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Financial and financial support of the Russian emigration to the risen Kronstadt

8. M.N. Petrov of Cheka — OGPU: the first decade. Novgorod, 1995. Page 57.
9. G.F. Barikhnovsky. Ideological and political crash of a beloemigration and defeat of an internal counterrevolution (1917 — 1921). L., 1978. Page 278.
10. Central archive of Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation.
11. State archive of the Pskov region. T. 626.
12. Pskov alarm. 1928. November 27.
13. A horn V.L. Grayaddanskaya war in the Northwest of Russia. Berlin, 1923. Page 35-36.
14. Archive of Federal Security Service Directorate on the Pskov region.

About the author

S.E. Matveev — an edging. yur square of sciences, dots., Tula state university,

UDC 94 (470) & #34;1921"

A.V. Uryadova


Activities of emigration for rendering financial and financial support to the risen residents of Kronstadt are lit: fund raising, the addresses to the western and Russian foreign public, the sending and difficulties arising in connection with the solution of these questions. The question of the help of emigration to the sailors and their families running on the West after the revolt is considered.

The article focuses on the assistance provided by Russian emigrants to the Kronstadt&s rebels: raising capital, addressing Russian community abroad and solving difficulties of this campaign. It investigates the assistance provided by the emigrants to sailors refugees fled from Russia to the West after the rebellion.

About; and I and Vi from the first who brought up a question of reaction of emigration to the Crown npadgskoye a revolt was V.I. Lenin: "Both Mensheviks, and Social Revolutionaries announce the Kronstadt movement and #34; своим" — he noted. — All belogvardeygtsina will be mobilized & #34; for Kronshtadt" instantly, with speed, one may say, radio telegraphic... Over fifty foreign White Guard Russian newspapers develop a mad campaign on energy & #34; for Kronshtadt". Large banks, all forces of the financial capital open collecting to the aid of Kronstadt" [10]. In more detail, though still without delay, wrote about it in 1923 M. Gorbu give to drink. He considered that this event once again

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2008. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 36 — 41.

proved that emigration did not give up hopes for military intervention or a revolution in Russia. He considered not only the ideological party of a question, but wrote also about attempts of financial support of emigration risen [9, page 118]. By the way, proving unity of an internal and external counterrevolution, the Soviet figures of that time, journalists and researchers as the proof brought into later time including collecting by emigration of means and food for risen. The subject of the help of the Russian abroad was practically not brought up by the Soviet researchers. The exception is made, perhaps, by work of S.N. Semanov who even "the Kronshtad-sky mutiny and emigration" at that time devoted to this aspect a whole chapter [19]. In works of the last two decades the authors try to look at this problem in a new way. However the emigration relation to a revolt is reflected only in researches on the history of the Russian abroad and is seldom mentioned in the works devoted to Kronstadt [11; 20; 22]. We will try to understand this article as far as it was considerable, and, above all the emigration help to risen is productive.

Appeals with appeals to public opinion of the West which, according to emigration, was passive and indifferent concerning the events in Russia [on March 17, 9] were repeatedly published in the Russian periodicals. On belief of Berlin "Wheel", the abroad had to render not only moral, but also real support, both foreigners, and Russian, especially those who have means, communications [In the same place]. Emigrants, according to this edition, had to organize the help to risen. At the same time executive and transfer function was allocated for the Russians living in Finland and Estonia. And, on belief of the newspaper, support had to be given irrespective of political gfistrastiya. "Behind emigration — to show whether it has forces and abilities not for a talk and declarations, and for urgent business" [In the same place]. At the same time it was necessary to report risen on radio about the preparing help that could change the course of events and lift their fighting spirit.

