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Patriarch Nikon and his era: historico-philosophical aspects of the state ideology

vilyam SCHMIDT


historico-philosophical aspects


Modern Russian society raises questions of search of ways of consolidation, development of public ideals and perspective models of development again. The interaction of the state and civil institutes put in the historical past and comprehensively developed in works of one of the largest church and statesmen what the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Nikon was, to this day relevant and attracts a keen interest.

We will stop on the period, most significant for our historical life — the 17th century with its era of the Patriarch Nikon which was not only a boundary between Russia Ancient and Russia of modern times, between Russia consisting of a set of specific principalities and the centralized orthodox Moscow and Romeysky kingdom burdened with responsibility for Universal Orthodoxy and Orthodox Eykumena but also became an era during which bases were created and the beginnings further national-state and even more widely — state eykumenicheskoy (imperial and ecclesiological) policy, with active participation in the developing Westphalian system of the international relations are put. This century, this era for the subsequent development of Russia gained lines of strategic historical and spiritual and cultural relevancy which heritage had and continues to have serious impact on cumulative life with cares of natsionalnogosudarstvenny safety and prospects of the international relations in the changing systems of world order.

Thanks to the crossnatsionalny and cross-cultural heritage developed during this period (responsibility for preservation of onto-aksiologichsky values — fundamental values of life and the hostel) and the created dvuvektornost "North-South" and "West-East", Russia became the most powerful world power which strategic interests are concluded in deduction of onto-social stability and multiethnic, polyconfessional, polycultural openness to the world.

In public and scientific consciousness this period contacts, as a rule, the Distemper and church and civil split, and almost do not speak about dukhovnokulturny achievements and heritage of this century.

We will notice: so far still some intelligible arguments to coordinate large-scale persecutions on dissenters-staroobryadtsev1 (religious and ceremonial tradition of "stoglavy" sense to characteristic features of sociocultural autism and civil and political and economic activity and aspiration to posadsko-suburban independence) are not stated — with a name of the Patriarch Nikon. In a historiography and public consciousness for the sake of saving myths about the Patriarch Nikon, sociocultural and church and civil split 1 C., PhD in Philosophy, the associate professor of the gosudarstvennokonfessionalny relations of RAGS under the President of the Russian Federation, departments of diplomacy of Diplomatic academy MFA of Russia is displaced OKASHMIDT William the adviser of the Russian Federation

1 The terms "Old Believer", "Old Belief" were included into modern use only at the beginning of the 20th century according to the decree of the emperor Nicholas II "About strengthening of the beginnings of toleration" of 17.04.1905

time and events zyvatsya: the cruelty in relation to dissenters assigns opinion to the Patriarch Nikon, but these actions began those who judged him and displaced; its actions and tastes consider the cause of a cardinal stylistic fracture in liturgical music which occurred generation later. In a word, the monumental image of the Patriarch Nikon, undevelopment of his ekklesiologichesky, religious and philosophical, socio-political ideas serves as the dam locking the history of Russia.

So the widespread historical and polemic myth delusion is not so much Old Believers how many the historical and modern mass culture and scientific critical tradition which was created by the secret representative of Catholic promotion of belief metropolitan Gazsky Paisius Ligarid in it "The history of the Moscow cathedral 1666 are 1667" 1 and also logic and mechanics of the organization of "judgment business" of Patriarkh Nikona2. Subsequently this tradition both was actively and is picked unambiguously up and consistently introduced in the Russian historical tradition, in the Russian memory by S.M. Solovyov, N.F. Kapterev, A.V. Kartashev's works, etc. 3. Therefore both "nikoniyena", and "Old Believers" to a greater or lesser extent are her hostages. For overcoming this pseudo-state, antinational and anti-church

