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Trade business activity of noblemen of South Ural at the end of XIX beginning of the 20th century (on materials of the Ufa and Orenburg provinces)



e. S. Biryukova

TRADE BUSINESS ACTIVITY of NOBLEMEN of SOUTH URAL at the end of XIX - the BEGINNING of the 20th CENTURY (on the example of the Ufa and Orenburg provinces)

Work is presented by department of history of the Fatherland and a technique of teaching history of the Sterlitamak state pedagogical academy. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor D.P. Samorodov

In article the author defined the main directions trade predprnnimatelskoy activity of noblemen of South Ural at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. The main attention was paid grain

36

Trade business activity of noblemen of South Ural at the end of XIX -

beginning of the 20th century.

specializations of the area which left a mark on all types of agriculture and branch of business. The leading branches of business activity of noblemen were cultivation of commodity bread, development of livestock production, the organization of forest business and distilling production.

The article centers on the main trends of the commercial and entrepreneurial activity of the Southern Urals noblemen at the end of the 19" & #34; - beginning of the 20" & #34; centuries. Main focus of attention lies with the grain specialization of the region, which influenced the rest of the agricultural and undertaking activities. The key industries of the entrepreneurship of the noblemen consisted in growing bread for sale, development of cattle - breeding, organization of sylviculture and distillery production.

In modern conditions of economic development most of researchers address experience of trade business activity of noblemen at the turn of the century. Due to the development of market conditions this topic of a research is hot. The Ufa and Orenburg provinces were among rich. Grain specialization of the area left a mark on all other types of agriculture and branch of business. The livestock production was one of possible options of receiving profit. The researchers studying a condition of livestock production in South Ural used reports of governors, provincial veterinary inspectors, military and horse censuses, territorial reviews and other sources. By them it was shown that at the end of the 19th century in the southeast of the European part

the countries it was approved feeding meat sko-1

a tovodstvo which gradually accepted commodity character. Here sharp reduction of number of cattle and sheep was observed that was explained first of all by specialization of economy and bigger profitability of grain farm. The absolute livestock of the cattle decreased. In the Ufa province at rather stable livestock of horses (18.5 thousand) the reduction of herd of cattle was observed — about 28961 goals. in kontseXIX century

4

to 6193. In 1913 in two counties of the Orenburg province (Verkhneuralsk and Orenburg) landowners had only 1383 horses and 5243 heads of cattle. In general in the region in 1916 chastnovla-

delchesky farms owned 4% of all cattle. Reduction of a livestock was explained by reduction of the amount of private land tenure which rates of decrease were faster.

As a profitable industry the livestock production developed in large economi-yakh. So, in 1913 the noblewoman S.M. Bunina in the Belebey manor of the Ufa province had 198 heads of cattle. In the Sterlitamak County V.A. Pashkov in one manor had a herd from 124 heads

7

the cattle, and in another - 110.

By consideration of a soslovnost of owners of the cattle the prevalence of noblemen is noticeable. Along with the prevailing stagnation tendency in evolution of livestock production the line on an intensification, improvement of breeding of the cattle was looked through. At the general reduction of a livestock of the cattle in landowner farms the trend of specialization and an intensification of livestock production was looked through. In 1906 at the Birsk regional agricultural exhibition (Ufa province) in department of cattle "first of all two groups of the cattle presented by land owners N.M. Nikolaev and Ts.A. Landsberg stopped on themselves attention. According to the statement of commission of experts, the first group was represented quite characteristic, with the certain direction demonstrating rational and systematic maintaining cattle breeding in a manor of Nikolaev... The milk of cows investigated by Gerber's atse-dibutilator was containing fat it is higher than 40% that turned on

especially attention of the commission" 8. To Nikolaev the medal of Head department of land management and agriculture was awarded, and Landsberg received certificates of appreciation for the presented bull and a heifer. But cases such were single. In 1910 at the taken place first regional agricultural exhibition in Sterlitamak from 23 presented horses belonged to land owners all tri9. Landowners could not define region livestock production vrazvitiya trends.

