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DIG EAST PRIKARPATYE IN the WTO to a HALF of the I millennium AD. Initial stages of formation of statehood

leonty VoytoVich

east Prikarpatye in the second half of the I millennium AD the initial stages of formation of statehood


Archaeological researches of the last years, including giant ancient settlements like Plesnesk, Stolsk, Solonsk and others which area exceeded modern to them the cities of Kievan Rus' ten times and also allow to assume detection of industrial complexes with high technology level (like the Rudnikovsky metallurgical complex) that on the lands of Prikarpatye until the end of the 10th century when they were a part of Kievan Rus', the developed differentiated society capable to creation of the state organisms functioned. Unfortunately, almost total absence of written sources forces to belong to this problem very carefully.

On the basis of comparison of the written sources yielded toponymy and results of studying archeological sites of U1-U11 of centuries the conclusion was drawn that the territory Top Podnestrovya and Posanya was a part of breeding association dulebov1. Other researchers are inclined to connect with duleba all territory of cultural monuments of Luka Raykovetskoy, as a last resort, in borders of an area Prague korchakskoy keramiki2. The center of association of duleb is localized on Volhynia. These conclusions, however, remain debatable.

Today the look, most widespread in a historiography, is based on literal understanding of the known fragment of the Story of temporary years: "duleba, a zhivyakha across Bug, where nowadays to the velynena..." 3. That is on Volhynia lived, consistently replacing each other, tribes of duleb, buzhan and volynyan. From this follows that only to the volynena were a part of Kievan Rus' whereas duleba and the buzhena by the end of the 10th century already quitted the political scene or migrated on other lands. For confirmation of these conclusions IX-news are given

X centuries about Czech, pannonsky and Carinthian dulebakh4.

Still S.M. Seredonin considered news of the Story of temporary years of participation of duleb in Oleg's campaign to Constantinople in 907 g (or in 911 g as A.A. Shakhmatov proved) accidental. Chronicler, as if

wishing to stand on the all-Russian hind legs of a campaign of Oleg, listed all East Slavic tribes known to him. I already paid attention to debatability of similar vyvodov5. Not all duleba had to take part in the Avarian migration in Pannoniya and to the Balkans as not all Croats and not all Serbians who too were moved by Avars. Some part of duleb could remain on places of the former dislocation, keep the breeding name and take part in Oleg's campaign. If duleba took part in a campaign of 860 g, i.e. lived on Volhynia in the 9th century, then their descendants remained here and in the 10th century as there were no factors which could cause their migration in the second half _kh-H centuries

The phrase of the Story of temporary years quoted above could mean that once duleba owned also lands volynyan, but it does not treat in any way those duleba which lived on Volhynia in the 10th century and could only remember in the epos former value of the tribe. If in At ІІ-H centuries in the Volynsk earth there was a change of the population three times, then such change inevitably would find reflection in archaeological material. But nothing was succeeded to find similar. More likely, this territory was populated with, at least, four-five related tribes which periodically made the political associations carrying names by name the tribe predominant force. Probably, it is not accidental at the Bavarian geographer to the volynena ^еіитап і) and to the buzhena (Ь^ап і) act as contemporaries. In X-X ІІ centuries from territories of breeding principalities volynyan (the velinena or welunzani of the Bavarian geographer, a valinan al-Masudi), duleb, buzhan (buzani of the Bavarian geographer), chervyan Seg_ap_ of the Bavarian geographer) and luchan created the Volynsk earth.

In fact, V.D. Barend who, however, assumes that to "volynena" - later name dulebov6 also agrees with it. Also it is necessary to carry to the Volynsk tribes tanyan (thafnezi of the Bavarian geographer) who still P.Y. Shafarik and L. Niderla were localized in the basin of the Tanvy River, the right inflow of Sana7 what I.P. Kripyakevich and L.V. of Voytovich8 agreed with. Other localizations (in Pomorze, on Drava and the Top Danube) are not connected with a context of the Bavarian geographer (monument where this tribe is mentioned) and archaeological material but only are based on accord nazvaniy9. Version E. Kukharsky who placed tanyan to the south from landzan and to the north from Karpat10, actually does not contradict Shafarika version - Niderla.