Still on March 1 the former deputy of the State Duma N.V. Savich wrote in the diary that without food aid Kronstadt has to capitulate for hunger, he even expected to use the help of emigration as propaganda means [4, l. 1]. Then N.V. Savich writes in the diary about a meeting of emigrants with the Finnish authorities, with the purpose to achieve free transportation of food from Vyborg as as the official representative of the American Red Cross colonel Ryan wrote, "the Finnish government in a categorical form refused to allow to use its border. Owing to the signed contract with Bolsheviks Finland did not wish to risk to render assistance to residents of Kronstadt, therefore and to us" [on March 18, 22].

The representative of the Russian Red Cross professor G. of Tseytler1 arrived to Vyborg for assistance though it had no money,

1 On other sources and literature — Tseydler or Zeydler.

prodovolstviya2. With the purpose to find their G.E. Lvov who was premieres of Provisional government visited the representative of the American Red Cross in Paris and on March 9 received consent to transfer of all stocks of the last in Finland in Tseytler's order. For the aid to it from Paris the group of emigrant figures went to Revel and Vyborg [on March 17,10]. The American researcher R. Arvich proves that members of the National center came into the contacts with sailors by means of Tseytler and the Red Cross which though rose, according to him, did not wish intervention of emigrants [1, river 110]. "The will of Russia" in every possible way disproved this communication, specifying that Tseytler and before a revolt collected the help for Petrograd suffering from hunger [on March 6, 22]. According to some information, in the American warehouses was available there: 100 Ltd companies pood. torments, the 150th pood. egg powder, the 8000th pood. condensed milk, the 9000th pood. fat, 10,000 pood. sugar, 1200 pood. dried vegetables [on March 13,15; On March 17,10].

On the first of March at the initiative of S.N. Tretyakov the whip-round among the Russian industrialists [4, l began. 1 about. — 2]. Russian trade about - mpplenny and the financial union (RTPIFS) took a number of organizational measures for association of forces and means of emigration for support of risen. On the fifth of March a telegram was sent to Helsingfors and Kronstadt: "Russians trade gromjpplennye the circles of Paris which received data on events in Kronstadt and Petrograd immediately start supply risen food and necessities. Drastic measures will be taken immediately. Supply of Kronstadt can be considered provided" [on March 13, 15]. The telegram was signed: Financial trade gtrompplenngy the union in Paris, the All-Russian union of trade and a gtrompplennost, Council of congresses of trade and gtrompplennost. On the same day for the organization of food aid at RTPIFS the committee as a part of N.H. Denisov, P.O. Gukasov, was formed by H.H. Iznar, T.V. Belozersky, S.N. Tretyakov, P.A. Tik-stona and others for fund raising and the help to risen. By March 7 the Red Cross made the order to translate from Denmark 5000 English Fong. the article, gtrompplennik collected 1 million fr. [4, l. 3 — 3 about.].

The eighth (according to other data of the 10th) March the Committee of representatives of the Russian banks made the decision on the emergency food aid to Kronstadt. For this purpose its chairman N.H. Denisov left to London for negotiations. The union of the Russian promjpplennik and financiers appealed to the American minister of trade Hoover to send risen transport with bread [12, page 41]. The council of ambassadors consisting of the former Russian diplomats gathered in connection with the Kronstadt mutiny for a special meeting in Paris. He sent to Washington a telegram to "the Russian ambassador" B.A. Bakhmetyev in which an ukazyva yus, "that the sympathy of America can promote in many respects the successful result of fight against Bolshevist tyranny" [8] and charged to it to organize in the USA fund raising for risen [3, page 72]. The representative of party ese2 The foreign Russian Red Cross of Yu.A. Lo-dyzhensky heading at that time neither in the memoirs, nor in diary entries does not mention assistance to Kronstadt of this organization and G. Tseytler what Social Revolutionaries wrote very much about.

a ditch E. Rogovsky was it is received the message of one of party leaders of V. Zenzinov with the offer to transport to the risen Kronstadt 50 cars of flour from Amsterdam [2].

