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The Kulturnoprosvetitelny public organizations promoting education distribution in the Penza province in the second half the XIX beginning of the XX century



UDK 006.2 (471.327+09)

The CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS PROMOTING EDUCATION DISTRIBUTION In the PENZA PROVINCE IN the SECOND HALF of XIX - the BEGINNING of the XX CENTURY

lake V. DOBROVA

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of national history

In article the basic principles of work of cultural and educational public organizations in the sphere of assistance to distribution of education in the Penza province at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century are considered

Creation of cultural and educational societies at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century was very popular. According to the intellectuals, formation of truly free society required distribution of education, scientific and esthetic knowledge, development of spiritual and physical education. In addition time at a boundary of X1X-XX of centuries with rough rise in economic growth of the country generated demand for competent and educated people. The cultural and educational organizations which purpose was an increase in literacy of the population means available to them, the organization of leisure and entertainments rendered distribution of education assistance.

According to the notification of the Penza governor in September, 1894 of the province there were only two societies, aiming distribution of education or literacy in the people:

1. The "sunday school" opened in Penza since 1890, which is under authority of district uchilishchny Council of inspection of schools. Its activity was expressed in classes on Sundays with "female persons of craft and working estates";
2. The "Society of public national readings and religious and moral interviews" in Kras-noslobodsk which had the library. Public readings were visited not only by locals, but also from nearby to the city of villages peasants very willingly came [1]. It is strange that the governor did not call the existing public readings existing in the Penza district school and the Peter and Paul parish school; and also the readings and conversations which were taking place in Golovinshchena and Kamenka with the permission of the diocesan administration [2].

Among the cultural and educational associations of the Penza province assisting in education distribution the Society of Assistance to out-of-school education opened on April 6, 1910 [3] was the most noticeable. Establishment of educational courses, holding lectures, readings, educational excursions were the main areas of work of society; the device of conversations concerning science, literatures and arts as for members of society, and public. Means of association were formed of membership fees, grants and donations from public and private institutions and persons, income from the readings arranged in favor of society, performances, concerts and performances. The first meeting took place on May 18, 1910 on which I.T. Krasichkov was elected the chairman of society [4].

It should be noted that activity of the new organization from the first days met sympathy from the municipal government. The City Council in the first year of existence of society allocated for the maintenance of general education courses 100 rubles and for acquisition of manuals of 25 rubles that at very modest means was notable support.

Assuming to organize lectures, the board planned to use, except the invitation of visitors of lecturers, local lecturing forces, consent was received only from N.F. Yezerskiy who gave two lectures.

Having used summer courses for national teachers, the board appealed to give a lecture in favor of society. Ts.P. Baltalon, on "About Art" agreed to give a lecture. It took place on July 5 at 20:30 in the hall of art school. In the material relation the lecture was unsuccessful: in total collecting there were 28 rub the 62nd cop, are spent on the lecture equipment (at the free room and refusal of the lecturer of the fee) - 22 rub 90 kopeks [5]

The board considered the reasons of this failure: 1) summertime when most of teachers, pupils and in general the public which is usually attending lectures from the city parted; 2) over time holding a lecture the celebration organized in the territory of summer theater coincided; 3) the announcement of a lecture were hanging too late so inhabitants of the working outskirts who would not refuse to be at a lecture learned about it only after its termination.

But the principal value of the lecture Balantona for society was not in its progress material. For society it was necessary to say the existence, that it hurries to bring the first contribution in implementation of those tasks which are the basis for the charter.

In 1910/1911 reporting year the board organized 3 lectures. In September, 1910 through the Samara society of public university E.A. Elachich and I.P. Kulzhinsky were invited. E.A. Ela-chich read in the hall of the Connected Meeting two lectures on the subject "Origin of the Person by Origin Biology Sciences". However and this lecture did not bring income as collecting from sale of tickets the 35th cop, and expenses on it - 86 rub the 80th cop made only 52 rub (including the fee to the lecturer of 70 rubles). The board explains such situation with the late sticking-up of posters connected with Elachich's employment again. Along with this board the moral satisfaction is noted "For organizers made at least that

a circumstance that the most part of listeners were workers, i.e. that public element most of which needs the help of our society". I.P. Kulzhinsky's lecture on the subject "Problems of Education" was not resolved [6] at all.