The most ancient annalistic arch transfers the epic legend on the Avarian dulebskikh the relations:

In a siza times of a bysh and Aubree, the Izh of a hodish on Nrakliya of the tsar and not Jascha is not enough of it. Si obra to a voyevakh on slovenekh, and a primuchishcha

duleba, real slovena, and violence to a tvoryakh to wives dulebsky: if poyekhat awaking to an objrin, not a dadyasha of a vjpryacha of a horse ox, whether but the Vilesh vjpryach 3, whether 4 wives in the cart and stories of an objren, and taka to a duleba muchakh. Bysha as Aubree Telm of a velitsa and umjm gjrd, both God of a potreba I and a pomrosha of a vsa, and not an ostash is uniform about-rin, and the parable in Russia and to this day eats: pogibosha to Aubree's ak, their not St tribe nasledka11.

It is clear, that the Volynsk descendants of duleb through which transfer it also was included in the chronicle were the carrier of this epos. Attempts to prove that the originator of the Most ancient arch "modeled" the dulebo-Avarian history from the reference, look scientific speculation. Usually refer to the letter of the Constantinople patriarch Nikolay Mistik to the Bulgarian Kagan Simeon (923/924) in whom it is written that Avars died, without having left the tribe, potomstva12. But such thought in the 10th century could come to mind practically to all who heard about Avars. In the letter of the patriarch there is no hint on the carts harnessed by women. Besides, about mockery of Avars at Slavs in the Carpathian hollow there is a certificate in the chronicle Fredegara13 which, of course, could not be available to the Kiev scribe. Menandr reports that Avars to cause to Slavs a trouble, ruined their fields (Menandr, 50).

Arab historian Abu-l-Hassan al-Masudi (& #43; 956) in the book finished apprx. 947 g gave interesting information on the Volynsk tribes:

From those tribes one had earlier in the ancient time the power, his tsar was called Madzhak, and the tribe was called Valinana. To this tribe all other Slavic tribes as it had a power and other tsars obeyed it obeyed. Then the Slavic tribe of Astarbrana which the tsar is called Saklaikh at present follows; still the tribe called Dulab their tsar is called Vanzh-Slava... We already told about the tsar to whom other tsars submitted in ancient times above, i.e. Mada-zhak, the tsar Valinani which the tribe one of radical tribes Slavic, it keeps with advantage between their tribes and had overweight over them. Further malfunctions between their tribes went, their order was mentioned, they were divided into separate a knee, and each tribe chose to itself knyazya14.

It is difficult to judge whether obtained this information directly itself al-Masudi, being in the North Caspian cities controlled by Khazars whether read in the senior literature, but it occurs from Bulgar or Hazaria merchants and reflects situation in lands beyond Dnieper, first of all in Volhynia, at the beginning of the 10th century or even in

the end of the 9th century 15 it is difficult to believe that here it was talked of the German tribes or of the Baltic city of Velin as sought to prove Polish issledovateli16. The last just did not exist by then.

In the 10th century, in the conditions of confrontation of the Christian and Muslim worlds, the Jewish merchants did business from Cordoba to Baghdad through Paris, Reims, Trier, Regensburg, Prague, Krakow, Peremyshl, Kiev, the Bulgar and Khwarezm. One of such merchants the Jew from Tortosa Ibrahim ibn Yaqub was scarlet Israel is scarlet at-Turtuz (* to 912/913 & #43; after 966), Abd serving at court of the Cordoba Caliphs are Rahman of III (912961) and al-Gamida II (961-976) and carried out a travel to Slavic edges in 965-966. Its report did not remain, but its fragments were given by the latest Muslim authors al-Bekri (11th century), al-Kazvini and ibn Said (13th century) and also al-Nimarig (11th century) 17. Information on the Volynsk lands in ibn Yaqub's report practically coincides with the story al-Masudi. Only the name of the king is transferred as Maha, and the tribe is called Sht.

The Polish researchers of the senior generation grasped this argument to prove communication with the Pomor veleta. T. Kovalsky, intentionally conceding to the Pomor version, gave the translation of "velitab" instead of "velinab" 18. Such solid researcher as G. of Lyabuda19 was forced to recognize the last. But a part of the Polish researchers accepted T. Kovalsky's option and, leaning on it, began to build versions about inaccuracy of the name "Valinana" at al-Masudi and communications of "velitab" with veletami20. Ya. Vidayevich, proving this conclusion, even wrote that the name "volynyane" appeared only in the 11th century, and al-Masudi wrote in the 10th century and, so could not hear about it.

