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Category: History

The militarized way of life of the Ural Cossacks



gursky N.V.

The MILITARIZED WAY OF LIFE of the URAL COSSACKS

History of the Cossacks is inseparably linked with the history of Russia. The Cossacks, being a part of military estate of Russia throughout HU1-HH of centuries, treated to irregular troops which were included into structure of the Russian army. Each army made a certain contribution to historical and cultural heritage of the Russian state. However the way of life of the Cossacks had the militarized character. And in it each army had the differences. Success of army in protection of the Russian borders depended on features of the organization of management, economy and life. An important role Ural the Cossack army on the example of which we will consider influence of military science on a way of life of Cossacks in this case played (Yaitskoye).

Management of the Cossack community in the environment of the Ural (yaitsky) Cossacks though was borrowed from Old Russian customs (veche), but had the specifics. The leading person (highest status of management) is an ataman, i.e. a rank not civil. For the aid to it Cossack captains were chosen. Cossacks were divided into dozens headed by foremen. Koshevy directed two dozen Cossacks. Over time new divisions - hundreds were created, and new positions respectively appeared: centurion, horunzhy. If Cossacks gathered in a campaign, then marching atamans, Cossack captains and znamenshchik got out. The quantity of Cossack captains and znamenshchik depended on number of Cossacks. The Cossacks called itself not community, but the village. The village was called also the part of army going to a campaign or on crafts. Such schedule of life became one of the reasons that the Russian government began to call the Cossacks army.

In Ural (Yaitsky) the Cossack army severe orders dominated. For escape from service, theft, murder executed death, through drowning or execution, and for violence and fights beat mercilessly [11, page 65]. Such order existed very long while the army was not final is subordinated to the Russian emperor.

The famous researcher of history of Ural (Yaitsky) of the Cossack army, A.B. Karpov noticed that Cossacks "... are on borders Moscow gosu-

a darstvo by so terrible force that it, leaning on them, smashes on the outskirts one behind another of centuries-old enemies and gets Siberia, Yaik..." [11, page 84]. Really, as soon as Cossacks for the first time appeared on Yaika, their military, economic and cultural interaction with the neighbors began from now on. Originally to Cossacks Yaik was necessary to wage long and persistent war for itself. Cossacks assumed the happening attacks of Nogais, the Kokand, Bukhara and Khivan tribes. But protection of the new line of the Russian border also began with it from the Yaik River. The Ural Cossack portrayer of ordinary life I.I. Zheleznov wrote down the following: "In Rasey's times are old there was a zemelka small, weak-willed. If it if resisted it became famous over all kingdoms and languages, with that much it was helped by Cossacks-lytsari, - all Cossacks. they on borders raseysky held a timbering and basurman pacified" [10, page 1].

Features of service of each Cossack army were defined in many respects by its geographical location. The Ural army was fated to become the buffer between Asian steppes and the southeast of the European Russia. At the time of creation of ambits in South Ural kochevya Tatars, Kalmyks and Kyrgyz had no clear boundary that led to a set of collisions.

At the end of the 13th century the khan Nogay with a part of Tatars separated from the main horde and formed in space between Yaik, Volga and Kama an independent horde. Capital of the Nogai horde (. The shed) was located on the Yaik River [11, page 19, 36]. From borders of China to Yaik's lower reaches a part of the Kalmyk horde Zyungor prikochevat about 1630. They subordinated the remains of Nogais and surrounded almost from all directions the Ural (yaitsky) Cossacks. Kalmyks impudently caught fish on Yaika (Urals) that was perceived by Cossacks as theft and insult of the ancient rights because this river was granted to the Ural (yaitsky) Cossacks since the time of Mikhail Fyodorovich. From 17th century the problem of suppression of revolts in Bashkiria was assigned to Cossacks. Bashkirs settled down from Ural (Yaitsky) of the Cossack army to the northwest. Also kochevya Kyrgyz slowly moving to the West, by 18th century approached Yaik's coast. "The Kalmyk, the Bashkir and the Kyrgyz did not give wild hordes to Cossacks not only to be engaged in arable farming, but also to catch fish..." [11, page 370].

When Cossacks left for trade or fishing, for protection of the town they left the companions, as a rule, from among old men and young men. Thus, were organized "domosedny teams" which

existed up to the beginning of the 19th century. Became "homebodies" at own will or for a payment.

The Cossacks tried to protect as much as possible itself, leaving for economic crafts therefore in a trip the considerable quantity with full arms gathered Cossacks. The researcher of the Cossacks A.B. Karpov writes: "From each ten the fishers choose on one Cossack for the sentry village - an ertaul and from each two dozen on one koshevy; ertaulny go... on both sides of the river. that did not find in unawares. Kalmyks and Tatars" [11, page 187]. Usually conducted a wagon train koshevy, and ertualny Cossacks protected. When Cossacks carried out campaigns to Samara, Syzran or Saratov for trade in fish, they also went a big wagon train. The convoy called the village or ertaul on number reached 100 people and more.