1 GIM. SHOUTING. F. Xing. Greek 469: A story about cathedral 1666 — 67 and trial of the Patriarch Nikon of Paisius Ligarid. (RCP. 18th century, in 4 °, on 503 l.). RGB. SHOUTING. T. 173/[At (WELL). No. 69: The collection against Nikon.
2 N. Gibbenet. Historical research of business of Nikon Patriarkh: in 2 h SPb., 1882-1884, Case of leaving of a patriarchal throne by Nikon Patriarkh, of his stay in Resurrection Monastery of New Jerusalem; his letters from there to the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich; about a sozvaniye in Moscow of cathedral against Nikon; about the invitation to it of East Patriarchs and trial of Nikon Patriarkh (inventory of archive). Nikon Patriarkh. Works. Nauchn. research, preparation of documents for prod., sost. and general edition of V.V. Schmidt. M, 2004, p. 1047-1078
3 S.M. Solovyov Istoriya Russia since the most ancient times. M, 1860. T. I \XI. Historiographic review: Zyzykin M.V. Nikon Patriarkh. His state and initial ideas: in 3 t. Warsaw,
1931-1939. M, 1995 (reprint). T. III. Chapter VI. Responses

about Nikon. V.S. Ikonnikov. New materials and works about the Patriarch Nikon. "University news". Kiev, 1888, 4

it is necessary to spend heritages not only a set spiritual intellektalnykh forces, but also physical, historical time. In this regard and prospect of demythologization of national social history it is possible to claim that "Judgment business" 4 Nikon Patriarkh is the key to our historical future: scrupulous analysis of "Business" and its complex analysis will help to understand, comprehend an essence not only of spiritual and civil ruin, an anomy, metaphysics of national-state accident and "mayatnikoobraziya" of our history, to separate devastators from builders, enemies from friends, but also at last to see a historical mission Russian the states on the world scene.

Thus, Nikon's "Business"

— business not of the especially Russian history, it has character and the importance of universal scale. And it was well understood when it was stored at first in the Order of Secret affairs, and then in the sealed chests of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when allowed to its materials "on the Highest command" and when for the first time in the middle of the 19th century published the Most Saint Nikon's heritage not somewhere, not in Russia, and in Velikobritanii5 (at us it was published only to the 400 anniversary of memory of the Most Saint Patriarch Nikon)...

Now becomes obvious that condemnation and exile of the Patriarch Nikon were a nodal event for the further fate of the Fatherland — the world of life where patristical Orthodoxy which as went to a certain reference together with the Patriarch Nikon was the vseopredelyayu-shchy and vseorganizuyushchy beginning came to the end. For change there was a monarchic absolutism.

Image of the life the Patriarch Nikon carried on that centuries-old tradition of a styazhaniye of Sacred Russia, actively participating in the approval of the state power and greatness of Church on bases of the patristical legend, reminding of a formula in the preface to the Missal published in 1656 "the priesthood Divine serves, the kingdom human owns and is concerned about this. Together charters and rules of Saints the father, a yak from the Holy Spirit

4 RGADA. T. 27. 140. Case of leaving by the Patriarch Nikon of the Patriarchal throne.
5 Palmer W. The Patriarch and the Tsar. London, 1871-1876. Vol. 1-6

are inspired, oblobyzayushche accept and hold": at it relics (it is glorified in the Community of Saints) the Grand duke Daniel of Moscow were open.

Patriarkh regentstvovat over the state and provided with wagon trains the Russian army; he provided with skillful political steps association of the Slavic people — Great, Small and White Russia, having accepted under a svyatitelsky omophorion of maloross, beloross, valakhets...

The most Saint Nikon, as it follows from his image of action and written heritage, the task as Pervosvyatitelya, understood and saw in keeping development of the Russian statehood and nationality in patristical traditions while in the Russian society the derogation from belief and Church formalized in the first secular act was already planned

— Cathedral Code of 1649

But sekulyarizatsionno-apostasiyny trends got the best therefore the "Judgment business" initiated by antistate and anti-orthodox forces of Nikon Patriarkh brought chain reaction of different and multilevel accidents to life. The state bureaucracy used opposition to the arch-flamen from certain representatives of clergy, having strengthened royal and civil perjury, the iyerokratiya — Svyatitelsky honor was scolded: Nikon defrocked Svyatitelsky Patriarkh spent nearly 15 years to the reference.