On February 28, 1911 in the hall of club of the Penza auxiliary society of commerce and industry employees N.F. Yezerskiy gave a lecture about out-of-school education. This lecture collected a packed house of listeners, 272 tickets were sold. Most of attendees at a lecture were trade employees, workers, pupils and pupils of local gymnasiums. It gave a lecture on March 21 on the subject "Conditions of International Trade" in the hall of the Connected Meeting, but it brought together listeners a little (113 tickets were sold) [7].

We learn from the report on general education courses that in 1910/1911 uch. 45 pupils and 2 schoolgirls, in November 22 pupils and 5 schoolgirls, in December 21 pupils and 5 schoolgirls who were divided into younger, average, and senior groups signed up for courses in October. Classes in Russian, arithmetics, Russian history, geography and initial astronomy took place traditionally on Sundays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. In popularity on the first place there were classes in geography (27 people at a lesson), on the second in Russian history (23 persons), on the third in astronomy (21 persons) [8].

In 1911/1912 academic year the studies on general education courses were already 5 times a week. The greatest number of hours was given to Russian, new objects - physics and natural history were also added [9].

In the analysis of work of the general education courses opened by society it is noticeable that both the number of listeners, and quantity of objects increased. As with pride it is noted in the report "... general education objects open an opportunity to get acquainted with fields of knowledge, new, earlier inaccessible for them, before listeners. The physics arranged with experiments attracted the most live interest" [10].

Activity of society in 1912/1913 reporting year was also directed to the device of lectures, some other actions and the organization of work of general education courses. In total in 1912/1913 academic year 123 persons, from them women - 33, men - 90 signed up for courses, and there was no illiterate [11].

At general meetings of 1913/1914 it was decided to expand activity of society by the organization of national readings, creation of library, the organization of reasonable entertainments (performances, literary soirees, etc.), 2 directions of the device of lectures - periodic (by the invitation of capital lecturers) and systematic were chosen (by means of local forces). In January, 1914 the board created the commission on the organization of sessions of scientific cinema.

Also within summer months at the Commission of reasonable entertainments three circles were created: Wad Dra -

matichesky, singing and musical. But work of these circles, having hardly managed to be adjusted, it was suspended by the beginning of military events as the most part of participants was called up for military service [12].

Keeping up to date, the created cinema commission was active. Film screenings got a job in electric theater "Record", each session consisted of two offices with an intermission 10 minutes. On the first session showed in the 1st office - "Scorpion", "Our ancestors" (about monkeys) and Yermak (historical drama); in the second office - "Octopus", "Mud baths" and a comic picture. The entrance fee for adults was established at a rate of the 15th the cop, for children - 10 kopeks. From February 9 to March 28 there passed 10 programs and 34 sessions were given, 3-4 sessions on average were the share of each program. In total sessions were attended by 6286 people of whom more than 86% of the audience were made by children - pupils of mainly elementary schools [13].

The organization of national readings was also important activity of society. In the course of work the commission of national readings came to such conclusions: a) reading scientific are preferred literary; b) readings need to give the nature of popular lectures instead of "classical" reading on the book; c) for involvement of the public which did not get used to the serious program yet it is necessary to arrange literary and musical after scientific office. The commission also developed the program of popular lectures [14].

Since 1916 the society started issue of the monthly "Vestnik Vneshkolnogo Obrazovaniya" on purpose "to promote association about the magazine of local cultural forces and also to acquaintance of perhaps wider circles of the population with activity of both the society, and other local cultural and educational organizations". The first issue of the magazine was of the size of a modern notebook and consisted of 24 pages on which work of the society, about free library of V.G. Belinsky, about the Penza society of fans of natural sciences, benefit society of employees of Nizhnelomovsky zemstvo and other materials was lit [15]. Activity of society gradually extended, developed special programs, in work the experience and other educational associations was considered, achievements of a technical thought were used. All actions of society were of great importance for such country town as Penza, developing the sociocultural environment of the city owing to the opportunities. Unfortunately, work of Society of assistance to out-of-school education, as well as many others, was interrupted with revolutionary events of 1917.

Similar society was tried to be created also in the Krasnoslobodsky County. The application was submitted on November 17, 1907, and 17 people were among founders. However in the charter of society those who can and cannot be the member of society were incorrectly specified: the minors... having a rank of the teacher or teacher were allowed to participation in affairs of society "or

the ended average educational institutions". Therefore in the magazine of a meeting of presence it is written down: "... according to Article 7 the Rules are not allowed neither to formation of society, nor to participation in them minors and also pupils in the lowest and average educational institutions... For violation of Article 7 to refuse registration" [16].

