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The help to the needing schoolgirls of female gymnasiums of Department of institutions of the empress Maria



e. A. Vasilyeva

The HELP to the NEEDING SCHOOLGIRLS of FEMALE GYMNASIUMS of DEPARTMENT of INSTITUTIONS of the EMPRESS MARIA

On the basis of the published and archive materials in this article the author considers ways of financing and the help to the needing schoolgirls of female gymnasiums of Department of institutions of the empress Maria in St. Petersburg, drawing a conclusion that without the aid of various organizations and private donations the number of pupils in gymnasiums would be much lower.

E. Vasilyeva

SUPPORT OF THE NEEDY PUPILS OF FEMALE GYMNASIUMS OF THE EMPRESS MARIA'S ESTABLISHMENT DEPARTMENT

On the basis of published and archival documents, sponsorship and support of the needy pupils of female gymnasiums of the Empress Maria's Establishment Department in Saint-Petersburg are regarded. A conclusion is drawn that without the support of various organizations and private donations, number of pupils in gymnasiums would be considerably lower than it was.

To the middle of the 19th century in the Russian society sharply there was a question of public female education. The institutes and boards existing at that time were created for education and training of young noblewomen. To ordinary girls the entrance was closed there. They could study in small and main national and also parish

schools. But these educational institutions gave only bases of education and could not promote further realization of opportunities of girls in society.

In 1854 the Department of institutions of the empress Maria within which Mariinsky women's institutes and schools for neprivilegiro-opened was created

bathing estates. At this time the public hotly discussed an issue of what educational institutions are necessary for girls, similar men's or others? The discussion was conducted also on a subject about what subjects to teach and to whom to entrust training. The Russian public interest in female education Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov's article "Life questions" excited. In it he claimed that "not position of the woman in society, but her education in which education of all mankind consists — here that demands change" [4, page 71]. This publication and many others, followed it, gave a powerful spur to an initiative of the structure of open and vsesoslovny women's average educational institutions. The famous teacher N.A. Vyshnegradsky developed the project of the structure of female education on a new basis on the basis of which he created in St. Petersburg school, the first in the history of Russia, "for the coming maidens", called Mariinsky by the name of Maria Aleksandrovna's empresses, taken by it under the protection. But to the city there was not enough one school, and in the fall of 1858 three more women's institutions were open — it were the Kolomna, Vasya-leostrovsky and St. Petersburg schools. In the next years some more the state, and then and private women's schools opened the doors for girls in the different ends of the city. Since 1862 "the schools for the coming maidens" began to be called as female gymnasiums officially. It were the first vsesoslovny educational institutions for girls that was fixed by the charter of 1862: to "visit of schools maidens of all estates and religions are allowed" [8, page 3].

These schools were not free. Initially the tuition fee made 20 rubles, but very quickly it increased up to 60, and then and up to 80 rubles a year. Sharp reduction of number of pupils was connected with increase in a payment at the end

the 1860th — the beginning of the 1870th, most of grammar-school girls were not from rich families. At the same time parents or the girl's trustees also had to buy a form and grants that together with a payment for study could become a heavy burden for the family budget. Among schoolgirls of gymnasiums there were girls studying at the expense of the state budget. Lists were approved by conferences of gymnasiums, but the number of places was not high. The needing schoolgirls was much more.

For these girls there were three solutions of a problem — to receive the status of the state or private boarder or to count on the help of societies of assistance to the needing schoolgirls in the gymnasiums.

How the girl could become a boarder into the state account? Parents submitted the application addressed to the chief of a gymnasium with a request to transfer the daughter to free training. Not all applications were satisfied. It "was generally lucky" daughters of officials or noblemen. Among the state boarders children of teachers of gymnasiums often came across. Applications of petty bourgeoises and merchants usually were not satisfied.

According to statistical data of the 1880th, 62% of all pupils were made by children of noblemen and officials, 4% are clergy, 23% — merchants, 11% — petty bourgeoises and commoners [5, page 4]. At the beginning of the 20th century these data slightly changed, but is not too strong — became children of petty bourgeoises and commoners at the expense of children of merchants slightly more.

