and the public to this national problem.

Despite action of numerous destructive factors, the family and school continue to remain the main institutes of education and education of youth. Thanks to the fortress of traditions of the Russian education the potential of science and education in our country remains rather high, but now the question of falling of level moral more than ever is particularly acute

and physical good breeding among children and youth.

The state paid attention to need of the solution of the matter. Programs for patriotic and physical training of younger generation at the federal, regional and local levels are adopted. Institutions of secondary and higher education, sports schools and creativity young constantly work over the solution of tasks of education of children at home.

At the same time it is clear to any experienced teacher that not each teenager will go to the free time in establishment of an education system. The youth creates the subculture, own informal organizations. The public associations which are independently organized by teenagers and youth are not always guided in the figure - Nosta by the moral ideas of the senior generations. The great concern at society you - is zyvat by extremist activity of some of them.

Crisis of generations has certain impact on specifics of a modern educational situation. And to psychological (traditional) crisis of fathers and children (S.Hall, L. Foyeyr) 1 added crisis of value reference points today owing to what personal pictures of the world of the modern adult and teenager in many respects essentially differ among themselves. In practice it leads to a situation in which younger study not so much at seniors, how many at peers.

The American anthropologist and the ethnographer Margaret Meade, considering cultural history in terms of evolution of ways of interaction of generations in the sphere of broadcast of social and cultural experience, represents it as consecutive formation of three types - post-figurative, kofigurativny and prefigura-tivnogo2.

Post-figurative culture is a traditional society where all changes

proceed slowly, generations generally repeat life each other and children study at adults. Kofigurativny is a modern society where there are rapid changes and children and adults you you are nuzhdena to study at peers. Prefigu-rativny is society of the future where the wave of rapid changes demands creativity from most of members of society and therefore children and adults mutually train each other.

The modern kofigurativny type of culture extremely increases the importance of influence of group of peers on formation and development of the person and demands need of support by adults of those children's communities who would transfer to the members cultural traditions of last generations.

The modern scientist-etolog3 K. Lorentz also writes about a cultural gap between generations. According to him, this gap does not allow the younger generation to belong with trust to experience of the previous generation and to inherit culture developed by it. Lorentz builds model of the phylogenetic program of cultural inheritance. It consists of three elements: imitation behavior of parents (perception of tradition), a physiological neofiliya (refusal of obedience to parents, search new and fight for it) and late obedience (secondary acceptance of parental experience, its integration with the acquired own). This model allows to define where the program begins to glitch today. Lorentz considers that destruction of rank structure of family on - rushat the first element of the program: there is no assimilation of "the culture of fathers", the emotional connection with mother collapses. Invasion of illusions of rationalism at a step of a neofiliya forms an emotional gap between generations owing to what return to a phase of "late obedience" is impossible. K. Lorentz considers emergence of radical youth movements symptomatic yav-

leniye of destruction of the phylogenetic program nasledovaniya4.

Therefore, according to Lorentz's ideas, in present period destructions of cultural traditions society needs institutes of support of transition of teenagers in the phylogenetic program of cultural inheritance from a stage of "secondary obedience", neo-filii in a phase. Among similar educational structures there are children's public organizations having the purpose and essence of the activity ensuring free creativity of children along with transfer of experience of adults to them.

According to Article 4 of the Federal law "About the State Support of Youth and Children's Public Associations": "Children's associations are associations which citizens aged up to 18 years and the full age citizens who united for the joint activity directed to satisfaction of interests, development of creative abilities and social formation of members of association and also for protection of the rights and freedoms enter".

Along with legal determination of children's public structures there is a set of the concepts developed in pedagogical srede5.

Together with the children's public organizations having the accurate charter and structure, teachers allocate such social phenomenon as the children's movement. It represents set of coordinate actions of the minor citizens or their organizations directed to realization of any idea. The movement arises spontaneously or is organized by adults specially, is legally issued or informal, including ekstremistskim6.

Legally registered children's public organizations and movements not only turn off the most "active" teenagers from youth extremist movements and "influence of the street", but priviva-

yut interest in society life, its values and traditions.

Represents interesting to find a historical point of start of the address of attention of the Russian society to need of emergence and development of children's social movement as the structure helping family and school with education of children.