There are a lot of forces for the proof that the ethnonym to "volynena" appeared only after disappearance of ethnonyms to "buzhena" and "duleba", put also G. Lovmyansky. After all, understanding vulnerability of own argument and impossibility of the veletsky version, it put forward a new guess that al-Masudi and ibn Yaqub wrote about rugiysky Velin, as if connected with Volzhsky putem21. The West Pomor or rugiysky city of Velin appeared not earlier than the end of the 10th century too, and there are no written or other data on existence in this region of the tribe volynyan, except accord of names.

Other Polish researchers who paid attention to weakness of the Baltic version carry data al-Masudi to Great Moravii22. The last does not rely on any convincing argument too.

As for the Kiev annals to which silence concerning Volhynia adherents Pomor pay attention

and the Moravian versions, at it by 11th century were not needs to write about volynyana as there was no need to write about Croats or Serbians. To the volynena (as the breeding principality, but not residents of a certain geographical area) quit the political scene since the beginning

XI century (as well as buzhena or Luciana). In the 10th century they were recorded by the Bavarian geographer in a context which cannot be tied to Baltic (the truth, the Polish scientists for this purpose put forward a thesis that the order of names at the Bavarian geographer means nothing). The capital volynyan the city of Volhynia (Volin) is for the first time mentioned under 1018 already as the ordinary city, and after 1078 in general disappears from pages of chronicles. Its ancient settlement of round shape, perimeter of 250 m is in headwaters of Pripyat under modern building of page. The town of the Kamen-Kashirsky district Volynsk oblasti23 because of what its research is complicated.

The first translator al-Masudi A. Garkavi considered that the Arab historian reported data of the 6th century on hegemony of the tribe volynyan among the dulebsky union, ended apprx. 560 g during avaro-dulebsky war during which the king volynyan Mezamir (Madzhak) 24 died. This thought M.Yu. Braychevsky and B.A. supported Rybakov25 and also (without accepting Mezamir and Madzhak's identity) V.O. Klyuchevsky and Y. Markvart26. L. Niderle came to a conclusion that he al-Masudi gave events of 593 g, and the king Madzhak was the leader of the antsky union in which the tribe volynyan, identical to Musoky about whom the Byzantine historian Feofilakt of Simokatta27 wrote was predominant force.

The opposite thought was protected by A.A. Shakhmatov. Very convincingly he proved that the epos transferred to Stories of temporary years recorded decline of Avars, and already so it should be carried to the 8-9th centuries. Only under pressing of francs on a change of the 8-9th centuries the Avars committed an assault on duleb and defeated them. As one of arguments it gave toponyms (Obra - left inflows of Guards, Obrinka, Obrin - near Novogrudk) 28. Developing Shakhmatov's provisions, V.V. Mavrodin, leaning on a mention in the Story of temporary years of the emperor Irakli, made a hypothesis of existence along with the state Itself of the powerful state of duleb which was crushed avary29.

Both of these versions are equally vulnerable. Fredegar in the messages about the state Itself even did not mention a hint about any other Slavic state. Besides, from the epic legend reflected in the Story of temporary years it is possible to judge that Avars dominated on Volhynia a long time. At a boundary of the 8-9th centuries it would be unreal. From Volhynia they were separated by the Carpathians and lands in the Top and Average Podnestrovye and Posanye occupied by Croats. And meanwhile Avars not only broke duleb, but also forced considerable

their part to migrate on the West. So there were Czech, pannonsky, Carinthian duleba. In the Czech Republic there is a river Dudleba, the Dulebka River flows in Carinthia, the name Duleba carries inflow of Olsi on whom there is a village Duleby30. The settlement of Dulebska near Vrbovts in Croatia displays traces of this migration too.

Some researchers frostily treated messages al-Masudi and chronicles, though did not object to them. M.S. of Grushevskiy31 acted this way. G.V. Vernadsky at the same time paid attention to scarcity of archaeological material to Volyni32. More likely, it is possible to speak about insufficiency of archaeological researches. By the beginning of the 1980th years in the Volynsk and Rivne regions 2 ancient settlements and 34 settlements which can be dated it periodom23 were revealed. Now situation is a little better, but due to the lack of means the field researches of archeologists are almost suspended.