However in large landowner econo-miya where the tendency to an intensification of economy was looked through, the livestock production carried not consumer, but trade character. It is possible to distinguish several types from such farms, in our opinion. In Timashev's latifundium (80,708 des) located in the Orenburg County there were 224 workers and 3 breeding oxen, 62 bulls, 49 cows, 29 heifers, 39 calfs. Income from sale of the lethal cattle and dairy cattle breeding in 1900 was the following: sale of 99 heads for 4645 rub, 120 poods of oil for 1200 rub, 720 buckets of milk for 120 rub, meat and fat for 690 rub, 59 heads of an issue for 295 rub. Minus expenses on payment serving 3635 rub net income of the landowner made 3324 rub Besides, in economy there were 7133 heads of sheep. From sale of wool, sheep meat, fat economy received 4767 rub 81 kopeks of net income in

1 ° TT

year. Before us type of pastoral and agricultural economy from which were on sale mainly meat, wool, milk, i.e. not processed raw materials.

Other type of economy was represented by E.K. Kharitonova's manor. At the beginning of the century belonged to her 3703 des from which 1917 des. - an arable land, 1776 des. - meadows and laylands. Bolshaya Square of natural haymakings allowed to support horse-breeding center from three producers and 40 uterus, 80 working horses and 360 heads of a cattle and свиней". By 1913 the arable land in a manor increased till 2412 des, and haymakings and pasture, on -

against, decreased till 1137 des. The livestock of the cattle grew from 480 to 536 heads, mainly due to purchase of working oxen. In 1916 the herd contained already 806 heads, sheep (125) and working horses were bought. In 1917 in connection with difficulties

wartime the economy was reduced,

12

and the herd decreased up to 603 heads. Revenue from cattle breeding to the landowner was yielded by sale of the live cattle and the processed livestock products. For this purpose in a manor the cheese dairy (performance of 400 poods of cheese) and dairy in which of 912 poods of milk 57 poods of butter were developed worked. In 1917 by the time of the census from E.K. Kharitonova's economy all oil and cheese, 34 poods of milk and 2 poods of 8 pounds of sour cream were already sold. Besides, the landowner had also considerable own plowing (592 des. in 1916). Its economy represented type of the developed agricultural and livestock economy in which the main revenues were the profit both on one, and on the second of the industries. We can carry V.I. Bazilevsky's manor where, according to appraisers of Noble bank, "the put dairy farming was model" to the same type. The produced oil was on sale in St. Petersburg and in the local market at the prices from 12.5 to 15.5 rub that for 2.5-5.5 rub

exceeded the usual price.

However the cattle breeding played a supporting role in overwhelming number of landowner manors of edge and had mainly consumer character. The basis of landowner farms of the region was formed by manors in which cultivation of commodity bread was the main occupation. It was more favorable to landowners to increase own plowing at the expense of meadows and pastures or at the growing land values to lease it, than to be engaged in cultivation of the cattle.

Other income item in landowner farms. In scientific literature the organization of forestry of private owners is considered enough red-

Trade business activity of noblemen of South Ural at the end of HGH - the beginning of the 20th century.

ko14, the istochnikovy base is poorly developed.

The Russian statistics of land ownership was

imperfect. In the Orenburg province,

for example, "even the exact number is unknown

wood tithes", the general guberna-15 noted

Torahs, privately owned forestry was not studied.

