The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

About the forgotten episode in the Russian-Swedish relations of the 20th of the 17th century (cancelled courtship of the tsar Mikhail Romanov)

o. N. Mironova


Work is presented by department of national history of the Ryazan state university of S.A. Yesenin.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.N. Kozlyakov

Article is devoted to activity of the Russian messengers of 1622-1623 which went to Sweden with a secret mission to find out about a possibility of marriage between the tsar Mikhail Romanov and the sister-in-law of the king Gustav II Adolf by Ekaterina Brandenburg. In spite of the fact that negotiations did not bring results, in diplomas of the tsar and Swedish king the agreement of opinion on the major military-political questions is traced.

The paper is devoted to the activity of the Russian couriers who went to Sweden in 1622-1623 with a secret mission to find out about the possibility of marriage between Tsar Mikhail Romanov and King Gustav II Adolf's sister-in-law Catherine of Brandenburg. Though the negotiations were fruitless, agreement of opinions of the tsar and the Swedish king about the important military and political issues can be traced in their charters.

After the Time of Troubles and the Polish-Swedish intervention Russia represented the ruined, weakened state. In 1613 at the head of the country there was a young tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov. He was the founder of a new dynasty on the Russian throne. The Moscow state had a difficult task: to restore not only internal political wellbeing, but also to revive anew on the international scene. In this case marriage with representatives of the European dynasties played a large role.

On reaching "male age" Mikhail Romanov began to look for for himself the wife. The first attempt of the young tsar (1616) to find to itself the bride independently was unsuccessful. Marriage with Maria Hlopova did not take place because of palace intrigues. In 1621 the search of the wife was resumed. This time organizer bu-

the blowing Mikhail Fedorovich's marriage his father patriarch Filaret acted. Perfectly expert in affairs of foreign policy, Filaret considered marriage of the son as an opportunity to ennoble a new dynasty and by that to strengthen the position of the reviving Russia in the opinion of the European states. D.I. Ilovaysky wrote: "As the founder of a new Russian dynasty, naturally Filaret wished to give it gloss the related union with any sovereign European house" [3, page 35].

Originally sent one Moscow German to Dresden for secret collecting of information on Saxon princesses. Its activity was unsuccessful [3, page 35]. Then looks of the Moscow yard were directed to Denmark. However attempts to organize a wedding of the tsar Mikhail Romanov and niece

the Danish king Christiaan IV were also not crowned with success [4, page 147-148; 8, page 119-120; 9, page 458-469].

Having estimated all miscalculations, in 1622 the Moscow government sent to Sweden the translator Eliseus Pavlov with the secret diploma to the king Gustav II Adolf this time. In the diploma the offer to give for Mikhail Fedorovich Gustav-Adolf's sister-in-law, markgrafinyu Ekaterina, the daughter of the Elector of Brandenburg expressed. Having received Gustav-Adolf's answer, in 1623 to Sweden sent the translator Andrey Angler for continuation of secret negotiations on a courtship.

In the documents telling about Mikhail Fedorovich's courtship to Ekaterina there are no fascinating, magnificent and colourful descriptions of such, apparently, curious event. In essence the official courtship was not held, and trips of messengers are some kind of "probing of the soil", the arrangement on a courtship further to nullify a possibility of refusal and, thus, not to be trapped during official proposal. Perhaps, it also explains the fact that historians, telling about Mikhail Fedorovich's life, only mentioned a courtship and did not go into details of this event. D. Tsvetaev was the only researcher who paid special attention to Eliseus Pavlov and Andrey Angler's negotiations. In the book "Protestantism and Protestants in Russia till an Era of Transformations" the historian in detail described events, placing in work a large number of quotes from archival documents [9, page 469-475].

Mentioned in the works diplomatic trips to Sweden of 16221623 D.I. Ilovaysky [3, page 35-36] and

N. N. Bantysh-Kamensky [1, page 153]. D.I. Ilovaysky truly called the purposes of search of the bride abroad and the reasons from -

kaza. N.N. Bantysh-Kamensky noticed that ambassadors in the conversation drew a parallel of a courtship of the Russian tsar and a marriage Gustav-Adolf on the daughter of the same Brandenburg Elector. However historians in detail did not press in the description of the process and missed the important political affairs rising during negotiations with Gustav-Adolf.