Summing up of

the results of the analysis of written monuments and versions of researchers, it is possible to assume that in 561-567 the Avars conquered Volhynia and forced the main part of duleb which were predominant force of the Volynsk union of tribes, to migrate on the West. Other duleba which remained on old lands up to a revolt Itself were under the Avarian oppression. As well as A.A. Shakhmatov, M.D. Priselkov and other researchers considered, this period found reflection in the song bylina about a vpryaganiye of dulebsky women in the Avarian carts.

With a certain accuracy the avaro-dulebsky war can be dated 561-562. In 561 g on the death of the franksky king Clotaire of his earth four sons divided between themselves. for Hagibert there was Paris with yuzhnofranksky lands, for Pontar - southwest lands with Orléans, for Hilperik - Neystriya with Suasson, and vostochnofranksky lands with Reims were received by Sigibert. In 562 g the king Si-gibert faced Avars who came to his eastern frontiers. The contemporary and the king's associate Tours bishop Grigory Florentsy (* apprx. 540 & #43; 594) told about it in "Stories of francs" 34. Other historian Pavel Diakon (* apprx. 720 & #43; apprx. 799) in "Stories of Lombards" refers fight between Avars and Sigibert in upper courses of Laba to 562 g 35

Thus, the union of duleb could be crushed by Avars between 561 and 562: in 560 g the Avars killed the ambassador of ant Mezamir; next year broke kutrigur and came to the Lower Danube; vasilevs Justinian offered them as to empire federata for Ban-noniyu settlement where there lived gerula and gepida; in Pannoniya the Avars overtook with themselves considerable massifs of Croats which east part, perhaps, was under hegemony of duleb.

Somewhere from the second third of the 7th century with the Avarian dependence it was done away, and the union revived under hegemony volynyan. The message al-Masudi and ibn Yaqub displays just this period. Therefore it is more lawful to refer Madzhak's activity approximately to the 8-9th centuries. He should not be identified with Mezamir or Musoky at least because both were Anta whereas the Volynsk tribes - sklavinskiye36.

It is possible that the ancient settlement zimno of the Volynsk region which belongs to the end of the 6-7th centuries was the center of the new union under hegemony volynyan. Traces of destruction of this ancient settlement and Avarian strely37 can demonstrate repeated avaro-Volynsk war. After that the center volynyan, probably, moved to Volhynia. Repeated invasion of Avars, it seems, did not lead to restoration of their domination. In 1X-X centuries new predominant force became the chervena (from here and the story about Chervensky grads), and then the buzhena. Hegemony volynyan which gave the place name to the region was the longest.

Thus, written monuments do not allow to connect duleb with tribes which occupied Podnestrovye and Posanye. If hegemony of duleb also extended to a part of this region, then it was in the 6th century. After the Avarian gain this union broke up, and the part of its territories fell under the Avarian dependence. Separate toponyms (the village Duleby on the Stry River, the village Duleby on the river. A billiard pocket, inflow of Dniester, etc.) can be as the evidence of old hegemony of duleb in this region, and settlements of prisoners volynyan, arisen during the galitsko-Volynsk wars of the first half of the 12th century


The border between the Carpathian and Volynsk tribes lay on a watershed of the pools Sana'a and Dniester with basins of the Western Bug and Pripyat. Respectively and the transport systems of both areas were connected with these rivers. Ethnic definition of the Carpathian tribes as white Croats is widespread in the Ukrainian and Russian historical literature. And in researches of scientists from other countries "white" still call different groups of the Carpathian, Dnestr, priodrensky and karantaniysky Croats. Zakarpatets also got to their number. As far as it is fair?

Literature on white Croats and the Croatian ethnogenesis contains hundreds of books and articles of several dozen authors. Reviews of this literature for certain periods are given in L. Niderle, T. Modelsky, F. Shishich, L. Hauptmann, Ya. Vidayevich, G. Lyabuda, B. Zasterova, G. Lovmyansky, V.S. Idzyo and L.V. works of Voytovicha38.

The Croatian scientist S. Sakach, relying on works of the famous Swiss linguist F. de Saussure, established what the name "white Croats" on the Iranian terminology accepted at Slavs means

"western Croats" 39. Today this definition standard and objections does not cause.

In sources the name "white Croats" occurs twice - in the treatise of the Byzantine vasilevs of Konstantin Bagryanorodny "About management of the empire" and in the Story of temporary years. Concerning the last M.S. Grushevsky assumed that news of Croats - an insert of later editor who found a mention of them under 992 g and attributed to the list of tribes in the story about resettlement slavyan40. But under 992 g it is just about "Croats" whereas "white Croats" are mentioned in an undated part of the chronicle. The historian did not adduce other arguments in favor of the version.

