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To the history of creation of school of pathophysiologists in Siberia: Pavel Petrovich of avror



ISTORIYA MEDITSINA

UDC 616-073.7 (571.16) (09)

To the HISTORY of CREATION of SCHOOL of PATHOPHYSIOLOGISTS IN SIBERIA: PAVEL PETROVICH AVROROV

SA. Not Krylov, V.V. Novitsky

Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training Tomsky state university Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training Sibirsky state medical university Roszdrava, Tomsk

TO THE HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY IN SIBERIA

S.A. Nekrylov, V.V. Novitsky

Tomsk State University Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk

The historical perspective of formation of school of pathophysiologists in Siberia is presented. The contribution to its development of professor Pavel Petrovich Avrorov since the birth of which 140 years were executed is reflected. The short review of its main scientific works is given.

Historical review of rising up the patho phisiological school in Siberia is presented. The authors reflect the contribution of P.P. Avorov into the school.

In January, 2010 140 years since the birth of the outstanding Russian scientist, one of founders of the Tomsk school of pathophysiologists professor Pavel Petrovich Avrorov were executed.

Pavel Petrovich Avrorov was born on Jan. 5/17/, 1870 in a churchyard Archidiaconal the Vyazniki County of the Vladimir province in family of the priest. Upon termination of Shuysky spiritual school (1884) and the Vladimir theological seminary (1890) arrived on medical faculty of the Tomsk university. Among professors teaching at medical faculty there were outstanding Russian scientists: founder of the Siberian school of therapists professor M.G. Kurlov, founder of the Tomsk school of pharmacologists P.V. Burzhinsky, one of founders of the Tomsk school of pathophysiologists D.I. Timofeevs-ky, professor I.N. Grammatikati, M.F. Popov, V.N Veliky, E.G Salishchev, A.S. Dogel, etc. In student's years P.P. Avrorov showed interest in scientific research. In 1895 it ended with honors and with the doctor's degree [1. L. 10] Tomsk university. Since January, 1896 P.P. Avrorov was enlisted by the supernumerary junior medical official at Medical department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs with secondment to Army medical college for scientific and practical improvement. In November of the same year it was defined and. of the anatomist at department of the general patolo-

Giya VMA where he was engaged in research work under the leadership of professor P.M. Albitsky. In P.M. Albitsky's laboratory it with special diligence worked on a subject on heat exchange and a metabolism at animals.

In 1899 P.P. Avrorov published two articles devoted to this problem [2]. The same year he completed the work on the doctoral dissertation "A metabolism and development of energy in an organism at complete starvation" which protected in VMA in 1900

As official opponents large domestic pathophysiologists professors A.Ya. Danilevsky, P.M. Albitsky and A.A. Likhachev who highly appreciated work of the young researcher made a speech at protection.

The subject which is brought up by P.P. Avrorov in the thesis was one of relevant, as in the Russian, and foreign medicine. To him many foreign and domestic scientists were engaged in studying a metabolism. The doctoral dissertation of V.A. Manassein was the first research on starvation in Russia. These dealt with an issue as well representatives of school of V.V. Pashutin. Among them there are P.M. Albitsky, S.M. Lukyanov, etc. The question of starvation had not only scientific, but also practical value, "being inseparably linked with a question of food both each person separately, and the whole mass of the population appearing in time... disasters without

significantly necessary means of livelihood". "Therefore, - P.P. Avrorov considered, - care of a piece of bread acts on the very first plan, pushes aside all other requirements of an organism back" [3].

Despite relative study of a subject, in a subject of starvation there were many obscure moments and white spots. The question of a metabolism, fabric stocks and stocks of energy of the starving organism was especially insufficiently studied.

In the thesis P.P. Avrorov summed up the results of numerous observations and experiments over animals. He came to a conclusion that duration of starvation is in direct dependence on fatness of an animal. Well fattened animal (experiments were made mainly on dogs) can transfer starvation up to two and more months. At the same time fat reserves, but not a squirrel are of great importance. At the same time to them it was established that reserves of fat are lost at lean animals quicker, than at fattened (limit losses of weight reach 60 and more percent).