So, with the Most Saint Nikon as went to a certain reference and to nowadays under a bushel sin there are buried styazhayemy Sacred Russia and the father created in "tradition of Saints and laws of pious orthodox tsars and Grand dukes" the Third Rome, more and more istonchevy essence of great power statehood, premenen-ny imperialness. It was the first step. At the next stage, having formalized Church and having turned it into one of social institutes with the bureaucracy, Patriarchate was abolished, having exsanguinated spiritual powers of national egoism. Further the threat hung already over actually civil power — tsarstvom1: samochinno Saky -

1 M.V. Zyzykin. Throne in Russia. M, 2004

the ralizovanny and obezdukhovlenny civil power in 1917 was broken by violence of physisra — natural and carnal human nature which fate are malicious, gnawing through the belly for the sake of children, but not a pelican or a grapevine — the apostasiya — crime of the oath uttered by the people in the Approved diploma of the Great Moscow territorial local council on February 21, 1613 was issued. And we — the people — "became such over which You kind of never ruled and over which the name Your was not called. again addressed lawlessness of the praot-ets who renounced to listen my words and send following foreign gods, serving of" (Is. 63: 19; Iyer. 11: 10). At the time Pervosvyatitel prophetically specified to "the sobinny friend" — to Alexey Mikhaylovich about the future accident: "also were in thin vision to Nikon Svyatiteli Moscow in Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin and asked to inform to the Tsar not rasshiryatisya over God's Church... But will not listen — there will be a fire within the Kingdom". The tsar did not listen to these words — a little more than a month later "there was a fiery zapaleniye on the royal yard". So, in modern and contemporary Russian history the permanent process of "hunting for werewolves, traitors and conspirators" with its fires, social and civil reforms, revolts, revolutionary movements was approved — and the colossus standing on "clay legs" 2 lamented.

In these circumstances how not to remember, to remember and to admire firmness and jealousy on great Russian Pervosvyatitel's belief.

Reflecting on universal, the Holy made efforts and used possible means that on the scale of "a pre-meneniye of kingdoms" to restore, keep and provide unity of Universal Orthodoxy in a bosom of the Moscow and Romeysky kingdom. So in fact Russians were called for restoration of a kafolichnost which they during the historical self-isolation and natsinalno-spiritual particularism practically lost, but did not lose the main thing both then, and now — feelings that true

2 Social conflicts in Russia of the XVII —XVSh centuries. Mat-ly Vseros. scientific prakt. konf. (Saransk, May 20 — 22, 2004). Saransk, 2005

from a century the preprepared Russian orthodox kingdom, "The Russian Church — a part of Church Universal, and the relations of the Russian Church to Universal — the main meaning of history of the Russian Church, if not in general the Russian history" 1.

In this historical and civilization context unless there was something other than as unique

— preservation of catholic Church? Unless it was possible to work differently if not to be irresponsible and not to create "the image is alive Christoff"? Therefore all church and civil and political (state) activity of the Most Saint Patriarkh came down to that in "symphonic" sodela-niya of the authorities spiritual and secular — church and state — to carry out the distant world on an image Celestial, to finish implementation of the Third Rome by new Israel which symbol and image was Sacred Zhivonosny Resurrection a monastery of New Jerusalem with all its rich spiritual and moral, cultural and educational, art and intellectual, technical and technological and missionary heritage.

Outstanding researcher architecturally heritages of the Patriarch Nikon prot. Lev Lebedev in the historiosophical work "Patriarchal Moscow" says: "Architectural creativity of the Most Saint Patriarch Nikon was caused by certain catholic plans about the Russian Church, served as means of their realization. Comprehending the idea "three Rimov", the Patriarch Nikon updated as opposed to state politically thesis a thesis about "new Jerusalem", meaning height of Christian piety of Sacred Russia — new Israel and its capital as actual center of the Universal eykumena" 2.

The known postulate that metaphysical constructs of an era of the Middle Ages are characterized by density of determinant communications with simvolo-images and

1 A.S. Panarin. An orthodox civilization in the global world. M, 2003. Head: Archetypic value of reform of Nikon, p. 290 — 295
2 L. Lebedev, archpriest. Patriarch Nikon: essay of life and activity. Theological works. No. 23 — 24. 1982. Full version: Patriarchal Moscow. M, 1995

are endured at the psychosomatic level as realnost3.

