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Life in emigration since the first moment after moving of the Russian refugees to Czechoslovakia prompted and insistently dictated need of association and unity of all teacher's forces thrown with destiny on the foreign land in one close-knit pedagogical family.

In September, 1922 the Union of the Russian teachers of average and lowest schools began to function. In the first years of the existence the teacher's organization united most of the Russian teachers in Czechoslovakia. Vigorous care of the device of teachers for work in the specialty was one of the most important tasks of the teacher's organization. The board of the Union undertook in this direction a number of measures. So, the memorandum and the detailed report on granting to the qualified Russian teachers of pedagogical service were submitted to the Ministries of national education and foreign affairs.

Establishment of Saving and loan cash desk also belongs to the actions of the Union directed to improvement of financial position of teachers emigrants. Opened in March, 1923, it worked at conditions, very favorable to members of the Union.

Among achievements of the Union it is possible to select also the petition for a preferential subscription for some newspapers and magazines. The editorial offices of many newspapers and magazines responded to a request of board of the Union for privileges: "For freedom", "Latest news", "The Russian time", "Today", Russia, "Russian land", "Modern times",

"Ringing", "the Illustrated Russia". In refugee situation this privilege was of great importance as opened an opportunity for the poor Russian cultural toiler to be it is aware of the most important events of political, economic and cultural life both the Soviet Union, and the Russian abroad.

At the same time tasks of the teacher's organization in Czechoslovakia were not limited only to some cares of financial position of teachers emigrants. Widely also public and cultural activity developed. During the existence by the Union many lectures, reports with the invitation for this purpose of prominent Russians and Czech professors were organized. Thus, there was an acquaintance to new currents of the European pedagogical thought.

Besides, the Russian teaching in Czechoslovakia performed also a lot of work on coordination of the Russian education in all emigration. Prague was fated to become the center and in life of the Russian teaching in the foreign land, and in life of the Russian foreign school. And not accidentally in Prague there took place the I and II vseemigrantsky pedagogical congresses which became an important step in association of all Russian teachers who appeared in emigration.

The I pedagogical congress which took place in April, 1923 adopted the resolution on formation of Pedagogical bureau for high and lowest Russian school abroad. The Bureau was the main task, without appropriating any administrative functions, to perform work on integration of the Russian school business abroad, to watch the latest events and trends in development of a world education system. It was designed to become the center of researches and collecting materials. Originally being located in Prague, Bureau then moved to Paris.

Representative offices of Bureau were in 12 countries:

England, Bulgaria, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Poland, Finland, France, Switzerland, Estonia and Yugoslavia. Close contacts were supported with colleagues from the USA and the countries of the Far East region. Members of Bureau on the basis of delegation were representatives of board of the Union of the Russian academic organizations abroad, the Russian territorial and city committee in Paris, Interim main committee of the All-Russian union of the cities, Association of territorial and city figures in Czechoslovakia, Merging of the Russian teacher's organizations abroad, Societies of the Russian engineers and technicians in Czechoslovakia and the Russian Pedagogical Institute of Jan Amos Komensky in Prague.

Having rather modest device headed by the famous philosopher, professor V.V. Zenkovsky to Pedagogical bureau it was possible for the first several years of the existence strongly to enter life of the Russian emigration and literally within five years considerably to expand a framework of the activity, having turned from the central body of high school into the organization standing in general in the center of foreign cultural and educational work. Except the Russian organizations, the Bureau was connected by close bonds with the international pedagogical bodies, being a member of the International bureau of the education which was in Geneva and having representatives in Committee on convocation of the congresses of moral education.

Two foreign all-pedagogical congresses, a congress on preschool education, a meeting on fight against denationalization, the question about universal celebration of "Day of the Russian culture" and the organization of this celebration, the edition of the book "Children of Emigration" (creation to the USA of "Society of the help to children of the Russian emigration", the edition of 11 numbers of "the Bulletin of Pedagogical Bureau" became result of its issue, 42 issues of "Newsletter", 10 "Bulletins of Pedagogical Bureau" and 30 separate brochures on pedagogical subjects - some results of activity of Bureau for the first five years of existence are that.