P.P. Avrorov determined the consistent pattern which is that decomposition of fat in an organism is the main source of energy at starvation during which the animal spends from the stocks up to 97-98% of fat and less than a half (44.32%) of protein. At such distribution the power source in an organism sharply changes. The main stocks of energy before starvation make fats (74.9%), and after starvation - proteins (84.2%).

After defense of a thesis P.P. Avrorov continued the work at department of the general pathology of VMA as the anatomist, and then the privatdozent in the beginning. Together with A.A. Likhachev he studied gas and thermal exchange at fever. The received results interested foreign scientists and were reported on the XIII International medical congress in Paris (1900) [4. Page 49]. Besides, P.P. Avrorov and A.A. Likhachev were engaged in studying effect of alcohol on an organism.

Thus, P.P. Avrorov as the erudite researcher was created under the influence of the ideas of school of V.V. Pa-shutin and P.M. Albitsky.

When after the death of professor D.I. Timofeevsky the competition on replacement of vacant department of the general pathology was announced, 5 candidates (privatdozents I.A. Chuyevsky, K.F. Dmitriyevsky, P.P. Avrorov, Ya.A. Kagan and the doctor of medicine F.K. Kodis) applied for this post. In 1904. Council of the Tomsk university by a majority vote elected extraordinary professor of department of the general pathology P.P. Avrorov. The important role in P.P. Avrorov's election was played by the recommendation of his teacher P.M. Albitsky who was well known at the Tomsk university.

At first works at the Tomsk university as P.P. Avrorov were continued researches in the field of thermal and gas exchange. The results of experiments devoted to clarification of influence of hemolytic serum on composition of blood and a metabolism and also about influence of alcohol on thermal and gas exchange, were published by P.P. Avrorov, as in "News of the Tomsk university", and in the central medical editions [5].

Being still itself a young researcher, P.P. Avro-rov already at that time began to take care of young scientific forces. According to its recommendation in 1908 the laboratory assistant on department of the general pathology accepted the graduate of medical faculty M.A. Amenitsky. P.P. Avrorov paid special attention to research work of students. On its initiative the student circle of a pathophysiology (1910) was organized [6. Page 20]. The students who were engaged in laboratory of department of the general pathology published articles in the Siberian medical periodicals [7].

A.D. Timofeevsky was the most talented pupil of P.P. Avrorov. The son of professor D.I. Timofeevsko-go he already since youth showed special thirst for scientific research.

Professor P.P. Avrorov never became isolated only on laboratory researches, he actively got acquainted with the latest developments of modern science. For this purpose he in 1906, 1908, 1909 visited the best scientific medical centers of Germany and France. These trips considerably enriched scientific knowledge of P.P. Avrorov. In addition, he, working hard in foreign laboratories, improved the skills in carrying out vivisections, the histologic equipment and pathological anatomy.

Scientific research of professor P.P. Avrorov always were on an edge of the latest developments of science. Especially as the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century was the most fruitful in the field of medicine. Outstanding discoveries in the field of physiology, microbiology, pathological anatomy, etc. were made. (L. - Pasteur, R. Koch, I.P. Pavlov, I.I. Mechnikov, I.M. Sechenov, R. Virkhov, etc.).

The way of cultivation of fabrics and bodies of the highest animals offered by A. Karrel and M. Burroughs out of an organism became one of considerable opening. The first opening in this area was made by the American erudite R.G. Harrison. Hopkins's J working at Medical school, and then at Yale University it published results of the experiments in 1907-1910, having created methodology of cultivation of fabrics. In particular in 1907 it showed that it is possible to cultivate the pieces of the central nervous system taken from a frog germ in the curtailed frog lymph. He managed to observe directly under a microscope development of nervous fibers [8. Page 3]. In 1910 M. Burroughs under the leadership of Harrison, made attempt to apply this method to warm-blooded animals and received positive result. M. Burroughs gave the report in the Parisian biological society on the results on October 22, 1910. In the same meeting M. Burroughs together with A. Karrel made the second message about cultivation of fabrics from adult animals out of an organism [9. Page 293].

to

Thus, by them offered the general method allowing to cultivate various tissues and bodies of adult highest animals and the person out of an organism.