The purpose of the present article is consideration of a courtship of Mikhail Fedorovich in the context of foreign policy events of the 20th of the 17th century; studying negotiations as fact which strengthened diplomatic relations between the countries where against the background of marriage arrangements the main questions of further contacts between the states were brought up.

In the Russian state archive of ancient acts two affairs telling about embassies of 1622 and 1623 remained. The first of them contains diplomas "about the offenses caused from his royal citizens Russian and about deserters". These diplomas, most likely, were a formal reason for embassy, only covering a main objective - preparation of a courtship [6]. Questions of deserters were a commonplace in the Russian-Swedish relations after the conclusion of the Stolbovsky peace treaty, they accompanied any embassy, but at the same time never were main during negotiations as generally decided in correspondences of voivodes of the boundary cities. This fact confirms once again that the main 1622 in negotiations was the question of a courtship. The second document tells about a trip in messengers of the translator Andrey Angler with the diploma from the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, "informing desire to enter matrimony" with Ekaterina Brandenburg [7].

In the remained document 1b22 of there is no word about a courtship. However D. Tsvetaev in the work published in 1890 writes about the secret diploma, a cat - to Rui Eliseus Pavlov handed to the Swedish king, and, moreover, it places quotes from this document [9, with. 470]. A bit later, in 1899 D.I. Ilovaysky [3, with. 35 — ZB], and in 1902. N.N. Bantysh-Kamensky [1, with. 153], in the works told about a secret order of Eliseus Pavlov to marry off the sister-in-law of the Swedish king Ekaterina.

Study of the case about "About departure to Sweden the translator Eliseus..." showed that it reached our days not full. The last sheets of the remained document is a letter of the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich to the Novgorod voivode D.I. Mezetsky. In the letter it is told about arrival of the translator Eliseus Pavlov to Veliky Novgorod and it is instructed the voivode to send the messenger to Rugodiv [with. 30-32]. In business there are no documents telling about E. Pavlov's arrival to Sweden on negotiations with the king and on his return to Moscow. Therefore, the most part of the document is lost.

For today business under the name "Departure to Sweden the Translator Eliseus." remained in 32 sheets. On the folder in which business is stored there are marks that on January 18, 1930 the document consisted of 34 sheets, and on July 22, 1943 there were already 32 leaves. Contents and the nature of the document quite precisely shows that on these two sheets which were gone from 1930 to 1943 the end of business together with secret diplomas could not go in. It means that the most part of the document was gone during the period since the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century when it was used Ilovaisk and Ban-tysh-Kamensk, for 1930

On the folder in which business is stored there is also a record, testify -

shchy that in 1911 E.D. Stashevsky used the document. Very bad story which is in detail described by S.I. Mi-halchenko is connected with a name of Stashevsky [5, page 146-153]. In 1915 the historian was accused of stealing of documents from the Moscow archives Ministries of Justice and Ministries of Foreign Affairs. It is possible to assume that a part of the document was gone because of E.D. Sta-shevskogo.

The choice as future wife of the sister-in-law of the Swedish king Ekaterina was not accidental. First, after the conclusion of the Stolbovsky peace treaty (1617), warming was outlined in the difficult Russian-Swedish relations. Secondly, Russia and Sweden had the general enemy - the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and interdynastic marriage could play a positive role in creation of the military anti-Polish alliance. The possibility of creation of the Russian-Swedish union was enshrined in the 33rd paragraph of the Stolbovsky contract where it was said that Russia and Sweden can conclude the alliance "against the king of Poland Sigismund, all Polish kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania on conditions which will seem the best to both great sovereigns" [2, page 431]. Thirdly, Ekaterina was a Protestant and consequently, did not threaten her will repeat the fate of Marina Mnishek belonging to so hated first half of the 17th century in the Russian society to Catholic belief.

The courtship moreover and when business concerns two great powers, could not be secret. However both Eliseus Pavlov, and Andrey Angler should find out only about the relation of the Swedish king to this serious question and also to discuss marriage conditions. For this purpose messengers were charged with two diplomas - official and secret. Negotiations on a courtship were conducted only directly with the king. In gra-

the spendthrift of the tsar of 1623 it is emphasized that Eliseus Pavlov announced a courtship in "the secret room" of Gustav-Adolf [7, l. 7]. In memory of the translator Andrey Angler it is said that "oprich to give the king of the diploma and the letter to nobody" [7, l. 46].