Holding the meeting on fight against denationalization which took place in Prague in October 192 4 g was one of the most important stocks of Bureau. One of the most active members of Bureau prince P.D. Dolgorukov on the issue of introduction of additional national courses for children of the Russian emigrants, students made a speech at a meeting

at foreign schools. As the measures directed to fight against denationalization, a congress for high and lowest school (April, 1923) and a meeting on fight against denationalization the following steps offered: in case of training of children at foreign schools it was necessary to arrange additional Russians of a course on teaching the Law God's, Russian and literature, history and geography; in case of impossibility of the organization of training in all objects to arrange courses at least on some of them; under favorable conditions to organize for children of advanced age teaching a rodinovedeniye with acquaintance them with state system of pre-revolutionary Russia, self-government institutions, commercial geography, the Russian art, etc.; in the absence of a possibility of the organization of constant Russian additional courses, mainly owing to small number of the Russian colony or her absent-mindedness on small settlements to organize institute of mobile teachers with short-term stay them on one place, and during their absence to impose control of independent classes of children on someone from colony; to organize the Russian student libraries on places; for development of independent and conscious activity of the Russian children in fight against denationalization to form different nurseries and student circles, etc. At the same time it was emphasized that fight against denationalization of the Russian children and maintenance of national consciousness and love for the country should not assist development in them of nationalist chauvinism and negligence to achievements of the western culture in them.

In 1924. The pedagogical bureau discussed this problem, extremely important for emigrants, at the plenary session again. Following the results of discussion a number of measures was offered: creation of institute of so-called godsons in whom about maintenance of the Russian national consciousness, knowledge of Russian and acquaintance to all Russian can care certain Russians or the Russian educational institutions by correspondence with them or an oral conversation, supply with their Russian textbooks, Russian calendars, the cards representing the Russian life by their capture in the Russian families or boarding schools at the Russian educational institutions on holidays or in vacation time, granting an opportunity to attend the Russian church service or at least to observe the Russian church ceremonies; creation of circles, guardianship or society, the organization of summer colonies, the Russian boarding schools, the Russian houses, kindergartens, platforms, clubs and the centers for the children who are not studying in the Russian educational institutions; the organization for children of the Russian festivals (for example, Christmas trees, easter celebrations and others), performances, concerts, walks, excursions, games, sports classes.

The pedagogical bureau managed to carry out a number of the offered actions. In the fall of 1923 new additional courses began to open. In Yugoslavia in the town of Kamenitsa in the building of the former sanatorium the children's summer colony for 65-was created

ti children aged from 2.5 up to 16 years. The head of the kindergarten and a pro-gymnasium in Belgrade of A.V. Lednev headed this colony. With children the concentrated study was given in Russian and the Russian literature. Children participated in cooking, ironed the clothes and cleaned rooms. The colony contained both at the expense of the Belgrade orphanage, and on contributions of parents and proceeds from the performance organized with Orphanage in Belgrade.

In London, under the leadership of A.V. Tyrkova, the summer colony in Windsor for 29 children aged from 7 up to 14 years was organized. In view of the fact that children in the English colleges very quickly lost skills even of informal Russian conversation, the purpose of colony consisted in eradication of this phenomenon. Attempts to create in London did not give additional courses of results. Often parents could not accompany children on lessons or they had no funds for journey to the place of classes.

In Vienna the International union of the help to children open special school for the Russian children. The program of studies included learning Russian, geography, history and the Law God's. Training at school was free, children received a free breakfast. That children were in time on lessons in the German school, classes were given daily from 2 to 4 o'clock in the afternoon. In Berlin for the children attending the German schools or studying at home, repetitive courses under the God's Law, Russian and the Russian history were organized.

Not everywhere affairs went successfully. So, in Bulgaria, despite a significant amount of children, there was neither kindergarten, nor elementary school, nor additional courses. In Serbia where the Russian refugees were sprayed on small groups, there was no opportunity to open the Russian educational institutions.

The existing group classes had to be reduced because of a lack of means. Sad news to Bureau came also from Prague where brought the children who are almost not speaking Russian into kindergarten.

The problem of denationalization of children caused the acute concern from Pedagogical bureau which developed the action program. Treated them: wide information of the Russian public on the approaching danger; creation of cultural-national associations as Slavic matitsa; development of a system of the Russian schools at revision of programs of teaching taking into account value of separate objects in the system of national education; development of a system of out-of-school education; activization of literary publishing in the field of the edition of the Russian classics and children's literature; full support of forms of the Russian life; moral and financial support to orphan children; organization of holidays of the Russian culture.