This current problem carried away also P.P. Avrorov. First of all, he was interested in application of a method a sack -

a tivirovaniye of fabrics out of an organism for further studying the problem of malignant tumors which still is a little studied at that time.

Being the first-class experimenter and having extensive knowledge not only in the field of the general pathology, but also in sciences, adjacent to it, P.P. Avrorov decided to undertake the solution of this problem, important for medicine.

In December, 1910, in 2 months after receiving news of results of experiments of the French researchers A. Karrel and M. Burroughs on cultivation of pieces of a chicken embryo in chicken plasma, professor P.P. Avrorov and the student HELL. Timofeevsky began preparation for carrying out of this sort experiments in laboratory of the general pathology of the Tomsk university. In January, 1911 they put the first, not absolutely successful because of insufficiently developed technique, experiments. In the subsequent they nevertheless managed to develop the equipment and a technique of setting of experiments on rabbits, dogs and guinea pigs that allowed in February-March, 1911 and in 1912 to receive more successful results in cultivation of cages out of an organism [10. Page 17].

In 1913 P.P. Avrorova and HELL. Timofeevsky for the first time managed to receive important results on a technique of cultivation of cells of leukemic blood of the person which were reported on February 28, 1913 at a meeting of medical department of Society of scientists and doctors at the Tomsk university [11. Page 4].

Articles on this subject published the same year in the Russky Vrach magazine (No. 17-19) [12] and in 1914 in "Vir-hovsky archive" (T. 216) [13. Page 184], attracted huge interest of the medical public.

In 1914 they published the monograph "Experiments of Cultivation of Fabrics out of an Organism". The technique of cultivation of cells of leukemic blood developed by P.P. Avrorov and A.D. Timofeevsky, advanced then a technique of receiving a film of leukocytes at centrifugation, numerous experiments on cultivation of fabrics out of an organism [14. Page 553-559] brought to their authors world fame.

For these works to P.P. Avrorov and A.D. Timofeevsky the award of M.M. Rudnev was awarded (1913)

The intensity of further researches in this direction decreased in connection with the begun World War I a little. Partly it was connected with departure for the battlefield of P.P. Avrorov. It some time in 1915 was as a part of the Russian society of the Red Cross in field army on the Western front where headed bacteriological laboratory at the manager of a sanitary part of management osoboupolnomochenny at the 12th army [15. L. 73]. His administrative work became other factor constraining scientific research of P.P. Avrorov. He was elected the dean of medical faculty of the Tomsk university. In this position it, with a small break, consisted from 1913 to 1920 [6. Page 19].

After P.P. Avrorov's departure from Tomsk (1922) professor A.D. Timofeevsky became his successor on department of the general pathology.

P.P. Avrorov strengthened school of the Tomsk pathophysiologists which foundation was laid by professors

P.M. Albitsky and A.V. Reprev. In Krasnodar P.P. Avrorov headed department of pharmacology at medical faculty of the Kuban university. Was one of organizers of opening in 1922. The Kuban medical institute of the Red Army at which began to manage department of pharmacology (1922-1940) and experimental hygiene (1924-1932). Worked as the vice rector (1922-1925) and the rector (1925-1929) of this institute. P.P. Avrorov in Krasnodar [16] died on July 18, 1940.

Main works of P.P. Avrorov:

1. A historical essay of department of the general pathology at Imperial Military-medical (former medico-surgical) academies. 1806-1898. To the 100 anniversary of academy.

>- SPb., 1898.