It is also important to remember that at a boundary of the XVI—XVII centuries our culture underwent serious intrinsic transformations — the picture of the world medieval cheloveka4 changed. These transformations found the reflection and in a language system — there are book and scientific arches of grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, logic, divinity and philosophy (these last not that are not studied, but also are almost unknown to modern science), slovnik and lexicons are formed, in prosody the intoning is isolated-abstracts, leading to emergence of music and poetics in their modern understanding, etc. The patriarch Nikon made a successful attempt on creation of a synopsis of the Russian liturgical singing which kodikologization later led a century to emergence of Liturgical collections of modern type; "laid a hand" and to strengthening of historical memory of the people, stimulirovav works on the translation into slayanorossiysky language of the Bible, hagiographical, annalistic sources, chronicles, etc.

All this nevertheless demonstrates inevitable dynamic process of laicisation of public consciousness at which the simvolo-image was replaced with subject sight so was exposed transformations and a picture of the world, with its models of life, anthroposociety and metaphysical kontseptami5. A striking example of similar regress, but earlier period stage can

3 G. Aiken. History and system of a medieval world view. SPb., 1907. P.M. Bitsilli. Elements of medieval culture. Odessa, 1919. M.M. Bakhtin. Medieval world: the culture of the keeping silence majority. M, 1990. A.Ya. Gurevich. Categories of medieval culture. M, 1981
4 Arkhangelsk Ampere-second. From lectures on history of the Russian literature. Literature of the Moscow state (game. XV \The 17th centuries). Kazan, 1913. A.I. Sobolevsky. Translated literature of the Moscow Russia of the 14-17th centuries. SPb., 1903. F.I. Buslayev. History of the Russian literature. Lectures, chitannyya to its Imperial Highness Nasledniku to Nikolay Aleksandrovich Tsesarevich (1859 — 1860). Issue 1 — 3. M, 1906. Patriarch Nikon. Styazhaniye of Sacred Russia — creation of the state Russian. The monograph in the form of the collection of scientific works. Sost. and general edition of V.V. Schmidt. In 2 Parts M.
5 S.E. Yachin. Word and phenomenon. M, 2006. Yu.M. Romanenko. Life and nature: ontology and metaphysics as types of philosophical knowledge. SPb., 2003. L.B. Karpenko. Sacred alphabet of Kirill. Samara, 2004

to serve replacement of the Glagolitic alphabet with Cyrillics

— glagolichesky alphabet Cyrillic. Language hristocentrichny graphics of the Glagolitic alphabet — the simvolo-image was replaced with simpler sign in which sides it was necessary to know-understand its substantial part (an example of that are Alphabets almost unknown to modern science spiritual, among which and the alphabet of the first tsar of the Raman dynasty Mikhail Fedorovich). And the Domestic tyranny not for in vain appears. Nevertheless culture kept glagolichesky heritage in elements of music basics — hooks (banner). The syncretism provided with unity of the traced hooks and a word in a znamenny singsong of strutters - generated-opened sense, a semiotics paradigm a sotsiobytiya, that is was a symbol.

Naturally, dynamic regress from a symbol to the sign causes serious concern of any type of culture. Culture kind of fights for itself, but also pobaryvat itself the "modernized" consciousness. And only the person in his teo-anthropo-centrichnos-ti is capable to mix this entropy process somehow. Such concern was historically shown also on Stoglavy cathedral, both at the Patriarch Josef, and at the Patriarch Nikon on the Cathedral of 1654 which approved book and church and ceremonial sprava and at the Metropolitan of Moscow Filaret who was taking care of "the dogmatic advantage" of the Elisavetinsky Bible and demanding it "the guarding use" and at the Patriarch Tikhon and today when simulacra and values of libertal-ny relativism of social determinism become a dominant of mass culture.

