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The WOMAN of the CLERGY IN the SYSTEM of NATIONAL EDUCATION of RUSSIA of the XIX BEGINNING of the 20th Centuries (on the example of the Tambov province)



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The WOMAN of the CLERGY IN the SYSTEM of NATIONAL EDUCATION of RUSSIA XIX - the BEGINNINGS of the 20th Centuries (on the example of the Tambov province)

Vl. of KOLESNIKOV

Belgorod

university

e-mail:

vkolesnikova@bsu.edu.ru

Evolution of female education of the clergy is stated. To the middle of the 19th century the difference in education of the husband and wife in family of the priest began to be perceived as the negative factor influencing the relations between members of families of the clergy. Therefore the bigger attention which is not limited only to home education begins to be paid to training of daughters of clergymen. Since 1843, women's diocesan schools began to open. Among pupils of women's private schools girls from families of the clergy began to appear more often, and graduates of the called schools become holders of such institutions often. Thus, some educated daughters of priests begin to bypass a role of "the priest's wife" and to be engaged in teaching. Thus, since the middle of the 19th century, sufficient attention was paid to the content of education and education of girls from the clergy.

Accumulation of material about position of the woman in the Russian society was begun by historians at the end of XVI11 — the beginning of the 19th century. Especially it would be desirable to note works of wives-shchin-researchers of a boundary of the XIX—XX centuries on the questions devoted to problems of female education of XIX — the beginnings of the 20th centuries, both the all-Russian, and regional value. Such researchers as V. of Lebedeva1, E.Andreeva2, etc. in the works recreate a historical picture of formation of female secondary church education, open its purposes and tasks. Authors emphasize that they in the conditions of the changing society of the purpose of education in these educational institutions changed.

In the first half of the 19th age of the daughter of priests, potential wives of persons of a holy order, practically did not get an education since they were brought up by mother generally having many children on whose shoulders all cares on housekeeping lay.

In the same time there is a question of development of female education that spoke about acceleration of processes of democratization of society. In view of possession of many children of families of clergy where girls and the task of creation of new pedagogical shots set for "church for parish schools and national schools, for Church prevailed, the solution of a question of the device of a system of spiritual female education was the most necessary" 3.

To the middle of the 19th century the training of daughters of clergymen was limited not only home schooling where taught bases of reading and the letter, but also education in shelters and convents where the main attention was paid to development generally of needlework. At this time the difference in education of the husband and wife in family of the priest began to be perceived as the negative factor influencing the relations between members of families of the clergy. The church authorities seriously attended to this problem. A way out considered receiving secondary education by girls from families of the clergy. Since 1843, women's diocesan schools began to open. However in Tambov it was open only on December 22, 1863 4. In "The project lips -

1 V. Lebedev. A historical note about the Tambov diocesan women's school in 50 years of its existence, 1863-1913. — Tambov, 1914. — 104 pages; Fifty-year anniversary of the Tambov diocesan women's school. — Tambov, 1914.
2 E.A. E.A. Diocesan women's schools in Russia//Pedagogics. — 1999. — No. 3. —

Page 86.

3 V.F. Lisyunin. Issues of female education in the Tambov diocese at the end the H1H-beginning of the 20th centuries (on the example of the Tambov women's diocesan school)//Female daily occurrence in Russia: materials mezhdunar. nauch. konf. - Tambov, 2003. - Page 91-98.
4 In the same place.

va the Tambov school of maidens of a ministry" it was written down that the purpose of its establishment is creation of a shelter for orphans and their organization of "decent education". The school had to train worthy wives of attendants of the Lord's throne and their allies, popechitelny mothers, expert hostesses, etc. 5.

In the conditions of absence of special educational institutions women's private educational institutions enjoyed wide popularity. For example, "The sheet in Lipetsk for a May third of 1850" 6 reports about private Educational Institution that among pupils also children consist of families of clergy. The tuition fee in a year from one pupil makes 71 rubles 43 kopeks silver here. At school the following disciplines are studied: history, Russian language, arithmetics (1 part), geography, French, calligraphy, drawing, music and "tantsovaniye". The priest, and other objects — Anna Muravyeva, the owner of this educational institution teaches the God's Law, she is engaged also in education of schoolgirls. The school is in very good condition, and the holder works with pupils with approximate diligence.

Though also reviews of institutions met negative accent: "An institution is in a weak state, special diligence of the holder not considerably" 7, female private education was quite widespread in the second half of the 19th century. The directorate of such schools naturally cared for their reputation within the competition from other educational institutions therefore influenced all parties of activity of the wards.