According to "Latest news", by March 18 on behalf of the Commerce and industry union in favor of "revkom" 100 thousand fr were assigned.; from the International bank V.N. Kokovtsov transferred 5 thousand Fong. article; from Russian-Asian bank — 200 thousand fr.; from the Salamandra insurance company — 15 thousand fr.; from Territorial and city committee — 100 thousand fr.; from bank, "the name of which is not announced yet" — 225 thousand fr., one of employees of the Rul newspaper from an own name gave 5 thousand rubles [on March 13,18]; from the Russian bank in Paris — 225 thousand fr., from the Nikopol-Mariupol metallurgical society — 20 thousand fr. [12, page 40]. According to other data, the director of the International bank transferred to monarchist D.D. Grimm (to the aid of Kronstadt) 225 thousand fr., Russian-Asian bank — 300 thousand fr. [on March 17,11]. This list did not include smaller of the sums 1)1, arriving from various institutions and individuals. Put these on standards of price of that time were considerable, and since the beginning of a mutiny there passed some days, i.e. by this time contributions of the Russian banks for assistance to Kronstadt exceeded 775 thousand fr., or 2 million financial. brands. Banks promised to continue payments, sending them to Helsingfors [on March 17,18].

In Helsingfors the Committee of provisioning risen as a part of professors D. Grimm, G. Tseytler, M. Kalugin and other public figures was formed. The Soviet researcher Yu.A. Shchetinov, being guided by the report of the member of the committee Mr. Elvengren, draws a conclusion that his members were entirely representatives of the foreign organizations and developed the plan of support of the Kronstadt mutiny performances on the continent. A similar look at it and concerning representation of the international Red Cross operating in Kronstadt [21, page 101.104]. As for the mentioned G. Elvengren's report, he also contains data that in fortress from the territory of Finland considerable batches of food were delivered. It is important as in the majority of sources it is either about intention, or about collecting money and food, but not about their delivery to Kronstadt. Collecting money and food was widely covered in the emigrant periodical press. The Obshchee Delo newspaper announced a subscription to delivery of food to Kronstadt that brought about 25 thousand fr. from which 10 thousand were offered by madam Zelenina [13].

the Natural question which arises at a view of these figures — how food (and quickly) was planned to transport

and how to realize the monetary assistance? It disturbed and sane emigration. After all. A. Bunin wrote in the diary of March 7: "But as well as whom food & #34 can be delivered to Kronstadt; not later среды"? Similar again on nonsense and the Russian levity..." [5].

Really, delivery of food to risen was complicated because of winter time, and Finland, being afraid of reaction of RSFSR, did not agree to transportation through the Gulf of Finland


[March 17,10; March 6, 22; On March 14, 9,17]. Not all smugglers undertook such dangerous work, here that one of them answered a question of the correspondent of "Latest news" of the trips to Kronstadt: "There I carry meat and flour, here — refugees and carpets... But now — nothing because from the sea machine gun fire flies, and the lead sky is drawn by searchlights..." [on March 14, 20]. All data which were published about arrival to Kronstadt of steamships with humanitarian aid [on March 13, 17; On March 18, 17] were no more than reportorial fiction. The help collected by the Red Cross, as a rule, did not reach risen, and remained in warehouses of Vyborg.

There are V. Rogovin's data on what by the time of suppression of a mutiny came to Kronstadt the 400th pood. products [16], however, are not absolutely clear whether there is a speech about deliveries from the Finnish warehouses of the American Red Cross or about the help in general. There is one more question: where did the assembled help as a result get to? It is only possible to assume that it went to needs of the risen residents of Kronstadt fleeing the country after defeat of a mutiny.

After suppression of a revolt in the foreign Russian press the issue of the help fleeing Kronstadt and fund raising for them began to be discussed. Already on March 23 the Volya Rossii newspaper is open a subscription in favor of the Kronstadt refugees and their families. Initial contribution life is made by her employees and also received from the Czech-Russian meeting and made about 1500 Czech korunas [on March 6, 23]. In July, 1921 the book "The Truth about Kronstadt" which collecting from sale also went to advantage of refugees [on July 6,12] was published. By August 27 "the Will of Russia" collected 60 thousand chesh. kroner [on August 6, 27]. There are no other data on the help to running.