Historical most important task of the person (better to say: its ontologic responsibility — responsibility to life) concerning high culture and language at all morphological and spelling changes of the last has to be as inevitable, it is directed on preservation and an obereganiye lexico-semantic fund and symbolical purity of language of a picture of the world (exactly here, in this smyslo-substantial part it is impossible to allow losses, substitutions, degradations of that "az"! That consists in it fatal for any culture "uniform "az",

unlike "Old Belief" uniform "az" who was only "az" - form ohm). And again activity of the Most Saint Patriarch Nikon whose command translated well-known "Table" is the most striking example (M., 1656)1 which lit and filled with the deepest and spiritual sense what was considered in Russia as the sacred tradition transferred with belief from the Greek Church — gave to experience of the Russian world view symbolical, mysterious interpretation of the temple and the Divine liturgy which in turn sums up development of the Byzantine theory of an image of Dionysius the Areopagite, Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, John Chrysostom, Maximus the Confessor, John Damascene, Theodore the Studite, Simeon Solunsky, Isidor Pelusiot, etc. fathers. Let's quote the most famous book of the 17th century here. "staff of Board": "On a response of one of prosveshchenneyshy contemporaries, for the Table the Patriarch Nikon is worthy eternal gratitude from Church". Here so — neither it is more, nor it is less.

Summing up the short result, we will notice that the greatness of these acts and scale of the occurring social transformations were expressed and in intitulation of the Patriarch Nikon by the Great sovereign and his equalizing in the social and state hierarchy with the tsar (many from crafty see in it papo-tsezaristsky aspirations of the Holy and accuse him of pride).

The general unpreparedness of the Russian society at all levels of its social groups which was expressed in commitment to dogmatic protection of traditional way and mindset and also political weak will, personal indecision, aspiration to "tikhost" and concern about maintaining dynastic continuity from the tsar, caused process which borders was social autism of considerable groups of people — on the one hand both deprivation of Patriarchal advantage and the Most Saint Nikon's reference — with another.

Now it is only possible to be surprised how so educated and jealous patriarchal tribespeople and sosluzhebnik,

1 S.D. Muretov. Greek original of the Nikonovsky table. M, 1892

many from former "adherents of piety", were not among the pastors believing the soul for "sheep mine", and taking away flock from the Pastor from the Its Church; how among them those who wisely and in a vicarial way humbly would edify flock were not, staying in probational a somysliya and co-working with the arch-flamens and all catholic Church (though, however, to what? And presently there are a lot of similar phenomena which are not so noticeable in the general information randomness of a vremetok at sincere and sensual unruliness and spiritual weakness).

From everything it is obvious that the main questions are connected not so much with the Patriarch Nikon, his church and public and state service, how many with processes common cultural and civilization, questions of the church and state relations and state and civil interaction.

Analyzing heritage of the Patriarch Nikon, it is possible to speak with confidence that the Russian society looked for and found forces that overcoming the times of troubles, to become the most powerful state on the Eurasian continent and to influence actively policy and spiritual life of the people, to finally realize itself the historical successor of the Romeysky kingdom and a sokhranitel of heritage of Universal Orthodoxy, the defender and the state and political guarantor of Orthodox Eykumena. Our ancestors with their state and Church developed and implanted in our historical memory life the world order model ascending to missionary ecclesiologists

to the chesky and orthodox and axiological bases, believing themselves an integral part of the world with special function of the directed responsibility and ensuring the international stability by means of a joint of poles of this world in aspect not only fiziokratichesky, but always more relevant — metaphysical.

In the Most Saint Nikon Patriarkh "with perfect completeness the consciousness of the Russian Church, consciousness of the spiritual power which is firmly understanding the highest calling and the highest responsibility was reflected; rejecting a possibility of any concessions and eases in the sacred area of its pastoral cares which is carefully keeping Divine authority of a hierarchy and ready ispovednicheska to protect it in the face of any temptations and griefs", and its monumental image gained lines of a sociocultural archetype thanks to a joint of private life — Patriarkh and life sociohistorical — the people, Church, the state and influences always modern life. Both the name, and Nikon Patriarkh's image became the many-sided sign symbol — even not so much 17th century how many model of the organization of world order, fight for contents, the principles and forms of institutional interaction of the state, society and Church, responsibility of the specific personality for the fate of the people, the country and heritage of a civilization.

Article is given in author's edition with insignificant reductions

Mikkelsen Flemming
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