It is clear, that anyway at a certain stage the white Croats were a part Croatian massiva41.

The treatise of the Byzantine vasilevs of Konstantin VII Bagryanorodny (913959) "About management of the empire" remains the main source on early Croatian history. All doubts concerning its information which sometimes can be met in literature42 it is rather only a tribute to hyper criticism, fashionable in certain times. Konstantin VII wrote not the literary work, but manual concerning foreign policy for the son and Roman's successor of II, without having a need something to hold back or to distort, and in the 10th century in civilized Europe there is more information, than the Byzantine emperor, nobody had no.

It is clear, that the author used information from different sources including epic, not always having an opportunity to check them, to coordinate in time, not to mention exact localization of the data which are contained in them. All problems of formation of the treatise and its sections are in details analyzed in comments of the London edition of 1962 43 Achievements of the Soviet science are reflected in two latest editions of the treatise under edition of Litavrina44. G. Lonchar generalized results of researches of news of Croats of the emperor Konstantin post-war Croatian, Slovenian and Serbian istorikov45.

Data on White and Great Croatia are provided in the 31st and 30th sections of the treatise "About Management of the Empire" (tsit. according to the Russian edition of 1991):

>. Croats who nowadays live in the Regions of Dalmatia occur from the non-Christian Croats called "white" who live on that side of Turkiya near Frangiya, and border on Slavs, i.e. non-Christian Serbians. Croats Slavic language means "residents of the big country". These Croats were deserters to a vasilevs romeev to Irakli...

>. Croats lived by then for Bagivariya where with without having given - nogo there are belokhorvata...

>. other Croats remained near Frangiya and belokhorvatam are for quite some time now called, i.e. "white Croats" who have own archon. They submit to Otton, the great king Frangiya, differently Saksiya, and remain nekhrist, entering family relations and the amicable relations with Turks...

>. Great Croatia named by "Béla" remains non-Christian till this day, as well as the Serbians, next to it. It exposes even less cavalry, as well as pedestrian army, compared with baptized Croatia so is more available to robberies and francs, both the Turk, and pachinakit. It has neither long vessels, nor contours, nor the trade ships as lies far from the sea, - the way from local places to the sea takes 30 days. And the sea which they reach in 30 days is called "Black"...

In sources of X-X1 of centuries an ethnonym "Turks" called vengrov46.

According to most of commentators, the archaic name "Frangiya" in the treatise belongs to east part of the empire of francs - to the German kingdom. V. Onzorge put forward the version of a double-meaning of this name at Konstantin's vasilevs: "Grossfrangia" as a part of the empire of francs out of the Alps and "Frangia" in Regnum of YaPsit 47 value. This version G. actively supported Kunstmann48. Both of them did not notice that "Regnum IaNsish" appeared only after Otton I's victory over Berengar in 962 g, i.e. after Konstantin Bagryanorodny's death.

We bury Bagivariya (from Bagoaria, Vayuaya, Vauog of Latin sources), according to most of researchers, meant a part of the state of Otton I - Bavarian gertsogstvo49. One of the first commentators of the treatise A. Banduri put forward the version that Bagivariya - the distorted name Karpat50. After Y. Mikovsha suggested to understand as Bagivariya the territory for river. Levers in Slovakii51. These both versions are not reasoned and therefore did not get support. The same can be told also about the version according to which Bagivariya - the Woman's mountain in Oravsky Beskidakh52.

Pachinakita - the distorted name of Pechenegs.

So, on the basis of the fragments of the treatise of a vasi-levs of Konstantin given above it is possible to draw a conclusion that in the middle of the 10th century. White Croatia occupied generally primary territory of the former Croatian union (Great Croatia) along northern borders of Hungary, in the West being closed with White Serbia, and in the east of its border were available to attacks of Pechenegs. White Serbia then occupied headwaters of Odra and reached sources of Vistula. From here follows that in

middle of the 10th century. White Croatia stretched from sources of Vistula through the pool Sana'a somewhere to the average Dniester Current - headwaters of the Prut from where could be available to attacks of Pechenegs. And on the West, according to a vasilevs, white Croats moved forward recently whereas the sea with which they were connected was the Black Sea, and the approximate way to it lasted 30 days.