Some pupils of private schools lived on apartments which hostesses gave the written obligation to educational institution where promised to pay for training "regularly, in the appointed terms" for 1 year or in half: in January and July. Otherwise the pupil was deducted from an institution with compensation of money for absence term on classes. Accepting the pupil, the hostess was obliged during week-end, festive and vacation days "to have over her the most strict supervision that she, being in my house, without the knowledge of mine did not leave anywhere, in case of a holiday, behaved grandly, decently and politely, always wore the dress of the established form buttoned on all buttons, and the hair which always are decently brushed, observing in every respect purity and neatness" 8; to watch that the pupil visited public places and meetings (concerts, theaters, etc.) with parents or trustees and avoided any cases which could have unpleasant for the hostess or the administration of school of a consequence; "in general behaved carefully and in all accuracy executed all ordered rules of an institution during stay in educational institution" 9.

The system of secondary female education which developed by the end of the 19th century more and more was drawn towards uniformity, but at the same time had significantly different type of educational institution — diocesan women's schools. At their organization the clergy relied on Christian outlook about roles of the woman in family and society and the related ideas of the level of her education. Daughters of priests studied free of charge, girls from other estates — for a payment. The training course (6 classes) was close to a course of female gymnasiums. Ended a course of diocesan school acquired the right for a rank of house teachers in objects in which made good success, and were accepted by teachers initial, mainly rural, schools (since 1884 — parish) 10.

According to priests of that time, the maiden of a ministry was to be kind mother, the loving spouse and the skilled hostess insufficiently. She has to not only divide works of the husband priest on education of children, on management of the house and economy, but also to be to it the assistant in formidable vicarial service. Duties of the mother were rather various. She served as the mother in arrival who

5 V. Lebedev. Historical note... - Tambov, 1914.
6 State Archive of the Tambov Region (SATR). - T. 105. - Op. 1. - 64. - L. 24.
7 In the same place.
8 GATO. - T. 105. - Op. 1. - 1256. - L. 3.
9 In the same place.
10 Diocesan schools//Russian general education portal. Catalog of resources. Collection: history of education. Articles / M-in science and education of the Russian Federation. - Access mode: http://museum.edu.ru/catalog.asp?cat_ob_no=ob_no=l32o6context=Окончившие%20курс%20епа rkhialnogo%20uchilishcha%20poluchali%20pravo.

it was ready to divide a grief and joy of the simple people, to share with it the knowledge, experience, it is frequent also money. The explanation belonged to its duties how to pray how to observe a post how to behave in church how to get rid of superstitions, etc. The wife of the priest was some kind of link between the people and church. Besides, the wife had to support the spouse: to protect him from depression, from moral lulling to slip and coarsening in material and everyday thoughts and interests, from bad communication, from rough tendencies and habits, to console and calm him in various failures, deprivations and temptations.

The mission assigned to the priest's wife demanded studying a wide range of sciences which in her life could have both theoretical, and applied value for mother of family, the assistant to the priest and the attendant of church and also the teacher of elementary school.

Moral education was on the second place after religious, was based on the beginnings of orthodox belief and was intended to strengthen pupils in consciousness of unconditional obligation of the evangelical moral law, to approve in their souls the strong basis to active implementation of this law in life. In girls cultivated politeness, respect before seniors, friendly and sincere treatment of girlfriends, tenderness and condescension to younger and weak.

The training methods applied in diocesan women's schools excluded "a mushtra and cramming" that widely practiced in men's spiritual educational institutions. Instead of them the methods stimulating creative activity of schoolgirls and exciting them "conscious activity" were offered. As the main methods of training were considered "izlagatelny" (the story, reading, a lecture), "katekhiticheskiya" (a conversation, lecture, a sermon, manual), heuristic, independent work (work with the book, with the primary source, oral and written exercises, compositions, papers), laboratory works. In teaching methods special attention was paid to visual instruction. So, for education an eparkhialok in the spirit of Orthodoxy at lessons of the Scripture the oral messages were followed by use of icons, book miniatures, temple paintings for the best storing and understanding spiritual tekstov11.

Well developed organization of after-hour work in the conditions of half-closed educational institution not only developed children's abilities and interests, answered various inquiries of pupils, but also helped to prepare purposefully an eparkhialok for their future activity of both the priest's wife, and the teacher of elementary school. For this purpose much attention was paid to kruzhkovy work: to painting of icons, zolotoshveyny art, weaving, sewing of footwear, gardening and truck farming, prosforopeche-niya and to culinary art, medicine and gymnastics. Pupils to themselves sewed linen and dresses, made rooms and beds, serially made lunches and laid the table, did gardening and another household chores.