In Soviet period among the population the myth that positive moral education of children by means of the children's organizations began in the 1920th after creation of the pioneer organization was distributed. Not only pupils and their parents, but also teachers of the St. Petersburg schools are not informed on existence of other children's public associations of the beginning of the 20th century. Says selective interviewing in December, 2006 about it of the teachers and the former pioneer leaders of schools of the Nevsky and Frunze districts of St. Petersburg working in Soviet period.

At teachers a weak idea of a range of pre-revolutionary social movement of St. Petersburg-Petrograd was had. Names of public and political structures for adults of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries were known to teachers: "National will", "Mikhail Arkhangel's union (Black one hundred)", "cadets", "Tolstoyans". At the same time teachers were told nothing names of the large youth and children's pre-revolutionary organizations: "Lighthouse", "May union", Amusing Troops, "Work and Light".

Nevertheless the analysis of historical, social and political and historical and pedagogical literature shows that the pre-revolutionary public of Russia from among the advanced teachers, military, businessmen and just parents actively was engaged in physical and moral training of children.

Lack of information on the matter of the Soviet society is caused by influence of a stereotype about indispensability of the pioneer organization in education of children,

created by communistic media. Rooting of this stereotype in a historiography of the children's movement happened thanks to the resolution of a meeting of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League Central Committee Bureau of December 29, 1937. On it from public libraries 60 "harmful" names of books on the history of Komsomol and pionerii7 were withdrawn. In the next years the Soviet researchers of history of the pioneer organization (I.G. Gordin, V.V. Lebedinsky, E.S. Monzhele) 8 tried to forget all nurseries and the youth organizations of tsarist Russia, except "bourgeois" scout. According to Marxist-to-Lenin dialectics, the part of the ideological opponent of the "proletarian" pioneer organization was assigned to it.

In the 1990th the appeal of researchers to a true story of the Russian children's movement happens. These years, scientific works on this subject (V.S. Zotov, V.A. Kudinov, Yu.V. Kud-ryashov) 9, based on documentary materials of archives of the Komsomol, pioneer and foreign scout organizations and literature of the 1910-1920th appear. (I.K. Zhukov, V.A. Zorin, G. Dietrich, N.N. Mironov) 10.

According to these works it is possible to develop classification of children's public organizations of pre-revolutionary and Soviet Russia. They can be divided on the purposes of the activity into several types:

• student, being engaged in self-education, cultural and sometimes political development of school students ("The northern union of the studying youth" (1897), "The southern Russian group of pupils of high schools" (1899), the Organization of average educational institutions of Petrograd (1917));

• educational, organized as youth and children's Protestant societies of the West ("Lighthouse" of the Christian Union of young people (1900), S.T. Shatsky's Seth-lement (1906), "Work and light" (1916));

• sports ("A circle for physical development of youth during summer vacation" (1897), "Gymnastic society of "Falcon" 11 (1899), "Society of corporal education "Athlete" (1900));

• labor which appeared after the revolution of 1905-1907 as independent production divisions of children (trade artels, teams of messengers of newspapers and messengers, school children's cooperatives);

• ecological ("The May union" of the Finnish storyteller Ts. Topelius (1901), "Society of young naturalists" at Forest commercial school Peterbur - hectare (1904), "Young naturalists" (1919));

• patriotic, having ideology of fidelity at the heart of education I reign also to the Fatherland and training soldiers (the Amusing Troops organizations (1908) or faithful citizens - a scout movement (1909));

• national (Jewish Yugend-Bund (1908) and Maccabi (1917), Georgian Amirani (1915), Polish "Young ruzhanets" (1919));

• religious, created by church in the years of Civil war for preservation of the influence on children ("Christ's florets", "The children's union at the Novodevichy Convent of the Petrograd diocese", "The union of the studying Muslims of the Caucasus", "The Baptist union of youth");

• communistic ("Young communists" (1918), Nurseries Proletkult and International (1919), pioneer organization (1922)).

Apparently from comparison of the presented dates, practically all children's public organizations of Russia appeared in recent years 19th century - the first two decades of the 20th century

The diversity of children's associations of pre-revolutionary time remained in the years of Civil war. In the 1920th this variety of the organizations was unified by one structure - the All-Union pioneer organization of V.I. Lyonya -

on. In the 1930-1950th there was a correction of a historiography of the Russian children's movement and creation of a stereotype about the pioneer organization as only carrying out the correct education of children. In the early nineties the state ceased - to zyvat an eye support of monopoly of VPO that allowed to be restored to variety of the children's organizations. Besides many of them consciously build a continuity with children's associations of the beginning of the 20th century

It is necessary to define what historical prerequisites affected that at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries there was an emergence of children's public organizations in Russia.