It is considered to be that for day of swimming up the river it was possible to overcome 25-35 km, down - 80 km. With its great variety of bends and turns, down in a day it is impossible to pass more than 50 km across Dniester. Simple calculations show that in 30 days to the Black Sea it was possible to reach somewhere from the Region of Peremyshlya. Some researchers, including D. Moravchik, under Black Sea suggest to see the Baltic Sea. It is improbable, but does not change business: to the Baltic Sea in 30 days across Sang and Vistula it is possible to reach by a river way only from the Region of Peremyshlya too. About northern borders of White Croatia Konstantin VII had no data.

Whether the territory of White Croatia of present Transcarpathia reached?

We will address the following fragment from Section 13 of the treatise "About Management of the Empire":

>. the following people adjoin to Turks: from West side from them - Frangiya, with northern - pachinakita, with southern - Great Moravia, i.e. the country of Sfendoploka (Svyatopluk Moravsky. - L.V.) which is absolutely destroyed by those Turks and is captured by them. Croats adjoin to Turks at mountains...

D. Moravchik, G. Feger, F. Dvornik, etc. saw the certificate that after defeat of the state of Svyatopluk Moravsky the Hungarians bordered on Croats near the Carpathians, i.e. in Zakarpatye53 in this fragment. G.G. Litavrin and V.P. Shusharin consider that the speech goes about the Dalmatian Croats here, and carry this fragment to neponyatnym54. It is absolutely groundless. The message of Section 13 is logically connected in the text with other information ugra, Pechenegs and Croats.

But it is necessary to pay attention that treatise fragments which concern Croats near the Carpathians do not allow to call them "white". Brings to such conclusion also the indication of a vasilevs on the fact that the earth of Croats are available to attacks of Pechenegs. Out of doubts, the thought P. Diakona and other researchers is fair that Pechenegs after 896 g seized space from Don to Siret and summer kochevya were their also in Pruto-Dnestrovsky mezhdurechye55 from where they could disturb easily Croats in Transcarpathia and on Central Dniester. Undoubtedly, in 948-952 the Pechenegs wandered between the Southern Bug, Dniester, the Prut and Siret. S.A. Pletneva's remark concerning concentration of archeological sites of Pechenegs on Donu56 does not contradict these conclusions.

About resettlement of eight hordes of Pechenegs, one of which bordered on ulicha, Drevlyans and even volynyana (in the text - landzyanam), tells the 37th section of the treatise of a vasilevs of Konstantin. In polemic with P. Diakona I. Bozhilov and D. Dyerfi do not look ubeditelnymi57. There are no traces of the Bulgarian possession of this region. M.S. Grushevsky's version according to which Pechenegs could disturb Croats on Odra through Hungarian vladeniya58 is even less convincing.

The story of temporary years mentions Croats and once of white Croats three times:

>. On mnozekh vremenekh sat down an essence of Slovenia across Dunayevi where there is nowadays Ugrian earth and Bolgarsk. From those Sloven razidoshasya on zeml and prozvashayasya imines the, where to a sedsha on which place: a yak having come a sedosha on reets a name Morava, and prozvashasya Morava: and druziya of Chesi narekoshasya; and this is more silent than Slovenia to Hrovata Beliya, both Serb, and Horutana...59.

As follows from the text, this fragment belongs to lands which by the time of drawing up the Story of temporary years were a part of the Czech state.

>. And to a zhivyakh in the world to the Glade both Drevlyans, and Sever, and Radimichi, and Hrvat...

Comparing this fragment with data of the treatise of Konstantin VII, it is possible to consider that Croats lived in borders of Kievan Rus' of times of Nestor chronicler, i.e. on Dniester.

The following fragment reports about participation of Croats in Oleg's campaigns to Constantinople in 907 and 911. Laying aside a discussion about quantity of campaigns of Oleg and other princes in connection with the version of the Askoldovy chronicle and M.Yu. Braychevsky's hypotheses (that would carry events on 50-60 years ago), it is possible to assume that Croats could take part in similar campaigns only as allies or tributaries of the Kiev prince. Only having gone down across Dniester and having joined Oleg or Askold's flotilla, they could bring benefit in a campaign. As allies, living it is far from Dniester, Croats would not have any benefits from a campaign to Byzantium. As tributaries of Kiev they especially could not be further in the West, beyond limits Podnestrovya.