In gymnasiums there were many girls studying at the expense of individuals or the organizations, but, unfortunately, there are no exact data on their quantity or percentage with the total number of pupils. Differentiation on such pupils at first did not exist therefore to understand who for whose account studied, represents a problem. In 1880 the circular [11, l was published. 6], on which

in estimates for every year this information has to be specified, but, unfortunately, these estimates did not reach us.

From the very beginning of existence of gymnasiums in them there were girls studying at the expense of individuals or the organizations. At the beginning of their quantity it was not really big, but subsequently their number increases. There were few personal scholars of individuals *, and in their some gymnasiums were not at all. Generally various institutions — city and merchant justices, the Turkestan Governorate-General **, the Tver governor, etc. acted as sponsors. The choice of the benefactor depended first of all on origin and a personal contact of parents of the girl. So, the merchant justice took in number of the scholars of daughters of merchants and petty bourgeoises, the city justice "specialized" in noblewomen and daughters of officials. In St. Petersburg these two justices were main "sponsors" of grammar-school girls.

Besides, in gymnasiums there were grants in memory of different persons, institutions and even events (for example, in 1866 the capital in memory *** 1526 rubles 69 kopeks was built on April 4, 1866 — for its percent about two boarders in all gymnasiums on the terms of the princess Volkonskoy [9, l were accepted. 18]) and also so-called economic free (in memory of prince P.G. Oldenburgsky).

Since 1879 at gymnasiums societies of assistance to the needing schoolgirls begin to appear. Societies of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of Vasileostrovsky, Mariinsky and Kolomna gymnasiums were the first. But there were they not in all gymnasiums. These societies were created first of all by parents of schoolgirls therefore they appeared in the most provided areas.

Assistance had the following manifestations:

1) "in a payment for the needing schoolgirls of a payment for the doctrine;
2) in issue to them of books and other manuals;
3) in allowances for clothes, footwear and other necessities" [7, page 1].

But one girl could not apply for receiving all grants at the same time. At the same time the decision on type of a grant was made by society, but not family of the grammar-school girl.

Also society cared for continuation of education of the needing schoolgirls and after the termination of a gymnasium by them, however, provided that they with success ended a course of a gymnasium and really came to one of higher educational institutions.

Means of society were formed of membership fees, donations by money, books and other objects answering the purpose of society, income from the organized lectures, performances, musical and dancing meetings. Were sometimes published in favor of society of the book, for example, in 1913 in favor of Society of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of the Vasileostrovsky female gymnasium there was a collection by G.N. Tyapkina "Hi" [3, page 11]. Gradually the capital of societies of dews, they had own securities — for example, Society of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of the Vasileostrovsky female gymnasium had papers of the St. Petersburg city credit society, one ticket of a 5% second domestic loan, the bond for 4% of the state rent and others [2, page 8]. Some of them were presented, others were acquired independently by Society.

Can track dynamics of growth of the capitals of societies on the example of Society of assistance the needing schoolgirls of the Vasileostrovsky female gymnasium thanks to the reports which remained for all years of its existence. So, for the first che-

pinching years of the existence the capital of society was 10,507 rub. From this capital of 6710 rub the society brought for training of 168 schoolgirls and 500 rub gave out in the form of a grant to needy schoolgirls money, books and clothes. By 1908 the capital was 13,204 rub from which by grants it was given in 1907 1297 rub. In total by 1908 on grants 40,365 rub were given [6, page 28].

Members of societies of assistance to the needing schoolgirls were divided

into honourable and valid (honourable contributed 60 rubles or on 5 rubles monthly in cash desk of society at once; valid — or at once 6 rubles, or on 1 ruble each two months [7, page 2]). Among honorary members of Society of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of the Vasileostrovsky female gymnasium were such known deya-

body, as well as. E. Repin, archpriest Ioann Ilyich Sergiyev Kronshtadtsky, D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak [1, page 5].