It is known that landowners did not differ in big care of the wood belonging to them, destroyed it. Deforestation got especially considerable sizes at the beginning of the 20th century that was explained by favorable market conditions: the prices of the wood grew by 29.5% in 1911-1913 in comparison with the first fifth anniversary of the 20th century, and export of forest materials increased more than twice. Increase in prices promoted increase in forest cutting in the country. The part of the forest which even did not have market price was cut down under the extending economic plowing as sale of bread, the high rent brought considerable income. The market conditions developing at the beginning of the century, simultaneous increase in prices for forest and grain goods formed the atmosphere of a profit, created an excitement around forest possession. Sale of landowners' estates, especially after 1905, in those sites which have to

was other reason which accelerated deforestation

were to pass to Country bank for

18

subsequent sale to peasants.

In the studied region the privately owned woods borrowed 2739.4 des. also belonged mainly to noblemen and merchants. For example, 44.8% of the privately owned wood were in the Ufa province in

property of noble estate and 19

46.4% - merchant. As a rule, wood

was in large landowner economi-

yakh. To I.G. Zhukovsky in the Birsk County in on -

20

belonged to a chala of the 1900th 16,422 des.,

To A.A. Timashev in the Orenburg County-21

12,208 des. and so on. Huge forest spaces were in mining vladenie H. of Item i of I.P. Balashov (200 thousand des), K.E. Beloselskogo-Belo-

zersky (350 thousand des.) in the Ufa province, S.P. Von-Derwisa in the Orenburg gu-

22

berniya (58,279 des.). Here it was actively felled trees on firewood and coal for the mountain plants. We specially do not consider mining forest dachas as the income of the owner developed due to the industry here, but not land tenure and

dachas at the beginning of the 20th century became sobstven-

23

nost of joint-stock companies. The descriptions of forest dachas of landowners which are available on the region confirm maintaining in the majority from them irrational economy. In I.G. Zhukovsky's manor in the Birsk County of the Ufa province on all space in 12,898 des. "the selective cabin of coniferous trees from 8 vershoks more in the diameter at breast height" and deciduous "from 5 vershoks was made and

it is more in the diameter at the same height", but

24

"there is no strictly developed system". The developed wood was processed at two landowner plants (their total cost of 51,175 rub), then the waterway on own barges, and logs - rafts transported to Ufa, Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan. Alloy to Ufa of one log in 13 arshins and no more than 9 vershoks thick cost the landowner 23 kopeks, and the selling price of a half

was 8 times higher than

of such log in Tsaritsyno

25

also made 184 kopeks at this time

And yet at big profitability of forest business in the territory of the Ufa and Orenburg provinces of such injurious plunder of the woods as in Russia in general, was not. It was explained by the fact that grain specialization demanded concentration of the capital of landowners in agricultural production. Along with grain maintaining and forestry was or it can do to large landowners-businessmen, for example. I.G. Zhukovsky, or demanded refusal of grain specialization and orientation on production of timber, institutions for this purpose of the sawing enterprises. Forest specialization of landowner farms was noticeable in Ufa

provinces. Only here at the beginning of the 20th century sale of the wood grew - with 87,342 to 96,609 cubic sazh. for 1900-1911. The wood was processed by 25 sawing institutions, 19 of which belonged to landowners. In other provinces of the region, sale of the wood during this time decreased Orenburg - from 67,590 to 20,900 cubic sazh.

Thus, in the low-forest steppe region of the country the exclusive possession of the wood gave the chance to landowners to get considerable profit. Sawing institutions, the plants on distillation of a dry tree were located in large estates of capitalist type. However profit on the wood developed not only due to its cutting and favorable sale, but also from placement in the forest area of the seasonal dachas leased. Landowners acted in this case as typical businessmen.