Material and household keeping of pupils was the simplest and simple. They were accustomed to modest labor life in advance. According to the Moscow metropolitan Filaret, "their education has to be directed giving to maidens religious and moral and economic education, but not uklonyat them from simplicity of the life peculiar to them on the birth and appointment. When placing an institution the church has to be arranged in it; other everything, from thrift, has to be simply, except the most necessary adaptation to requirements of an institution. The brought-up maidens live in small rooms and is uncapacious. Who will come to such institution from similar secular, that will not praise visible because he will find only purity and neatness, but not an entertaining and brilliant look. But it in compliance with situation brought up which came from close and poor dwellings and in same here, most likely, have to return. The brilliant dwelling during education would make for them unpleasant their future dwellings, simple and poor" 12.

At the beginning of the 20th century still girls from families of the clergy, besides diocesan schools and private schools, studied in one - and two-cool parish and nachal-

11 E.A. E.A. Emergence and development of diocesan women's schools in Russia (the middle of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century): avtoref. yew.... edging. ped. sciences. - M, 2000. - Page 17.
12 E.A. E.A. Spiritual education in women's diocesan schools//Education+:

Person. Culture. Society. — M, 2000 - . — Mode access:

http://biblio.narod.ru/gyrnal/statyi/eparx-andr.htm; Krugosvet: entsikl. - Mode access:

http://www.krug0svet.ru/articles/101/1010191/0012702G.htm; Spiritual education in women's diocesan schools//Spiritual and moral and state and legal bases of domestic education: sb. tez. - M, 1998. - Page 19-21.

ny schools. For example, in the school register of Sacred and Olginsky second-class women's school by December 20, 1914 71 girls appeared: in the 1st office (semester) - the 12, 2 - the 14, 3 - the 16, 4 - 29, from them Orthodox Christians - 71. There lived girls in the territory of an institution which administration watched conditions of accommodation of pupils that it follows from minutes of council of school: "a bath in the normal state, allocated for its repair 455 rub 80 kopeks, a door iron, repair in some parts is executed - the furnace is broken, and new is put, the cylinder for hot water is bought, the brick, clay and sand, a connecting tube of a tank with cranes are bought, the pump, cranes and a water supply system" 13 is repaired. At school of the earth

>- 13 state tithes and 1800 square sazhens.

Here studied orally the God's Law, Slavic language, singing, didactics, Russian, arithmetics, history, geography and in writing - Russian and arifmetiku14. Upon termination of educational institution, having handed over oral and written tests, pupils received certificates on a rank of the teacher of school gramoty15. After education of the daughter of clergymen had to define the destiny: to be engaged in professional activity of the teacher or to start a family and to devote life to education and training of the children.

To the middle of the 19th century among pupils of women's private schools girls from families of clergy began to appear more often, and graduates of the called schools become holders of such institutions often. Thus, some educated daughters of priests begin to bypass a role of "the priest's wife", and are engaged in teaching. Most of graduates of diocesan schools worked in the sphere of national education. E.A. Andreyeva, referring to P. Lupkov's works, specifies that more than a half an eparkhialok worked as teachers of parish schools and schools gra-moty16. By 1914. The Tambov women's diocesan school was graduated by 1886 girls. In 1912-1913 from the former pupils of school worked as teachers of national schools of 547 people, from them 360 - in parish and 187 - at territorial schools. The majority were engaged in pedagogical activity only till a marriage or till the birth of the first child. They imparted the knowledge to own children. In affairs of the temple the wife of the deacon or the priest could help the husband with the organization of women's works on festive cleaning, monitored preparation to krestinam17.

Depending on category of educational institution could teach ended a course in higher educational institutions, in teacher's seminaries and in general the got special preparation and an education in special educational institutions, in average educational institutions, in the lowest educational institutions, the received house education and the right of teaching on examination. The regulation of position of the teacher and pupil in private educational institutions was carried out as well as in state, with an equal control system. Two times in a year of the holder made balance sheets about a condition of educational institution and sent them to the regular inspector, and that is to the managing director of the educational district. In them information on the owner of school, on the number of schoolgirls and their social accessory, on payment for training, on teacher's structure, on the content of teaching and educational process with assessment of all indicators by the inspector was reflected.