In activity of Pedagogical bureau the formation of programs for high school figured prominently. According to many members of Bureau, curricula of all average educational institutions sinned with the mosaicity, i.e. in them historically collected

that each teacher during the educational period hardly managed to master only one position, well knowing such enormous amount of raw material in the form of the raw fragments of different sciences what not passed this year will be heavy ballast for next year. And to draw from passed the corresponding conclusions for pupils who would point by it to surrounding life, would develop them to bring together science and life, to expand to a large extent any given department of science or to give to pupils time for their self-education - was not necessary to dream of it.

It is clear, that the mosaic of classes cannot install special love for science reveal children's identity. More likely, leveling under one template at examinations of all, it ruins more gifted natures.

This question disturbed members of Pedagogical bureau. It was clear to them that the educational objective cannot be achieved by personal errands and reading morals. More significant reforms at school, namely - reorganization of teaching all sciences were for this purpose necessary so that in them one idea uniting them clearly would appear: love for the country and strong desire to direct in the future the efforts on service to it.

Heads of Pedagogical bureau understood also another: at school there should be no policy, the school has to be apolitical, above any temporary dominating trends. In it there should not be neither right, nor left currents. As a part of her teachers there could be people of any political convictions, but at school they have to be only the people putting love of children and the Homeland above political interests. They can transfer to children the firmness, install in children respect for themselves as to outstanding personalities, but also only. They have no right to impose to children the political convictions. The official point of view of members of Political bureau was that if they did not manage to keep the state, then anything political will be imposed also to children, and will give them an opportunity to decide political destiny of Russia when they grow up.

Most of teachers cultivated in children belief that entering of policy into use of life only darkens its clarity and stratifies state interests. School, considered many, has to be national. And having only reconstructed teaching all sciences in national spirit, it is possible to lift the educational purpose on due height. It also was the basis for new training programs practically in all objects (including singing and drawing) which development was undertaken by an asset of Pedagogical bureau.

The question of what it is necessary to understand as nationality in such big state as Russia, certainly, was very difficult. Therefore developers of new programs did not begin to enter details of its discussion, and agreed so far now, without breaking Russia into certain territories, to mean that definition

"national" belongs to the mighty uniting word "Russia".

And in development of national feeling in new programs enormous value, besides correctness in teaching national history, geography, the native language and native fiction, the foreground was allocated also for development of feeling through native arts, i.e. through drawing and singing.

The director of real school A.A. Zemlyanitsyn wrote that "as in understanding and comprehension "space" we are assisted by positive science, so the ability to understanding and a chuvstvovaniye of all "human" in us develops art. Therefore at school the same important place as to positive sciences as the school prepares for life, and life demands sensitive understanding of the person and all that belongs to his sincere world has to be given to art, at least. Where are interested in the human person, her internal life a little, there is no interest in art and where highly there is a respect for the personality, there soul of the person is an important subject of educational value. Achievement of that mutual understanding between people without which statement and development of the highest problems of social development in the spirit of true humanity is impossible requires art - the present, deep, disclosing inner world of people, bringing together souls".

By this time at the European schools the considerable experience in techniques of teaching various disciplines was accumulated. And many figures of Pedagogical bureau were supporters of a perenimaniye of the best.

By drawing up the program for drawing the Pedagogical bureau offered the technique. In the lowest classes the pupils draw only on memory and draw everything that only interests them, and the teacher only specifies in each subject on the most characteristic and necessary. In middle school pass to drawing from nature: to drawing of objects and besides not artificial, and taken directly from the nature. And here the purpose of teaching remains the same, namely: to teach pupils to observe thinly the surrounding nature, it is certain and to surely represent the received impressions in the drawing and to keep a fair idea of the drawn subject in memory. In the same direction case is processed also in high school: further the prospect, lighting is passed, sketches a pencil and a brush become; the prospect is passed not theoretically, and practically at the image of a railway track, number of cable columns, a long corridor, etc. So pupils are accustomed to observe and work quite consciously and independently. For more perfect understanding of all what worked in a class on, the teacher acquaints children with pictures of great artists from time to time. Without pressing in excess explanations and interpretation, without imposing the opinions, the head has to aspire to that the audience

developed in themselves independent taste and confidence in assessment of pictures.