The attempt to open Lower lomovsky society of education which founders was a wife of the councilor of state E.N. Yagodinskaya, the hereditary citizen I.F. Pamfilov, nizhnelo-movsky merchant I.P. Boyarov was also unsuccessful. Society was established for assistance to development of education in all forms and shapes: the highest, average and the lowest and also out-of-school. In the magazine Penza provincial on cases of societies of Presence of August 7, 1907 it is written down that "in the charter objects of Board and an order of accounting are not specified... have no certain character main objectives of society, and modalities of action demand more accurate information and, at last, the purpose of society is taken in extremely big scale so modalities of action are hardly achievable at these means and ways of their education (membership fees, donations, collecting from performances, concerts, etc. of O.D.), and therefore Presence defines: to return to founders the charter for its addition in coordination with the requirements stated in Article 21 Governed" [17].

to

was lucky Residents of Kerensk more - on June 5

1907 years in their city there began the work "Kerensky a parental circle" [18]. Creation it was caused by distress of residents in which there were no average educational institutions. In the application addressed to the governor they point to absence of especially women's educational institutions. It was extremely difficult to send the daughters to Penza for training in a gymnasium for most of parents owing to difficult financial position, without saying already the fact that in this case, children should leave the house at 9-10-year age. Considering the served situation, the most active residents decided suit a female pro-gymnasium on the means for what the parental circle was created. In the long term society planned creation of vocational schools with the purpose to educate not only, but also a profession. Such specification was especially important since met the requirements of time. The provincial press of that time wrote that girls in education are involved by practical orientation of the doctrine: "In the absence of practical schools on female education in villages and villages there is no place to study. Open schools with amateur courses and schools will attract sympathy of the people, and the lack of schoolgirls will not be" [19].

All founders there were 17 people (mostly petty bourgeoises). granting an opportunity to get the general and professional education in open educational institution was the purpose of a circle. The pedagogical personnel were approved by the appropriate administration. The constituent contribution was defined in 50 rubles, annual contributions of full members -

10 rubles. The charitable public institutions subsidizing a circle had the right free of charge to train the candidates whose number should not have exceeded in proportion the total amount granted by it and a payment for right exercises. The amount of payment for training was defined by an administrative meeting, but it is no more than 50 rubles, and children of members of a circle studied for the sum, smaller for 10 rubles. "Insufficient" pupils in general could be exempted by an administrative meeting from payment.

The similar parental circle was registered on April 26, 1908 in Moksha according to the application of the princess of Olga Lvovna Drutskoy-Sokolnin-skoy [20]. Obligatory members of a circle (10 people) were elected by Territorial meeting and City Duma. the circle purpose - granting an opportunity to get the general and professional education. The annual tuition fee should not have exceeded 50 rubles too, however privileges on payment were not provided to either donors, or full members of society as it was in Kerensky a parental circle. Only the category of insufficient pupils could use privileges: under the resolution of a general meeting they could be exempted from payment for training absolutely.

The private initiative played a large role in the course of the organization of societies. So, the founder of the Penza Sacred and Vladimir society of Kindergarten which was entered in the register on February 16

1908 years, there was a councilor of state Prokopy Mikheevich Pervushin [21]. The society founded in memory of the Educator of Russia Saint prince Vladimir Equal to the apostles contributed to the physical, moral and intellectual development of children who, according to the founder, "have to receive the spiritual and physical shape not in 15-20 years, and in 5-7". At first the Kindergarten existed in the territory of the Penza folk theater. The children visiting him were divided into groups which were directed by the experienced teachers who are engaged with them according to a certain program games, feasible classes and works. The motto of society was: "Sow reasonable, kind, eternal". Members of the Theatrical circle so like the idea of Kindergarten that at a general meeting adopted the resolution that society has the right to use free premises of theater for carrying out children's gymnastics.

As we see, cultural and educational societies in the sphere of assistance to distribution of education were quite demanded, especially in the district cities which residents had no opportunity to send the children for education to Penza. The basic activities of cultural and educational societies was fight against illiteracy of the population which was conducted in all available ways.