Female gymnasiums promoted expansion of education of the woman. They prepared the contingent of schoolgirls for pedagogical high and medical female courses in the beginning, then and for higher educational institutions. With success having finished a gymnasium and an additional pedagogical class, the girl could apply for the post of the teacher in the gymnasium and subsequently promote in a pedagogical field. Some girls grew up in great teachers and subsequently even headed female gymnasiums. But if gymnasiums did not receive the necessary help from parents of grammar-school girls, individuals, institutions, then the number of graduates would be much less.

* The widow of the major Pushchin had one scholar in the Kolomna gymnasium [10, l. 17].

** The office of the Turkestan Governorate-General brought A. Ponomareva tuition fee in 1912 [12, l. 54].

*** On April 4, 1866 the first unsuccessful attempt at Alexander II D. V. Karakozovym's life took place.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. The annual report on activity of Society of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of the Vasile-ostrovsky female gymnasium for 1906 — SPb., 1907.
2. The annual report on activity of Society of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of the Vasile-ostrovsky female gymnasium for 1909 — SPb., 1910.
3. The annual report on activity of Society of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of the Vasile-ostrovsky female gymnasium for 1913 — SPb., 1914.
4. PirogovN. I. Chosen pedagogical compositions. — M, 1953.
5. Existence twenty-fifth anniversary celebration in Russia of female gymnasiums. — SPb., 1883.
6. I.V. Skvortsov. The past and the present of the St. Petersburg female gymnasiums of department of the empress Maria (1858-1908). — SPb., 1908.
7. The charter of Society of assistance to the needing schoolgirls of the Vasileostrovsky female gymnasium. — SPb., 1879.
8. The charter of schools for the coming maidens of Department of institutions of the Empress Maria. — SPb., 1901.
9. CGIA SPb. T. 346. Petrograd Mariinsky female gymnasium. Op. 1. No. 7.
10. CGIA SPb. T. 405. Kolomna female gymnasium. Op. 1. D. 18.
11. CGIA SPb. T. 405. Kolomna female gymnasium. Op. 1. D. 28.
12. CGIA SPb. T. 149. Vasileostrovsky female gymnasium. Op. 1. D. 1295.
1. Godovoj otchet o dejatel&nosti Obwestva vspomowestvovanija nuzhdajuwimsja uchenicam Va-sileostrovskoj zhenskoj gimnazii za 1906 g. — SPb., 1907.
2. Godovoj otchet o dejatel&nosti Obwestva vspomowestvovanija nuzhdajuwimsja uchenicam Va-sileostrovskoj zhenskoj gimnazii za 1909 g. — SPb., 1910.
3. Godovoj otchet o dejatel&nosti Obwestva vspomowestvovanija nuzhdajuwimsja uchenicam Va-sileostrovskoj zhenskoj gimnazii za 1913 g. — SPb., 1914.
4. Pirogov N. I. Izbrannye pedagogicheskie sochinenija. M., 1953.
5. Prazdnovanie dvadcatipjatiletija suwestvovanija v Rossii zhenskih gimnazij. — SPb., 1883.
6. Skvorcov I. V. Proshloe i nastojawee Sankt-Peterburgskih zhenskih gimnazij vedomstva imperatricy Marii (1858-1908). — SPb., 1908.
7. Ustav Obwestva vspomowestvovanija nuzhdajuwimsja uchenicam Vasileostrovskoj zhenskoj gimnazii. — SPb., 1879.
8. Ustav uchiliw dlja prihodjawih devic Vedomstva uchrezhdenij Imperatricy Marii. — SPb., 1901.
9. CGIA SPb. F. 346. Petrogradskaja Mariinskaja zhenskaja gimnazija. Op. 1. D. No. 7.
10. CGIA SPb. F. 405. Kolomenskaja zhenskaja gimnazija. Op. 1. D. 18.
11. CGIA SPb. F. 405. Kolomenskaja zhenskaja gimnazija. Op. 1. D. 28.
12. CGIA SPb. F. 149. Vasileostrovskaja zhenskaja gimnazija. Op. 1. D. 1295.
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