For development of taste at many Russian schools in Czechoslovakia the walls of classes were ornamented and covered with reproductions of pictures of the Russian artists. All this made one harmonious whole and differed in amazing unity of mood, exciting national pride. Taught in such look, art led to more intimate contact with reality and to its comprehensive study. Not to the world of ugly shadows it carried away children, and, on the contrary, developed keenness and interest in the life phenomena, understanding and love for it.

Special attention in new training programs was paid to learning the native language. It was told about need of basic changes for teaching Russian constantly and at pedagogical congresses, and in the magazines and bulletins published by Pedagogical bureau. It was talked not of change of number of hours allotted on the native language and not about change of volume of the program, and about entering into school of scientific ideas of language and also about pedagogical approach to the teaching language.

At the beginning of 2 0 a number of specialists linguists (D.N. Ushakov, L.V. Shcherba, A.M. Peshkovsky and others, and a little earlier D.N. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky and F.F. Fortunatov) actively began to pave the ways of penetration into school of scientific views on language, and in particular on grammar. There was a number of the grants seeking to force out the old "logical-grammatical" point of view. These efforts were crowned with considerable success because consciousness of crisis in the provision of teaching the native language and also consciousness of flagrant contradiction between school grammar and grammar scientific, got into broad masses of teaching what materials of all teacher's congresses of the middle and the end of the 20th testify to

Under the influence of the recommendations of Pedagogical bureau at schools the so-called "formalnogrammatichesky" point of view opposing itself "logical-grammatical" triumphed. For the training programs the Pedagogical bureau in many respects used those programs which appeared at the beginning of 2 0 in the Soviet Russia. As considered in Prague, these programs "are very pedagogic". In them there was not only an aspiration to supply the pupil with some stock of knowledge; authors of these programs fairly believed that the school has to give as well skills, and abilities of zhiznennopraktichesky character and also has to reckon in all the work with the mental opportunities peculiar to each age.

As the privatdozent S.I. Kartsevsky noted.

"the explanatory notes accompanying komissariatsky programs are directly invaluable to any school worker according to the practical instructions, as well as on the basic pedagogical justifications".

But on the other hand, activists of emigrant school, "komissariatsky" programs considered, allocating a lot of place to acquisition of vital and practical skills and abilities, were inclined to eliminate absolutely from school of the 1st step formality of data on language. It is not necessary to be the supporter of "old" school and its "study", considered in Prague to believe that, except development of vital and practical skills, the school has to care also for development and strengthening of an abstract thought of pupils, at least and for training of future intellectuals. This work is performed not only by mathematics, but also other objects including the native language. Therefore approach to it, than further, that has to be more profound and more difficult, "observations over language" have to direct on objects harder and harder, difficult and thin, and, at last, also language material has to become complicated. The language and literature teacher should not forget for a minute that not the naked sound form, but "a thought shade", related to her, has to be subject to its observations and works on language. And proceeding from this parcel, the Pedagogical bureau found necessary to connect both programs together, believing that they do not exclude each other, and perfectly supplement.

The changes made by Pedagogical bureau to programs for the native language were as follows: by last years of classes the nature of "observations over language" as in the field of grammar, and semantics (dictionary) was expanded and profound that is necessary for the reason that children should learn foreign languages and is necessary to study rather theoretically, than practically, and therefore to them a stock of data and even terminology from the field of grammar and semantics. Observations of the structure of a word, education of families of words, a podyskivaniye of antonyms, selection of synonyms, etc., gradual allocation of suffixes and others a formant in a word in connection with their value, etc. were entered. Excessive "razzhizhennost" of spelling exercises in connection with prolixity of material was eliminated. The last year of school of the 1st step was devoted to the general completion of work on assimilation of spelling, but not its special departments.

As material could not be studied in five years, in the program of Pedagogical bureau it was talked not about "years", and of "classes", and it was supposed that "the preparatory class" can take the period in two years. Distribution of material in the program had approximate character and allowed changes. The only thing what authors insisted on, is on need to demand from all teachers and furthermore from language and literature teachers, possession of the correct literary speech and pronunciation.

In the activity the Pedagogical bureau paid to opening of Pedagogical Institute and the edition of the pedagogical magazine much attention.

The Bureau stopped the activity in the mid-thirties


Russians without Fatherland: Essays of anti-Bolshevist emigration 20 - the 40th years. M, 2000.


State archive of the Russian Federation. F. R-57 85 - Pedagogical bureau for high and lowest Russian school abroad.

E.N. Evseeva

Kevin Nikolas
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