The special place was allocated to a question of the identity of the teacher. The right of teaching in schools was acquired by persons of a ministry or education, secular persons (both men, and women). However, if ecclesiastics had the right of teaching, without confirming the competence and reliability with any documents, then secular persons had to get permission to teaching from district uchilishchny council after submission of the certificate in respectability and reliability about what the sheet private Educational Institution in Lipetsk for a May third of 1850" 18 where it is said that the holder, the ensign's wife, Anna Ivanovna Muravyeva has in maintaining private school for maidens in Lipetsk (the certificate of April 13, 1844 No. 3274 confirms "-is given out by Mister Minister of National Education) 19. Persons of a ministry could support educational institution "from the permission of Spiritual Board". For example, the school in Temnikov of the Tambov province was such,

13 GATO. - T. 105. - Op. 1. - 1256. - L. 2-2ob.
14 GATO. - T. 1002. - Op. 1. - 2. - L. 2a-3ob.
15 In the same place. - L.4-4ob.
16 E.A. E.A. Diocesan women's schools in Russia / / Pedagogics. - 1999. - No. 3. - Page 91.
17 A. Andreevsky. Historical and statistical description of the Tambov diocese. - Tambov, 1911.

- Page 31, 38.

18 GATO. - T. 105. - Op. 1. - 64. - L. 24.
19 GATO. - T. 105. - Op. 1. - 64. - L. 25.

where children "study reading of both sexes and the letter by the sexton of Cathedral church Nikolay Lipov-sky and the daughter of the died sexton of Trinity Church Darya Vasilyeva" 20.

The lack of teacher's shots for constantly increasing number of elementary schools in the province demanded opening of new courses on training of teachers. So, at second-class Sacred and Olginsky school, additional courses on "personal preparation for teaching", by cost 8o rubles and lasting 1 year where "schoolgirls of additional office" 21 give practical lessons at model school in all objects of initial preparation were formed. Before a lesson they write abstracts on a certain subject. The abstract of typical lessons is written by all schoolgirls. Then the concrete subject is defined and it is appointed certified. All pupils are present at a lesson which the intern gives, write down remarks, note shortcomings and advantages of a lesson and classes in general give an assessment. Within a year at a lesson there is one schoolgirl, and at a lesson of didactics there have to be all.

Special attention was paid to learning Russian — 5 lessons a week, then to practical lessons — 4 hours, further — the Scripture, arithmetics, singing (for 3 hours a week), then

— didactics, history, geography (for 2 hours a week) and on the last place — Church Slavonic language and physics (on 1 hour a week). Upon termination of courses of the graduate received "the certificate from Council of Sacred and Olginsky second-class school behind appropriate signatures and the enclosed press" 22.

to regular teachers of school paid

at the beginning of the 20th century a constant salary: to the priest — 100 rubles, the graduate of diocesan school — 360 rubles, to the teacher with house education — 40 rubles. Thus, graduates of diocesan schools admitted qualified specialists for work elementary school.

Pupils of teacher's seminaries had some privileges in comparison with the peers. They were exempted for all the time of the stay in seminary from personal duties, including rekrutsky. This right extended to them and in case they chose teacher's career. Eparkhialkam was necessary to choose between a professional field and a home. Education of the woman of the clergy was implemented often only within family life — for training and education of own children.

Thus, since the middle of the 19th century, sufficient attention was paid to the content of education and education of girls from the clergy. The most part of priests gave preference in training of the children in diocesan schools since they included not only general education and all-pedagogical training of the pupils, but also the doctrinal, medical, agricultural, sewing and culinary knowledge necessary as for future wives of representatives of a holy order, and for full-fledged representatives of secular society.

THE WOMAN OF SPIRITUAL ESTATE IN SYSTEM OF NATIONAL EDUCATION XIX - THE BEGINNINGS XX CENTURIES (ON AN EXAMPLE OF THE TAMBOV PROVINCE)

There are explained changes in education of woman&s of spiritual class.

To the middle of XIX century, differences in education of the husband and the wife in family of the priest began to be perceived as the negative factor influencing the relations between members of families of spiritual estate. Therefore, greater attention, which has been not limited only by home education, starts to be devoted to training of daughters of clergy. In 1843, diocesan schools for women began to unclose. Among foster children of women&s private schools, more often is appear girls from families of clergy. Managers of schools often become graduates of the named schools. There is some well-educated daughters of priests to bypass a role of "wife of the priest", they prefer to be teachers. Thus, since the middle of XIX century, sufficient attention was devoted to the contents of education of girls from spiritual estate.

V.L. KOLESNIKOVA

Belgorod state university e-mail:

vkolesnikova@bsu.edu.ru

20 GATO. - T. 105. - Op. 1. - 64. - L. 44, 44ob.
21 In the same place. - L. 4ob.
22 GATO. - T. 1002. - Op. 1. - 17. - L. 11.
Beverly Allen
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