In the secret diploma of the messenger Eliseus Pavlov it was said that Mikhail Fedorovich, having reached "male age", wants to contract a legal marriage with the princess Ekaterina and "the it is even stronger to strengthen and approve former love between them, sovereigns, and between the Russian and Swedish states". The Swedish king Gustav-Adolf reacted to the offer with big enthusiasm. He writes in the response diploma that he "accepts that with love and if it is fated God, wishes and will help royal majesty with its begun business".

However not everything was solved so simply. Gustav-Adolf "has no full will over the vysokorozhenny princess" and cannot give the answer to Mikhail Fedorovich's proposal "without reference with eya the close family". But the king hoped that they will agree.

Main and decisive during the courtship was an issue of religion. In foreign policy which was developed against the background of Thirty years' war (1618-1648) and fight against Poe-spolitoy Speech the borders between Protestantism and Orthodoxy, appear, became invisible before the main enemy - Catholicism, but in marriage questions the religion became a stumbling block. Gustaf - Adolf on behalf of Ekaterina's relatives insisted on that the princess and her servants remained in the Protestant belief and also on that they had an opportunity "is free to keep the to Peña and service in the picks" [9, page 470].

the Government of the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich could not go to such in any way

concessions. In the diploma which was brought by Andrey Angler, it is written: "for love and the strong union" Ekaterina has to be "with it, the sovereign, in one orthodox Christian belief", so, it should host "a sacred baptism" as "without this initial and main business their gosu-darsky lawful matrimony cannot be become: because to our orthodox Christian belief of the Greek law at other beliefs discord much". In the diploma it is written that "two beliefs great our sovereigns never were to spouses and from now on that cannot be" [9, page 471-472].

It was refused to the Swedish king construction of churches for commission of service of Ekaterina and her near people as "churches in the Moscow state and other beliefs did not happen Nicoli and from now on ty statisya cannot because that is opposite to our orthodox belief" [7, l. 31; 9, page 472].

In a question of religious affiliation of near people of Ekaterina and her servants the refusal of the Moscow government sounded rather softly, but is unambiguous. In the diploma it is written that they will be rewarded "by a royal salary... on their advantage", however "will be that lyu-dy which will arrive with a vysokorozhenny knyazhna of Ekaterinoyu in our orthodox Greek to the law in the Moscow state of life do not pokhotit and pokhotit ekhat to the earth and great our sovereign his royal majesty having welcomed them the gosudarsky salary orders from-pustiti to their earth. without anything for-derzhanya" [7, l. 30-32; 9, page 472].

In the response royal diploma brought by Andrey Angler it is written that Gustav-Adolf "wants that a videta that it. copulation zbylosya", and he would wish with Mikhail Fedorovich "in a svoyachistvo and in a near priyatelstvo" and also hopes that he "from that will give rise -

tsa there is a lot of any good. and from that there will be their foe a passion and death" [7, l. 58-59]. However the Swedish king continued to insist on the requirements.

Sweden had centuries-old commercial and diplomatic relations with Russia and perfectly knew the Russian traditions including the big importance of Orthodoxy for the Moscow state. It is unlikely Gustav-Adolf amused himself with hopes that this time the Russian tsar Mikhail Fedorovich will change the settled rules long ago and will allow the wife and the Russian queen to live in other belief. Why the Swedish king continued negotiations on a courtship, but did not answer immediately refusal if he beforehand knew their outcome? The answer should be looked for in foreign policy. Support of Russia in war with Poland was very important for Sweden. In 1626 Gustav-Adolf will make the first attempt to incline the Moscow state to the military alliance against Rechi Pospoli-toy who as a result is formed at the beginning of the 30th of the 17th century. It also was the reason that the Swedish king tried to show to the Russian government the participation, arrangement and friendship even in courtship questions. Besides long negotiations promoted accumulation of knowledge of the future ally.