In the developed countries of Europe the first junior public organizations appeared in the middle of the 19th century

The ideological foundation of emergence ev - the ropeysky children's organizations was laid by development of the progressive pedagogical ideas of XVIII - the beginning of the 19th centuries, led to humanistic changes in the relation to the children's period of human life, to granting to youth the right to some freedom of thinking and activity.

Growth of the industry promoted inflow to the European cities of youth from rural areas and led to formation in them the marginal environment. Distribution of crime and alcoholism in proletarian slums brought the western society and the local church management to a thought of fight against these defects through educational public associations of children and youth. In 1844 in Great Britain thousands of teenagers were included into the Christian Union of young people (UMSL). In several years the Christian Union of young women appears (У^СЛ). Both unions continue the activity presently and total millions of members worldwide.

Colonial wars and development of sport in Europe influenced creation in the Czech Republic of gymnastic society of "Falcon" (1863),

in Great Britain - the military organization Crews of Boys (1883), in Germany - the tourist association "Migratory birds" (1897) 12.

In Russia the nurseries and youth public organizations appear several decades later, than in the countries of Europe. This circumstance is connected with the following interconnected factors of development of the state during this historical period: low urban saturation, weakness of a public initiative and conservatism of the authorities.

By the beginning of the 20th century of 82% of the population of Russia lived in the village. Communal and patriarchal tenor of life in rural areas was exposed to weak influences of time. More than a half of rural children did not attend school. The community and parents considered that primary education is enough for further labor life of the child. Rural teenagers and youth practically spent all the day time at work. The youth rural subculture of leisure was self-sufficient and promoted socialization of teenagers without special structures. A personal initiative of Nicholas II of creation of the children's militarized associations in rural areas: "To start in villages training of children at schools in a system and gymnastics by substitute and retired corporals for a small payment" 13, terminated in failure. The Amusing Troops organization which appeared on this initiative consisted generally of city children. The first children's public associations in the village (pioneer groups) were created much later, than in the city, - in the 1920th g

A basis of emergence of the children's organizations in the cities of Russia in the second half of the 19th century are Alexander II's reforms contributing to the development of a public initiative in different spheres of life of the country.

In the 1880-1890th in St. Petersburg there are various societies dealing with problems of the childhood and youth

however they were fragile, often and quickly arose, but also often and quickly broke up. From pedagogical periodicals of that time names of some of them are known: "Committee of assistance to young people in achievement of moral and physical development", children's summer colonies "Society of protection of national health" 14.

Spring of 1883. The St. Petersburg Pedagogical museum was an initiator of establishment in St. Petersburg of society of assistance to physical training of children: in the field of gymnastics, a game, fencing. At the initiative of the school and hygienic commission of the museum into which scientists-teachers P.F. Lesgaft, V.P. Verkhovsky, A.F. Ostrogradsky entered the museum provided the rooms for the organization "model classes physical exercises" 15.

In the 1890th in some cities of the country out of walls of educational institutions gymnasia educational associations of pupils and a mug of "self-development" are created. At the beginning of 1900 in Kiev there took place the illegal congress of the student organizations from 8 provinces of Russia.

The progressive turn in the history of ugly faces - a deniye of children's social movement happened in the first decade of the 20th century. We allocate four historical a premessage - ki, led to implementation of this turn.

First, at the beginning of the 20th century the Russian pedagogics began a thicket to consider the child not only as object of influence of the social environment, living conditions, but also as the personality, capable it is active to perceive the phenomena of the world around and to process them, proceeding from internal motivation and specific features.

Scientists-teachers and representatives of the democratically spirited intellectuals made attempts to prove theoretically and to realize in practice the organization of the educational and educational institutions differing from

of traditional schools not only content of education, but also a form of implementation of teaching and educational process. The ideas of development of a creative power and abilities of the child, his activity and amateur performance, respect for the children's personality developing roles of work were put by scientists-teachers K.N. Venttsel and S.T. Shatsky in programs of work of the children's clubs created by them, educational public organizations, institutions of additional education. Konstantin Nikolaevich Venttsel wrote: "At the heart of everything there has to be a bringing-up and obrazovyvayushchy communication of people with each other" 16.

Secondly, growth of the youthful radicalism leading to revolutionary movement of youth.

Since the beginning of a new century the revolutionary moods grew in the circle of educational youth and took the forms of student disorders, distribution of leaflets among pupils of high school, politicization of circles of self-education. The special surge in activity among the senior school students was caused by revolutionary events of 1905-1907. In Kursk, Kazan, Saratov there took place the street demonstrations of pupils dispersed by police. The number of student associations grew several times. Many of them got radical coloring. The ministry of national education counted in 1905-1906 42 organizations of pupils of high schools, from them 6 social демократических17.

After last disorders in educational institutions of administration of gymnasiums and real schools began persecutions on any student public associations. Here what was written in the leaflets distributed among grammar-school boys in 1905: "Pupils are exposed to systematic prosecution from school on - chalstvo and even to an exception of educational institution for participation in self-education circles. It occurs because that the school administration considers kazh-

dy circle as political community" 18.

Most of the student organizations stopped existence in 1906 — 1907, but in the years of World War I almost all of them were brought to life again, and received the dawn of activity under the influence of the February revolution of 1917. For example, in our city dozens of student associations created the many thousands Organization of average educational institutions Petrograda19.

Radical moods extended also among teenagers and youth of the proletarian outskirts of the Russian cities. The Obukhovsk defense of 1901 after which defeat, most of arrested there were young workers from 16 to 30 let20 can be an example. For reduction of social tension among young proletarians at some private small enterprises of Russia children's trade artels and kooperativy21 were created.

Thirdly, in the Russian society the moral, physical and military unpreparedness of the Russian army to it was considered as one of the reasons of defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905.

Morale of soldiers and officers was affected during the war by anti-patriotic moods at a part of the population of Russia and the inept management of troops and the fleet. In the tsarist government and society the thought of need of creation of the nursery or the youth patriotic organization aiming at association of youth on the basis of loyalty to the state was created.

Therefore the idea of fidelity of youth of the empire which is carried out by organizers of junior movements in Great Britain by R. Baden-Pauelom, X. Spaseyr and U. Smith, so easily found understanding personally at Nicholas II and it was realized by the official A. Lutskevich and the officer O. Pantyu-hov in the form of the most mass pre-revolutionary children's movements "Amusing Troops" and skauty22.

The appeal of society and state to physical training and sport was also connected with last war and the continuing deterioration in a physical condition of recruits in the Russian army. If by the beginning of the 20th century the percent of rejection of the draft contingents was about 10%, then in 1910 of each 100 recruits only 23 persons, were suitable for army sluzhby23.

In 1911-1917 in the Russian army obligatory gymnastic activity and sport began to be given, included teaching gymnastics and military science in school programs. The sharp splash in patriotic sentiments at the beginning of World War I led to the mass growth of a scout movement and children's sports societies. Teenagers prepared for military service and helped the army with the back.

Fourthly, in the 1910th the understanding of need of support of public structures useful within his powers appears. This understanding was promoted by the experience of interaction got by the government with political parties of the State Duma. These years the dialogue between the appeared patriotic children's public organizations and the state returns to normal. It conceded a part of educational functions to public structures and in the years of World War I supported their social initiatives.

In July, 1911 and August, 1912 Nicholas II takes musters of "amusing troops" and scouts. Before carrying out the first of them the tsar signed "The provision on out-of-school training of the Russian youth for military service". In this document the state allowed creation of children's patriotic societies the highest army ranks, sports and fire societies and just reliable people. In 1916 the government institution on support of children's public organizations was for the first time created. It was "The special subcommittee on skau-

a tizm" at the Commission on physical training under the leadership of the vice admiral in resignation I.F. of Bostrema24.

All four above historical prerequisites led to emergence and further development of progressive process of activity of children's social movement in the territory of Russia.

It is especially important to emphasize such lines of this process as:

• positive dynamics of growth of number of members. The first years of the 20th century - several thousands of participants in the different organizations; 1905-1906 - several tens of thousands of members of student associations; 1912 - 70 thousand children enter in orga-

nization Amusing Troops 25. At the beginning of 1917 in 143 cities of Russia was about 50,000 skautov26 and also tens of thousands of members of sports, educational, national, religious and other children's organizations;

• emergence of public initiatives in the sphere of education and socialization of children and support of some of them by the state;

• distribution of the western democratic experience of public structures and entry of our country into the international community of the countries having multipolar children's social movement in the territory.

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Rebecca Coral
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