Participation to the earth - and forest owners in joint-stock companies on processing and sale of forest materials was other capitalist phenomenon in forest business. Hereditary honourable citizens of the Orenburg province A.M. and V.M. Pimono-vy were owners of Kananikolsky giving in 107.8 thousand des. For sale of timber to Association of the Orenburg lesotorgovets they had 429 thousand rubles of annual income. In 1904 Pimonova sold giving to Forest industrial and trade society for 2 million rubles, having liquidated such transaction debt in 1 million rubles. Nizhny Novgorod Samara to bank. Having sold giving, they became members of joint-stock company which profit in 1914 was 494.4 thousand rubles. At the same time the capitalist organization of forest matter in landowner farms of the region was combined with traditional ways of utilization: landowners, using need of peasants in material for construction and fuel, forced them to clean the wood from a windbreak,

27 TT

dead wood on the terms of an ispolshchina. Therefore, A.M. Anfimov, one of forms of fight of peasants in revolution of 1905 noted

there was a felling of the landowner wood. Such facts as large-scale cutting and uvoz at the landowner of timber what it was reported in the pre-revolutionary review of the agrarian movement of 1905-1907 about, took place in

Belebey County of the Ufa province, 28

other manors.

Thus, in forest management of the region semi-natural and capitalist ways of its organization intertwined. Ispolny forms of works in forestry were caused by need of peasants in wood material and existed till 1917. However deforestation for the purpose of its favorable sale and the organization on the cut-down sites of dachas was the main form of generation of profit from forest business. The capitalist organization of forest matter in the region prevailed. The livestock production and forestry were minor in landowner economy. Their revenues were a minor share in the budget after a hle-boprodazha.

A front view of manufacturing industry in the region was to a mukomolya, especially in the second half of the first decade of the 20th century in rural areas, in production sites of grain, there was a growth of local capitalism characterized by emergence in counties of the small, but technically equipped mills supplied dvi-

29

gatel of internal combustion. In the Ufa province as noted local zemstvo in 1913, strengthening of mill production was promoted by development of grain farm and also geographical

conditions (existence of the small and average rivers).

Besides water-mills with three and more

postavam strongly developed mills

with heat engines - steam, neftya-

31 with

ny, kerosene and other. The number of technically equipped mills grew in the Orenburg province. Owners of the simplest windmills began to complain of losses. One of them, V.F. Chelnyntsev, wrote to the Ufa territorial justice: "On what

Trade business activity of noblemen of South Ural at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century...

to the man to potter with me when at him under

hands water-mills and oil dvi-32

gatel". It is not possible to allocate from the general data of data on number of the mills which were in landowner economiya of the region as the factory inspectorate kept account of the enterprises with the steam engine and the number of workers not 33

less than 15 people. Landowner mills, as a rule, did not fall under these conditions: income them often was 2-3 thousand rubles a year and belonged to the category of the enterprises of craft type. We have only sketchy data on privately owned mills. So, in the Ufa province in

1917 205 water, 22 Paro - worked
34

vy mills, 55 dryers and 13 wipings.

In 1913 the local inspection recorded only 86 privately owned mills here, 44 of which (51.2%) belonged to noblemen. In the Orenburg province, according to provincial statistical committee, in 1912 in Troitsk the county, where the main occupation of the population

there was an arable farming, worked the 195th bank -

35

face downwards. The central statistical committee, making the historical and statistical description of the province in 1910, took to accounting of only 6 large mills at which 280 workers were engaged. Owners of mills at the same time were large land owners. E.I. Borel had 5524.4 des. in the Sterlitamak County of the Ufa province where own economy was conducted for 1404 des, more than 450 heads of the working cattle stuck to the earth. There was a steam valtsovy mill, the mill place.

At the beginning of the 20th century in the region actively there was a process of concentration of the commerce and industry and landowner capital in some hands. The main type of the landowners who were engaged in processing of bread and having mills was represented by those for whom agriculture was the main occupation, and mills satisfied only needs of the neighboring population. A.P. Tolstoy's manor in the Ufa County belonged to such type.

In his manor income from four mills with -

37

put 8075 rub in 1908. One of mills was supplied with the turbine in 14 horsepowers which during autumn idle time was used at the krakhmalopatochny plant. The landowner gained income in 3340 rub also from the market square and a wine bench leased. But agriculture was the main occupation in a manor. In 1913 in a manor

A.P. Tolstoy in 3389 des. own pose-

38

you borrowed 867.5 des, and in 1917 - 400 des.