Process of formation of cultural and educational institutions was not always monotonous. By the beginning of the 1900th in Penza, according to E.Ya. Dmitruk and S.G. Kuznetsova [22], already actually existed

lermontovsky cultural and educational society. The library of M.Yu. Lermontov which opened in Penza on October 1, 1892, conducted active educational work among residents as the low payment for use of books making 3 rubles a year or the 30th cop in a month did it public. In addition, "permission to arrange public readings for the purpose of acquisition of means, gives the chance of to teachers and to other intelligent forces to expand a circle of the educational activity to the sizes of national audience" [23], allowed to speak about special proximity to readers to whom in the first year of work of library 13240 books and 11378 volumes of periodicals were issued [24]. To have an opportunity to broaden the sphere of actions, the board of library in December, 1900 appealed to the governor "to rename library into society of M.Yu. Lermontov" [25].

Society was registered on December 16

1906 years, and the work it began on January 1, 1907. The first social gathering took place on April 27
1907 year on which the board was elected. the purpose of society was expressed in assistance to progress of domestic education, facilitating the population acquaintance to works of science, literature and art. In assets of the organization there were a created Penza public library of M.Yu. Lermontov and free national reading room of V.G. Belinsky. Besides, associations opened the branches and libraries; organized public national readings, popular lectures and courses, rendered assistance in the structure of evening and sunday schools, public performances and entertainments.

Creation of association of such profile did not remain unnoticed Penza society, in the press the main areas of work of Lermontovsky society were widely lit: "The purpose of Society - to serve assistance of development and the correct setting of school matter in the Penza province, the structure of sunday and evening schools, the device of public lectures, performances and other entertainments, the edition of books, brochures, periodicals, opening of book warehouses, benches, the device of conversations concerning science, literatures and arts" [26].

Performance of the purposes of society was promoted also by opening filial offices of society on all province, and not only in the district cities. So, 1910 the branch of the organization was opened in the village of Aleksandrovka, the Gorodishchensky County, and in 1912 the similar branches existed in Moksha, Krasnoslobodsk, Insare, Narovchat, Troitsk. Branches of society also conducted active work: only one of them (in the village of Aleksandrovka) in 1912-1913 registration year organized 6 performances and 7 free national readings. In addition it created free library which 242 readers (from them 171 workers) used [27].

In a different way distribution of education was promoted by societies on the device national chte-

niya. As V.P. Vakhterov, "with the publication of the law notes

11 October, 1894 each deaf district city, each village, each zemstvo, each school and volost board, each teacher, the trustee have already 2 ways to iskhodataystvovat the device of national readings. Except the diocesan power which still allows spiritual and moral readings they can send the petition through the director or the inspector of national schools to the Ministry of national education. And for this purpose it is necessary only that persons who will undertake the device of readings were quite reliable in the moral and political relations" [28]. Permission to carrying out readings in the Penza province was even published in the central magazine "Russkaya Shkola": "on June 27, 1889, on the Highest command it is authorized to arrange national readings in more considerable district cities of the provinces which are a part of the Kharkiv educational district (Voronezh, Kursk, Penza, Tambov, Kharkiv, Earth of Army of Donskoy), under observation of local ranks of educational department" [29]. The popularity of readings among the people was very high - at Arishkinsky school in 1894 was present only at one reading up to 250 people [30]. Nevertheless, for October-November, 1896 constantly national readings existed only in Anuchinsky school of the Chembarsky County [31] whereas in the Saratov province at the same time 10 organizations for their device steadily worked [32]. In general across Russia by 1896 the national readings were conducted in 400 settlements [33].

Fruitfully the Society on the device of national readings in Krasnoslobodsk which opened in 1890 [34] worked. Activity of society the Committee consisting of the chairman elected at a general meeting and approved as the trustee of the Kharkiv educational district in 1901 directed it there was a priest of cathedral church M.N. Sokolov; companion chairman (he is the manager of magic lamps, pictures and library), which at that time was the teacher of spiritual school V.D. Metallov; the treasurer and the clerk whose functions were combined by M.K. Nechayev, also the teacher of spiritual school; and managers of readings - V.K. Europeytsev (teacher of spiritual school) and B.P. Feronov (veterinarian) [35].

Drawing up schedules of readings and interviews and appointment of lecturers happened at meetings. Readings were arranged each Sunday evening. Included in the program various the literary work ("Ivan Damaskin" of A.K. Tolstoy, "Fearful vengeance" of N.V. Gogol, etc.) and scientific (for example, "About inhabitants of the North") contents. In 1901-1903 reporting years the Society organized 41 readings on which 73 brochures which are divided by the contents on religious and moral and church and historical (16), the benefit brought by national readings were read were are huge, but they were visited by mainly city dwellers, and for the country population an opportunity to use readings was limited.