The fourth fragment is dated 993 g: "... To Ida Volodimer on Croats". In 981 g Vladimir Svyatoslavich was at war with Poles and Peremyshl and Chervensky grads borrowed. It is necessary to agree with Ya.D. Isayevich's version that Poles in Russia originally called the extreme neighboring tribe landzan, having distributed then this name to all polyakov60. For the same reason and Hungarians call Poles "landet".

At the time G. Lovmyansky enough reasonably placed landzan in Sandomierz and Lublin zemle61. The Polish historian considered.

that they entered the Croatian massif too, and at a certain stage and structure of Great Moravia. But most of the Polish historians, using other fragment of the treatise "About Management of the Empire" where it was reported that the tribe of Lenzenionoi rendered tribute to Kiev at the time of Olga's regency, tried to move borders landzan nearly under Kiev. Eventually also G. Lovmyansky did not resist. He refused former views and extended borders landzan to Bug and the Styr to Volyni62. And today borders landzan in the south and in the east move to upper courses of Dnestra63, and for justification of this thesis mainly onomastichesky materials, and even such names as Bels, Belzets or Tysmenitsa are attracted, carry to West Slavic, i.e. polskim64.

Upper courses of Pripyat could hold Landzane in the middle of the 10th century and certain time to take part in the Dnieper trade with Byzantium. It is possible that to the buzhena, the volynena or other Volynsk breeding principalities were during this period under their hegemony. As participants of the Dnieper trade they could give some part of income to Kiev. For this reason Konstantin VII also carried them to number of tributaries of Kiev. They could also be certain time under hegemony volynyan or buzhan. A.B. Golovko about it writes about a certain group landzan which lived in upper courses of the western sources of Dnieper (in the territory of modern Belarus), but at the same time was not any considerable ethnic formation and over time completely assimilated Volynsk naseleniyem65. It is not excluded also that are identical to the landzena Volynsk luchanam66.

The southern borders landzan reached Hungary, but it does not mean yet that they reached the Carpathians. Nakhodka of the whole Hungarian cemetery of the 10th century in Peremyshla demonstrates that the Hungarian influence in this region could stretch up to borders of the Sandomierz and Lublin earth. Peremyshl, probably, was Croatian goro-dom67 which name happens from Pshemisl - the Croatian or Moravian prince. After defeat of Great Moravia the Croatian principalities could become object of fight between the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Poland endured the period of formation of the new state territory at this time. Entered borders of the state of the Bag of I to the landzena and also, it is possible, for a short time, the cities of Cher-ven and Peremyshl who before it was in the sphere of the Hungarian influence. In 981 g Vladimir Svyatoslavich attached these lands to Kiev. If these lands were ethnic territories landzan, then because of them long fight inevitably would begin. But it did not happen as the called lands were Croatian.

There is open a question: against what Croats did the Kiev prince go to 993 g? The version about conquest of Transcarpathia and its inclusion in

the structure of the Kiev state which leans only on this fragment it is not supported with other arguments and looks unconvincingly. Is more plausible that Vladimir opposed the Dniester Croats as during this campaign Kiev was attacked by Pechenegs, and the prince came back. If its army was beyond the Carpathians, it would be almost impossible to make it. Being inhabitants of the Average Podnestrovya, Croats could agree with Pechenegs about their attack on Kiev. Fight of Kiev for Podnestrovye's Average was hard. B.A. Tymoschuk's excavation ruin of a number of ancient settlements of this region at the end of the 10th century is attested. In Transcarpathia nothing similar it is revealed.

About "the Russian Croats" also the Polish chronicler Vintsenty Kad-lubek speaks (apprx. 1160-1223), but these mentions, probably, are borrowed from the Russian chronicles and cannot give anything new to localization of Croats. Only one fragment can be interpreted as the message about fight for the Croatian lands between Hungary and Poland in the period of later 966 and up to 981:

Huns or Ugrov, Horvatov and the Magyar, tribes strong, he subordinated to the vlasti68.

This fragment also in a certain measure strengthens a conclusion that Croats bordered on Hungary and in the north, i.e. from the Carpathians.

Researchers of the text Oroziya of the English king Alfred Veliky (879-899/901) established that information on the central regions of Europe is obtained by it from the diplomats who were at court of the emperor of francs Arnulf (887-899) who in 892 g tried to conquer Great Moravia and through merchants, missionaries and other intelligence agents collected information on Slavic zemlyakh69. Horoti (Croats) are placed by Alfred to the east from daleminets (dalemintsev-glomachy) and to the south from Megd, "and from the North from the earth there are sarmenda to the most Rifeysky mountains" [Orozy, 12-13].