Whether waited whether the emigration supports which rose wished? Apparently, they began to think of it only to the end of a mutiny, probably, when they felt proximity of the defeat. The draft of the appeal to the Russian emigration with a request for moral and military support life is developed only on March 15. It contained a call for help food, medicines and military intervention. "Mainly — it was said in the document — we address the Russian people who came to be on others earth. We know that they will come to the rescue to us" [7, page 32].

In general the Kronstadt events caused among the Russian emigration revival and iridescent euphoria, hopes for fast return, especially at the beginning. On effect of impact on emigration Kronstadt partly can be compared to hunger of 1921. It is life a reason for association of emigration and demonstration of the real opportunities. However, as well as in a situation with hunger, though there was an active work, but association did not happen. Besides unlike the humanitarian nature of the help starving the help risen after all had political overtones. Therefore as truly noticed "Wheel", Kronstadt became not a reason for association of forces, but a reason for new polemic, disputes, mutual recriminations, examinations as far as positions of Kronstadt correspond to their own platform [on March 17,19]. Emigration was not ready to joint actions not only with risen, but also with each other. On the one hand, disputes on timeliness of support the risen and its forms, and on the other hand continued, there were no coordinated actions and during collecting money, and, above all — deliveries of food. Therefore the effectiveness of actions of emigration came down gfakgichesk to zero and it is hardly possible to agree with conclusions of the Soviet researcher of the Kronstadt mutiny S.N. Sema-nov and the Finnish researcher of Yu. Suomell which assumed possible other outcome of events (on condition of the emigration help) if the revolt lasted longer [19, page 136; 20, page 132].

List of sources and literature

1. Avrich P. Kronstadt 1921. Princeton, 1972.
2. URL:
3. G.V. Barikhnovsky. Ideological and political crash of white emigration and defeat of an internal counterrevolution. 1921 — 1924. L., 1978.
4. Russian Abroad library fund. T. 7. On. 1. Unit hr. 1.
5. I. Bunin. Memoirs. URL: ivan_ alekseevich/dnevniki/bunin_dnevniki.htrnl#TOC_id2789763; URL: http://www.velib. com/book.php? avtor=b_910_lbook=128_19_9
6. Will of Russia. 1921.
7. History questions. 1994. No. 7.
8. Voice of Russia. 1921.12 March.
9. M. Gorbunov. Commerce and industry emigration and its ideology / / On the ideological front of fight against a counterrevolution: Collection of articles. M, 1923. Page 105-124.
10. V.I. Lenin. Half-N of SOBR. soch. T. 43. Page 237 — 238.
11. A. Lysenko. Exile voice: Formation of newspapers of the Russian Berlin and their evolution in 1919 — 1922 of M., 2000.
12. Yu.V. Mukhachev, L.K. Shkarenkov. Crash of "new tactics" of a counterrevolution after grayaddansky war / / New in life, science, technology. It is gray. "History". No. 8. M, 1980.
13. New world. 1921. May 22.
14. Latest news. 1921.
15. Latest news. 1921.
16. V. Rogovin 3. Party of shot. M, 1997.
17. Wheel. 1921.
18. Today. 1921.
19. S.N. Semanov. Elimination of an anti-Soviet Kronstadt mutiny of 1921. M, 1973.
20. Yu. Suomela. Foreign Russia. Ideological and political views of the Russian emigration on pages of the Russian European press in 1918 — 1940 / buses of the lane with financial. L.V. Suni. SPb., 2004.
21. Yu.A. Shchetinov. The crash of a petty-bourgeois counterrevolution in the Soviet Russia. M, 1984.
22. V. Shambarov. White Guards. M, 2002.

About the author

A.B. Uryadova — an edging. east. sciences, Dr., un-t of Sorbonne; dots., Yaroslavl state un-t of P.G. Demidov,

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