Thus, the organization of public lectures and readings, the device of various courses for the purpose of increase in level of education of listeners, opening of educational institutions for children, assistance to out-of-school education were the most typical activities of the societies promoting education distribution.

The leading expert in the field of education at the end of the 19th century V.Ya. Abramov said that the reasons of inactive development of educational activity, the small growth of number of educational societies in the province, are connected with problems of external character which "at us arranged establishment of such societies and which more often make absolutely impossible creation of educational societies" [36]. Nevertheless, provincial cultural and educational organizations became reflection of the educational movement in Russia, begun in the 19th century.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). T. 5. Op. 1. 6622. L. 26-27.
2. In the same place. L. 16-16.ob.
3. GAPO. T. 190. op. 1. 1. L. 1, 7.
4. GAPO. T. 190. op. 1. 1. L. 39 about.
5. GAPO. T. 190. op. 1. Of 1 L. 40 about.
6. GAPO. T. 190. Op. 1. 1. L. 41 about.
7. In the same place there is a L. 42.
8. GAPO. T. 190. Op. 1. 1. L. 44.
9. In the same place. L. 48 about.
10. In the same place there is a L. 49, 52 about., 53.
11. In the same place. L. 54, 55, 70, 73.
12. In the same place.
13. In the same place. L. 90.
14. In the same place. L. 97 about.
15. V.A. Vlasov. Pages of history of national education of the Penza region. Light in darkness//Education. Problems and prospects. 1996. No. 3. Page 90.
16. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. L. 1-1ob., 15.
17. In the same place. 7. L. 8, 14-14ob.
18. In the same place. 20. L. 2.
19. Penza provincial sheets. 1908. No. 157. L. 3.
20. GAPO. T. 16. Op. 1. 28. L. 3.
21. In the same place. 29. L. 1, 14.
22. E.Ya. Dmitruk, S.G. Kuznetsov. In memory national//Local history notes. Penza, 1970. Issue 2. Page 168.
23. Penza provincial sheets. 1892. No. 210.
24. Penza provincial sheets. 1893. No. 213.
25. GAPO. T. 5. op. 1. 7178. L. 1.
26. Penza provincial sheets. 1907. No. 24.
27. The report of society of M.Yu. Lermontov in Penza from October 1, 1912 to October 1, 1913. Penza, 1914. Page 7.
28. V.P. Vakhterov. National readings//Russian school. 1896. No. No. 9-10. Page 127.
29. Russian school. 1896. No. 7-8. Page 231.
30. In the same place. No. 12. Page 147.
31. In the same place. No. 9-10. Page 143.
32. In the same place. Page 144.
33. National encyclopedia of scientific and applied knowledge. National education in Russia. M, 1910. T.H. of page 189.
34. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 7494. L. 115.
35. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 7494. L. 116.
36. V.Ya. Abramov. Educational societies in the province//the Russian school. 1896. No. 11. Page 76-77.

UDC 006.2 (471.327+09)

PROFESSIONAL PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS of MUTUAL AID IN the SECOND HALF of XIX - the BEGINNING of the XX CENTURY IN the PENZA PROVINCE

O.V. DOBROVA

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of national history

In article the basic principles of work of professional public organizations of mutual aid in the Penza province the H1H-beginning of the 20th century are considered at the end and also features of their activity are noted.

Professional associations in Penza a leg of office work - salesmen, kontorshchik,

provinces of the second half of XIX - the beginnings of the XX century made not a body in the developed system of public organizations. In this case we carry the societies existing in the province in which association happened on the basis of professional interest to professional societies. Benefit societies long time remained absolutely unfairly the forgotten subject. Meanwhile they assisted in so various directions that their activity cannot remain unaddressed.

Among the organizations of mutual aid benefit societies of persons were most widespread it is frequent -

accountants, direct-sales representatives, traktirny servants, etc. Some organizations accepted persons of all listed professions, others only any one. Societies of trade employees by 1900 made 97 associations over the country [1].

The actions by the first there began society of trade employees in Riga in 1859. After that "the organizational movement passed across the capitals, across the large trade southern and western cities, was thrown in the eighties to the Volga region and in the nineties reached the Caucasus and Siberia" [2].

The only thing professional society, legal till 1905, in Penza was Penza

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