One more type of landowners was represented by owners who seldom used mills, preferring leasing, obyazuya tenants not only to give a monetary payment, but also to mill possessory bread. So, the tenant of a mill in 3 postav in the Ufa County signed in 1897 the contract with the owner K.I. Kurli-ny for 6 years which conditions included 100 rub of an annual payment and crunching of 1500 poods of possessory bread. The nobleman I.V. Palchikov acted still simpler: handed over to the tenant in the Menzelinsky County the earth on which the last had to construct the mill upon termination of the contract coming to property vladeltsa39.

Flour-grinding business of landowners of the region was presented mainly by the farms conducting capitalist agriculture in which mills were necessary attribute though crunching of own and country bread made the additional, but not main source of income of the landowner. This phenomenon demonstrated growth of local agrarian capitalism, inclusiveness of landowners in industrial production in the region.

Along with the facts of fast capitalist evolution of landowner economy there were also others when landowners still used mills, mill places for extraction of an absolute rent.

A special type of landowner business was distilling proiz-

vodstvo. From 1890th, it is noted in research literature when the law on distillation was adopted, advantages to its development were got by the small plants operating in rural areas. Situation with sources for studying this question difficult. On the data which are available at our disposal, in the Ufa province in 1913 there were 25 distilling plants, and in 1917 - 17. Only one distillery was in Troitsk the county of the Orenburg province. Let's note that most of them settled down in a northern part of the region where the climate promoted cultivation of potatoes. In the droughty South he demanded artificial irrigation, and cost of its cultivation exceeded all-Russian. If total cost of works on cultivation 1 des. potatoes in the European Russia to take for 100%, in the Ufa province - 99%. That is why distilleries in landowner econo-miya of the South of the region were almost not, and the separate, single plants processed mainly grain. Noblemen were owners of the plants. At the beginning of the 20th century in the region growth of absolute number of the plants was not observed, there was a replacement of the main material of processing - grain on potatoes what increase in its acreage testified to. However in general at private owners of the region potatoes share in total area under crops made only 2.6 des. in the Ufa province on everyone 100 des. crops of all bread that showed, on the one hand, dependence of owners of distilleries on country potatoes, and with another — the low-power of zavodik.

On this general background the plant of the nobleman N.V. Lyakhov in the Ufa County was allocated. The plant which had the steam engine in 10 h.p. used own raw materials: 100 thousand poods of potatoes, 35 poods of oats, 1176 poods

a rye and 216 poods of a millet were overtaken on sou -

40

Hui alcohol which came to treasury. Despite rather large size

productions, the plant worked seasonally that demonstrated the patrimonial nature of distillation in landowner economy. Potatoes could be also used in krakhma-scapular production, but its cultivation for these purposes was too expensive and unprofitable therefore the similar plants using local raw materials in the region were practically not. From all descriptions of landowner farms studied by us only in one of them - at A.P. Tolstoy in

The Ufa County - was krakhmalopatoch-

41 about I

Nov production. The plant worked three

autumn month when the mill turbine in 14 h.p. was free, processed 30 thousand poods of potatoes from the economy, 75 poods from outside. Performance of the plant - the 4500th pood. the purified treacle which came true to the different cities, mainly to Ufa. 8 people worked at the plant.

Thus, the patrimonial, seasonal nature of work and insignificant scales of production in general were characteristic of privately owned distillation in the region. Potatoes which were more fruitful, than bread, but also more labor-consuming at cultivation in the conditions of local climate became the main raw materials. Organized intensive farms could do cultivation of potatoes for needs of krakhma-scapular and distilling production only capitalist. Germination of local capitalism in privately owned distilling business went in the simplest shell of patrimonial production.