Dalemintsy-glomach together with siusla, koloditsa, milchana and puddles were included into the union of sorb (Serbians) 70 known to Konstantin Bagryanorodny as White Serbia. Nowadays the remains of this union are luzhitsky Serbians. The earth of daleminets are localized between the Kamenitsey River, inflow of the Trough, Laba to the Arrow, Polznitsy and Krushny mountains. So, according to Alfred, borders between White Serbia and White Croatia in the West passed across the Top Laba. Here easily both the Czech Croats of upper courses of Laba, and the Silesian Croats of upper courses of Nisa famous for later istochnikam71 are located.

In the 19th century Ya. Bosworth a priori placed Megd in East Prussia and Polshe72. After G. Lyabud Megd quite convincingly identified with Mazoviyey73. Mazoviya's territory is accurately outlined by toponyms like Mazovshani, Mazovshe, Mazev, Mazevo, Mazovetsk,

Mazury, the Mazourka, Mazurkov (their of everything 13), Mazovsha74 located on historical borders.

Sarmendi is, undoubtedly, Sarmatians, as well as V.I. considered Matuzova75. Scientific Europe long time designated by this name the population of the east part.

As Rifeysky mountains in literature usually understand the Ural Mountains. Therefore this fragment can be considered as the instruction that for Croats up to the Urals there live Sarmatians, i.e. the unknown people. However such decision is submitted not indisputable.

"Scythia lies under the North and near the foot of Rifeysky mountains from where blows Borya", - Pseudo-Hippocrates wrote. "Scythia and Northern lands was entered by awful Boreas... so what? Unless Gipanis (Southern Bug. - L.V.) what starts with Scythian mountains, being at first fresh, does not spoil later bitter salts?" - we read in "Metamorphoses" of the Roman poet Ovidiya banished in the 1st century AD in Thomas on the coast of present Romania. Here explicitly under Rifey-sky (Scythian) mountains it is possible to see Karpaty76.

Mazoviya bordered on landzana. Landzane remained unknown to the king Alfred, but he knew about vislana: "And in the east from Moravia there is a country of Vislan, and to the east from it Dacia" (Orozy, 12). Dacia is the same scientific fiction, as well as Sarmatiya. In the 9th century both did not exist. Vislana are known as well from St. Mefodiy's Life: "The pagan prince, siln very, sits in Vislekh, rugashesya Christiaan and dirty tricks to a diyasha" 77. On the basis of these fragments G. Lovmyan-sky carried to Croats both vislan, and landzan78. For such categorical conclusion there are no bases and furthermore for the assumption that to the landzena were a part of the state vislan. These fragments are only allowed to consider that they to the vislena were connected with the Top Vistula. Somewhere between 874 and 885 Svyatopluk Moravsky took the vislyansky prince prisoner and by force forced it to accept kreshcheniye79.

Thus, it is possible to consider that, specifying the western and northern borders of Croats, Orozy of the king Alfred connects the Croatian massif with the Carpathians. Are mentioned in a source to the vislena, but Alfred does not identify them with Croats anywhere.

The Arab Anonymous author of times of Svyatopluk Moravsky (870-894) reached us in Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Umar's transfer ibn Rosht (head of the 10th century) and the Persian historian Abu Said el-Jayn Gardizi (11th century). To the Anonymous author there goes back the mention of the tribe of Grwab and its prince of Suwayyat Balk (Ibn Rosht) or the tribe of Garawat and its prince of Suwiyyat Malik (Gardi-zi) 80. In both cases it is easy to see the distorted names of Croats and the prince Svyatopluk.

It is possible to agree with G. Lovmyansky that east merchants trading with the state of the Moravian prince called it Grwab /

of Garawat by name the first, "extreme" tribe subject to this governor. But attempts of the Polish historian at any cost to carry these data to vislana, having rejected podnestrovsky and Carpathian Croats, look very neubeditelno81. According to its version, the Arab merchants to get to the residence Svyatopluka on Morava, had to go by Dniester and the Carpathians, through Volhynia and Vistula and therefore laid aside podnestrovsky and Czech Croats, not to mention Croats Carpathian.

For confirmation of the hypothesis he pointed to treasures of dirhems in Dorogichin and the outskirts?

Justin Goodman
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