2. About influence of the dried-up hemolytic serum on composition of blood and a metabolism//News of the Imperial Tomsk University (ITU). - 1911. - Prince 45.
3. Together with HELL. Timofeevsky. Experience of cultivation of white (leukemic) blood: Reports in the company of scientists and doctors//the Russian the doctor. - 1913. - No. 17-19.
4. XXV-year anniversary of the Tomsk university//Siberian doctor. - 1913. - No. 1.
5. Together with A.D. Timofeevsky. Experiments of cultivation of fabrics out of an organism//ITU. - 1914. - Prince 56 (Otd. prod. Tomsk, 1914).
6. Together with A. Timofeevsky. Kultivierungsversuche von leukämischem Blute//Archiv fur pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und fur klinische Medicin. - Bergrundet von Virchow. Berlin, 1914. - Bd. 216.

Literature

1. GATO. T. 102. Op. 2. 26.
2. Avrorov P.P. Ob-va definition of animal warmth on a direct calorimetric way and on a metabolism / / the Russian archive of pathology, clinical medicine and bacteriology published under the editorship of the prof. V. V. Podvysotskim. 1899. T. 7. Page 1-30; It. A direct and indirect calorimetry at animals in a condition of nitrogenous balance, starvation and their stoutening//the Russian archive of pathology, clinical medicine and bacteriology published under the editorship of the prof. V.V. Podvysotsky. - 1899. - T. 7. - Page 1-55.
3. P.P. Avrorov. A metabolism and development of energy in an organism at complete starvation. - SPb., 1900.
4. P.A. Bova, V.S. Lavrova. Decree. soch.
5. P.P. Avrorov. About influence of alcohol on thermal and gas exchange at the person (Together with the prof. A.A. Likhachev)//News of Army medical college. 1906; Avroro-v Items. About influence of the dried-up hemolytic serum on composition of blood and a metabolism//ITU. - 1911. - Prince 45.

>- Page 1-71.

6. Professors of the Tomsk university. - Tomsk, 1996. - Issue 1.
7. See A.A. Ponomarev. About internal section of bark of adrenal glands and its value in pathology//the Siberian medical newspaper. 1912; It. About origin of lipoid in bark of podpochechnik. Tomsk, 1914; Timofeevsky HELL. Application of a way of quantitative definition of uniform elements to studying marrow//the Russian doctor.-1912. - No. 24. - Page 1027-1032.
8. P.P. Avrorov, A.D. Timofeevsky. Experiments of cultivation of fabrics out of an organism. - Tomsk, 1914.
9. Carrel A. et Burrows M. La culture des tissus adultes en dehors

de ^organisme//Compt. rend. Soc. de Biologie. - 1910. - T.69.

>- P. 293.

10. P.P. Avrorov, Timofeevsky HELL. Experiments of cultivation of fabrics out of an organism//ITU. - 1914. - Book Z6. [pagin. the 4th].
11. P.P. Avrorov and A.D. Timofeevsky. Experiments of cultivation of leukemic blood//Works Ob-va of scientists and doctors at Imperial Tomsk University for 1913. - Tomsk, 191Z.
12. P.P. Avrorov and A.D. Timofeevsky. Experience of cultivation of white (leukemic) blood//Russian doctor. - 1913. - No. 17.

>- Page Z49-ZZ3; No. 19. - Page 677-682.

13. P.P. Avrorov and Timofeevsky HELL of Kultiwierungsversuche von leukemischem Blute//Archiv fur pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und fur klinische Medicin. - Bergrundet von Virchow, 1914. - Bd. 216. S. 184.
14. P.P. Avrorov, Timofeevsky HELL. Cultivation (cultivation) of colourless blood cells out of an organism//the Russian doctor. - 191Z. - No. 24.
1Z. GATO. T. 102. Op. 9. 34.
16. P. Avrorov (Obituary)//Bolshevik (Krasnodar). - July 1940, 20.

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