During discussion of possible marriage it was impossible to avoid a question of the relation with the Polish king Sigismund III. The fact is that, having received in 1618. East Prussia, the Elector of Brandenburg, as the Prussian duke, became vassalno dependent on the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Russian government was afraid that the Polish king will try to prevent the marriage union. But nevertheless it was sure that the Elector of Brandenburg can "is free for whom did not want, to give the sister or the daughter". It has "a considerable state and in German

the states there are a lot of relatives and friends" therefore "the Polish king cannot prevent marriage". The main argument of a possibility of marriage of the sister of the Brandenburg Elector and Russian tsar, despite Sigiz-mund III'S protests, was so-called "sample" which was that "itself royal majesty [Gustav-Adolf] married in that nice house and took for itself the Elector of Brandenburg the daughter".

In the diploma there is also a reminder that "the Polish king about that was decayed, however to the Elector of Brandenburg could make nothing, vschinat war would be against the truth" [7, l. 38-43; 9, page 472-473].

Other demand which was made by Gustav-Adolf was granting to Ekaterina ": special places of honor". In 1622 the Swedish king writes in the response diploma: if Ekaterina and her people "are given special places of honor and the cities with counties, and the Polish king who, of course, will not like this marriage will not be allowed prior to a quarrel with the Brandenburg Elector subordinated to it".

The Russian side saw permission of this question rather simply and obviously. In the diploma brought by Andrey Angler it is written that when Ekaterina becomes a queen "all velikiya of the state Ros-siyskiya will be their gosudarskiya together unseparably. if it proizvo-litas what cities and counties to have on the name and from them to sbirat income on the domestic obikhoda and on servants, and great our sovereign for that will not stand: the cities, places and counties will be given without any scarcity, and in all the life it will not have scarcity and bondage" [7, l. 35; 9, page 472].

Such answer did not satisfy the Swedish king. In the response diploma of 1623 Gustav-Adolf continues to insist on that Ekaterina "was suited

the special cities, the earth and counties on all the life, at least, on the God's proizvoleniye, she endured the spouse" [9, page 474].

Gustav-Adolf did not notify relatives of a markgrafina of Ekaterina on a courtship. He promises to make it only in case the Russian tsar accepts all his conditions which consisted of three points: to remain to Ekaterina in the belief, to have servants of that belief what she will wish and to be provided with special places. Also Swedish king insists on that from the Russian side great ambassadors were sent to Sweden to agree and "strengthen, and without that in customs not of vedetets that otpus-tit such great princess to distant others earth" [7, l. 67]. The Russian great Embassy did not go to Shwe -

tion. The principles of marriage conditions expressed both from the Russian and from the Swedish side, were so various that an opportunity to agree between two states was nullified.

Moscow and Stockholm could not compromise, however the favorable tone of negotiations, apparently, sincere desire of Gustav-Adolf participate in the fate of the tsar considerably was smoothed by disappointments of the Russian government. Negotiations of 1622-1623 not only did not worsen diplomatic relations between the countries, but also, obviously, brought together them. Though casually, but nevertheless a talk about the Polish threat showed the first sprouts of foreign policy agreement of opinion, once again made think on a possibility of joint fight against the general enemy.


1. Bantysh-Kamensky N.N. The review of external relations of Russia (for 1800). Part 4: Commission of printing of the state diplomas and contracts at the Moscow main archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. M, 1902. IV. 4bz page
2. Yu. Videkind. History of ten years' Swedish-Moscow war. M.: Monuments to a historical thought, 2000. b52 page
3. Ilovaisk D.I. Istoriya of Russia. T. 4. Issue 2: Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov's era. M, 1899. VIII. 375 pages
4. V.N. Kozlyakov Mikhail Fedorovich. M.: Young Guard, 2004. 341 pages
5. S.I. Mikhalchenko. The Kiev school in the Russian historiography. (V.B. Antonovich, M.V. Dovnar-Zapolsky and their pupils). M.: Prometheus - Bryansk: BGPU publishing house, 1997. 228 pages
6. Russian state archive of ancient acts. T. 9b "Intercourse of Russia with Sweden". Lake 1. 1b22; 2. 32 l.
7. Russian state archive of ancient acts. T. 9b "Intercourse of Russia with Sweden". Lake 1. 1b23; 2. 84 l.
8. S.M. nightingales. Compositions: In 18 books by the Prince of V. T. 9-10: The history of Russia since the most ancient times. M.: Thought, 1990. 718 pages
9. D. Tsvetaev. Protestantism and Protestants in Russia till an era of transformations. M, 1890. VIII. 782. II page
Leroy Johnson
Other scientific works: