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Vladikavkaz City Duma: selective practicians and social composition (the second half the XIX beginning of the 20th century)



VLADIKAVKAZSKAYA CITY COUNCIL: SELECTIVE PRACTICIANS AND SOCIAL COMPOSITION (the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century)

Work is presented by department of history of the North Ossetian institute of humanitarian and social researches of V.I. Abayev of the Vladikavkaz scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Government of PCO-A. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor 3. V. Kanukova

In article not studied issues of city self-government are considered: the organization of elections to City Duma of Vladikavkaz in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century, its social

structure, electoral behavior of citizens. The role of city self-government in economic and welfare development of Vladikavkaz comes to light.

The article presents some unexplored issues of municipal self-government in the second half of the 19"1 century and thebeginning ofthe of 20 highways century. The following aspects are considered and analysed: organization of elections to the Municipal Duma of Vladikavkaz and its social structure; electoral behavior of citizens; role of municipal self-government in economic, social and cultural development of Vladikavkaz.

Polycultural Russia where all territories have historical, hozyaystvennokulturny, social, confessional and other differences, endured difficult process of formation and development of institutes of city self-government. The accumulated historical experience demonstrates that reforms "from above" without regional and ethnic specifics are fraught with many costs. Meanwhile in the history of the Russian city self-government there are unsolved many problems, first of all at the regional level.

Such researches are especially relevant for the North Caucasus as the problem of city self-government did not become an object of a special research yet. Its separate aspects connected with activity of bodies of city self-government are affected in the works devoted to history and the culture of the cities of the North Caucasus, but in general the problem remains a white spot in a city iyegoriografiya.

As a result of establishment of the Russian-Ossetian interaction in 1774 the Vladikavkaz fortress later transformed to the city was based. In 1863 in connection with formation of the Tersky region Vladikavkaz received the status of the regional city. The Vladikavkaz city court was renamed into the Municipal public government, having kept former functions.

In 1875 the Gorodovy Situation on June 16, 1870 by which the control was transferred in hands elective from citizens was extended to Vladikavkaz. According to Situation, only those at whom was in the city nedvizhi-had suffrage

the bridge and who was engaged in trade or trade. Those for January 1, 1875 there were 735 people. It were people who

"annually filled with the contributions go-1

rodsky cash desk".

By Situation, voters were divided into three categories, on purpose "to eliminate

prevalence less paying bolshin-

2

stvo over educated minority". From each category 16 vowels were chosen. The social composition of vowels was rather uniform. It were generally noblemen, merchants, 7 petty bourgeoises, several representatives of the intellectuals. On April 1, 1875 t. the first mayor, the merchant of the first guild Grigory Mikhaylovich was elected

Bogdanov.

Elections showed the prevailing influence of merchants. Still more it was shown in the course of the election campaign in 1886 t. when in public thoughts there passed mainly merchants and only "as blind" several teachers and officials. The local press strictly noted: "... bribed, podpaivat and achieved the quietly to catch fish in muddy water". Obviously, authors had reasons for such categoriality. But ignoring or underestimation of a role of merchants in development of the city is in a conflict with historical reality.

P ozdny the "Gorodovy Provision" issued by the tsarist government in 1892 was distributed to the Vladikavkaz City Duma. It worked up to the October revolution. By this Situation only the largest house owners and vladel-had the right to choose and be elected to City Duma

tsy commerce and industry enterprises of the first and second guild. To the first guild wholesale dealers, belonged to the second • retail dealers, manufacturers, manufacturers and contractors.

Also representatives of government, charitable and educational institutions, clergy as they owned the real estate had electoral rights.

Elections of vowels of the Vladikavkaz City Duma for 1893-1896 took place in March, 1893. At this time in the city there were 46.3 thousand people. 673 persons, or 1.45% of all population, including 515 owners of large houses and 158 were included in the electoral lists published in the Terskiye Vedomosti newspaper

owners commerce and industry before -

priyatiya.

In elections for 1901-1904, at population in the city 50.4 thousand people, were entered in electoral lists

745 people, or 1.48%.

In elections for 1913 - 1916, at population 77.4 thousand people, number of voters made 1611 people, or 1.9%&.

Thus, the right to choose and be elected to City Duma had 1-2% of all population of Vladikavkaz.

Actually on electoral electoral meetings were no more than one fourth - the one fifth part of all voters. So, 212 voters participated in elections to the Vladikavkaz thought in 1897,

i.e. 28% of their total number and 0.4% of all

8

number of urban population.

The procedure of elections considerably differed from modern. It was based on electoral meetings. For example, on elections of City Duma for the period from 1913 to 1916 the first electoral meeting took place on September 23, 1912. In the afternoon on a meeting 377 people - 24.9% of all voters were. They elected 41 public. The second electoral meeting sosto-

yalos in the afternoon on September 25 when two more vowels were chosen. The electoral meeting appointed to evening of the same day did not take place because of low turnout of voters. The third, additional, electoral meeting - on Sunday, October 14. On this meeting 173 voters who doizbral of 17 vowels and 8 kandida-were

9

t in vowels.

The Terskiye Vedomosti newspaper, complaining about evasion of voters from vote, noted: "God grant, that them the fifth part was at least. The most bigger will come the person 300-200 and the cities will decide destiny".

Such level of political culture is quite natural: to citizens not only Vladikavkaz, but also all Russia it was necessary to master democratic principles of self-government for a long time.

The list of the elite was in direct dependence on the list of voters. The majority of vowels of a thought was presented by economic elite of the city. The concessionaire on construction of the Growth and Vladikavkaz railroad and its Novorossiysk branch, the concessionaire on a construction of the Vladikavkaz water supply system baron Shteyngel, the owner of the starched plant Izrailev, furniture factory - Krejci, tobacco - Vakhtangov, timber mill - Sparrows, brewery - Terterov, mills - Hodyakov, Lazarev were repeatedly elected as a member of the Vladikavkaz City Duma; wholesale merchants Zipalov, Pronin, Nikitin, Oganov, etc. As a part of the vowels elected to the period from 1905 to 1908, this group contained 55%".

Studying selective practice allows to speak about the indifferent relation of citizens to elections. The most effective way of ensuring success to candidates for vowels was a formation of the corps of electors.

However in the next years there was noticeable other trend: political activity of the intellectuals - doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers. In 1913 this

the group considerably pressed business

elite, having delegated to City Council 22

vowels that made 36% of their general 1.

numbers.

The serious public status was acquired by engineers, technologists, teachers, doctors, lawyers, lawyers, experts of forestry, figures of the financial sphere. Many of them were a new part of the Vladikavkaz City Duma. If in the first City Councils merchants and house owners prevailed, then now the representation was much wider. Having got a fine education at the best universities of Russia and abroad, experts of different areas gathered in Vladikavkaz and introduced extensive knowledge, rationalism, intelligence, high models of service to the city in public work. Among vowels of the Vladikavkaz City Duma there were many gifted and talented people who got a fine education: Gappo Vasilyevich Bayev. Nikolay Andreevich Polyakov, Bachir Kerimovich Dalgat, Yason Merabovich Lordkipanidze, Fedor Fedorovich Che-pelyugin, Lavrenti Borisovich Gazdanov, Pavel Petrovich Schmidt, Alexander Lavrentyevich Bereslavtsev, Iosif Petrovich Bshasv. \

With introduction in Vladikavkaz of local government the city began to develop intensively. The mayor headed a thought and a justice, coordinating their activity. The City Council of Vladikavkaz carried out a lot of work on improvement of the city, development of educational and medical institutions, assisted mnogo1rannuyu to pupils, aged and crippled, to families without supporter. The big impetus was given to development of business activity.

The healthy and productive economic environment is formed and functions on the basis of self-control, at preservation behind the state institutes of certain legislative and control functions. Many members of City Duma of Vladikavkaz were talented engineers, businessmen. It by their efforts houses, schools, hospitals, banks, bridges, mills, recreation areas were under construction. And workers, yesterday's peasants, were accustomed to labor discipline, mastered new professions, adapted to city culture better. Many-sided activity of City Duma promoted growth of productive forces of edge, distribution of education, education, culture, improvement of quality of life.

1 Essays of history of the cities of North Ossetia. Ordzhonikidze, 1960. Page 178.
1 In the same place. Page 178

Central gosudarstvennsh archive of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (further CGA RSO-A.) F.P. Op. 17. 304. L. 12.

* North Caucasus. 1887. No. 3.

Tersky sheets. 1893. No. 78.

* Tersky sheets. 1901. No. 82.

Tersky sheets. 1913. No. 91.

*CGA RSO-A. T. 11. Op. 62. 232. L. 7.

* Tersky sheets. 1912. No. 231. and "

Tersky sheets. 1905. No. 84.

&-Tersky sheets. 1913. No. 79.

YaCGA RSO-A. T. 11. Op. 17. 64. L. 45.

Jones Clarence
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