Other types of commerce and industry activity of landowners in the region are presented by production and sale of bricks, limes from stone quarries, etc. Their products were used mainly in the economy and were on sale to neighboring peasants. So, in the Ufa County the brick-works processing clay and sand from the economy worked for the noblewoman N.V. Lyakhova till summer of 1917.

Trade predprnnimatelskaya activity of noblemen of South Ural at the end of XIX -

beginning of the 20th century...

the Performance of the plant - 300 thousand bricks a year, served his 12 adults

>, , "42

men, 2 teenagers and 1 employee.

Thus, at the turn of the century noblemen made attempts of development of the trade and enterprise relations.

1 A.M. Anfimov. Country economy of the European Russia. 1881-1904. Page 210-227; Usmanov of X. T. Development of capitalism in agriculture of Bashkiria during the post-reform period. the 60-90th

The 19th century of M.,1981. Page 347-362.

2

Usmanov of X. T. Decree. soch. Page 362. A.M. Anfimov. Decree. soch. Page 232. 5TsGIARB. T. I-148. Op. 1. 177. L. 158-163. 5 TsGIA RB. T. I-132. Op. 1. 676. L. 48-49. Privately owned economy of the Ufa province. Ufa, 1915. Page 14-17, 18-21.

7

In the same place. Page 52-55.

8

The fourth Birsk exhibition of animals with handicraft department//the Ufa territorial newspaper. 1907. No. 17. Page 46.

9

P. Kabytov. With, N.F. Tagirova. Trade business activity of landowners in the Southeast of the European Russia at the beginning of the 20th century//Russia rural XIX - the beginning of the 20th century / Under the editorship of A.P. Korelin. M.,2004. Page 232.

RGIA. T. 593. Op. 14. 43. L. 17-18.

11 CGIA RB. T. 336. Op. 1. 2874. L. 4-15.
12

CGIA RB. F.R.-473. 0 items of 580.

13 CGIA RB. T. 336. Op. 1. 2956. L. 12.
14

A.M. Anfimov. Decree. soch. Page 210-227; Usmanov of X. T. Decree. soch. Page 347-362. N.F. Tagirova. History of the Ufa manor of Aksakov during a capitalism era//the Bashkir edge. Ufa, 1992. Issue 2. Page 43-48.

A.M. Anfimov. Decree. soch. Page 210-227; Usmanov of X. T. Decree. soch. Page 243.

17UsmanovH. T. Page 246.
18

P. Kabytov. With, N.F. Tagirova. Decree. soch. Page 236.

Counted on: Privately owned economy of the Ufa province. Page 1-153.

20

P. Kabytov. With, N.F. Tagirova. Decree. soch. Page 236. In the same place. In the same place.

23 GAOO. T. 38. Op. 1. 138. L. 136.
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P. Kabytov. With, N.F. Tagirova. Decree. soch. Page 236.

In the same place. In the same place.

26 RGIA F. 76. Op. 1. 2. L. 48.
27

In the same place.

28

The agrarian movement in Russia in 1905-1907 of Page 164. P. Kabytov. With, N.F. Tagirova. Decree. soch. Page 240.

30

CGIA RB. T. 132. Op. 1. 676. L. 124. In the same place.

32 TsGIA RB. T. 400. Op. 1. 40. L. 17.

P. Kabytov. With, N.F. Tagirova. Decree. soch. Page 240. & #34; & -

34 CGIA RB. T. 148.0 items 1. 177. L. 158-163. & ■■■...
35 GAOO. T. 164. Op. 1. 210. L. 17.
36 RGIA. T. 1290. Op. 4. 51. L. 15.
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CGIA RB. T. 400. Op. I. 32. L. 30.

In the same place. L. 31. ■■■.-.-

39 &:

P. Kabytov. With, N.F. Tagirova. Decree. soch. Page 242.

LTsGIARB. T. 473. Op. 1. 580. L.31.

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In the same place.

In the same place.

Benson Christopher
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