The most dangerous neighbors of army were Kyrgyz. With their emergence the life of the Ural (yaitsky) Cossacks turned into continuous fight, ruthless and cruel. The bulk of attacks was made on the southern site of the line. Therefore in 1736 to Cossacks the number of people on the lower outposts was recommended to increase [18, page 12]. During the periods of activity of attacks of Kyrgyz the Ural Cossacks sentry teams were on duty in the Kyrgyz steppe [1]. Attacks carried as essential character (for example, kidnapping, robbery of expeditions and caravans), and insignificant (stealing of the cattle) [3; 4; 6]. Kyrgyz often took prisoner the Ural Cossacks [7]. However the Kyrgyz khans cooperated with the Russian administration and promoted release of Cossacks from captivity [5; 8]. If it did not occur, then in response to taking of prisoners the Cossacks resorted to similar actions [9, page 272]. Kyrgyz selected opportunities for attacks, for example, when from army the village went somewhere and if not one, then the community became an easy mark. Serious Kyrgyz attacks took place in 1748, 1749, 1754, 1756. In 1770 - 1790 the special threat was represented by Syrym Datov's army. Under its management uncountable robberies, robberies and murders were committed. And this lawlessness concerned not only Cossacks, but also Kazakhs, loyal to Russians. In 1776 the Russians were forbidden to leave to the Kyrgyz steppe without convoy [2]. These bans concerned only a private initiative. If the royal management found it necessary to send the Cossack group to the steppe, then the decision was carried out immediately [9, page 269].

Since Mikhail Romanov's government, the Ural Cossacks take constant part in military campaigns, bear guard service in the cities which are on border of the state. For these Cossacks earned a salary: monetary and weapon. The Ural Cossack army actively participated in military campaigns which were conducted by Russia: Smolensk war of 1632-1634; war with Poland 1654-1667; Crimean campaigns of book of Golitsyn of 1687, 1689; Northern war of 1700-1721; Italian and Swiss campaigns of A.V. Suvorov of 1798; Patriotic war of 1812; foreign campaigns of 18131814; Russo-Turkish war of 1828 - 1829; suppression of the Polish revolt of 1830; Crimean war of 1853-1856; Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905; World War I of 1914-1918. The service in the Caucasus was appointed as punishment.

The Guards service of the Ural Cossacks began at Paul I. He enjoined to create the leyb-Ural one hundred for service in St. Petersburg. From leyb-guard of the Ural one hundred (1798) the Ural Cossacks served to leyb-guard of the Summary-Cossack regiment (1906). Persons of imperial advantage enlisted themselves in structure of this military formation, for example: Alexander II, successor Alexander Aleksandrovich Tsesarevich, Nicholas II, successor Tsesarevich Grand duke Alexey Nikolaevich. Since 1827. The successor of the Russian throne was appointed the most august ataman of all Cossack troops and the chief of the Atamansky regiment and so up to the last Russian emperor. Therefore the service in the Cossack parts was considered as prestigious.

With the Russian government the Cossacks built mutually beneficial relations. On the one hand, Cossacks sent gifts to the capital: sturgeons, sturgeon caviar, various petitions with requests carried at the same time. Such meetings with the power were very productive. The army received from the tsar of the diploma and the order, also gunpowder, lead, guns, bells. The Cossacks who were directly participating in a trip were presented with sabers, cloth, ladles and money.

However the relations with the power were difficult. At the slightest pretext it was necessary to submit petitions addressed to the voivode, princes or the sovereign. For example, Cossacks submitted to voivodes the petition about return of the spent money for military affairs, and voivodes sent it with the explanation to the tsar. Also correspondence went with Moscow: to give supplies to Cossacks or not. Petitions

moved at different requests: to give out to lead and gunpowder, to release on a prayer in Solovetsky Monastery or at all on houses [11, page 208].

For faults, for example, for break-in of the Persian courts, Cossacks sent to military campaigns for the benefit of the Russian state. The Ural (yaitsky) Cossacks were famous in military campaigns for the fact that they skillfully got prisoners. They often received individual rewardings for it. Was considered that Cossacks, being involved in fighting during long-term campaigns, completely washed away guilt, and they were allowed to return to Yaik (Urals).

The Russian government also took care of disabled Cossacks which they became as a result of any war. They were defined on public service then they did not return to the small homeland any more. The fact is that disabled Cossacks had no privileges in army. The Cossacks which are in the service could be content with fishery only. Retired Cossacks of such trade were deprived and doomed to drag beggarly existence. Therefore very many Cossacks, especially young children, orphans and old men and also disabled people left army to Samara or to other nearest towns [11, page 180].

All life of the Ural Cossack was fanned by spirit of war. Cossacks paid attention to the clothes in respect of beauty a little. In military campaigns the Ural Cossacks appreciated warmer and comfortable clothes. ". Vsyak from us put on to the taste" [10, page 98]. One of I.I. Zheleznov's interlocutors in the legend "Khiva" described the attire as follows: on a body a shirt, over it a jersey from camel wool, then a short fur coat with a belt, then a sheepskin coat, further the Kyrgyz fur-coat, again a belt; standing three trousers - ordinary, from camel wool and leather Kyrgyz wide trousers. "Boots. ogromneyushchy, and onuchas five arshins." [10, page 99]. On the head a mutton cap, and from above camel bashlyk. Just in case undertook from sheepskin malakhay. And if soldiers died of freezing on posts, got sick, then did not happen to yaitsky Cossacks of that. For this reason the Ural army was called koshomny army, that is with a set koshm (things). The provision of 1803 assumed introduction of a uniform military uniform in army. However, because of the begun disorders this innovation was postponed. The uniform dress code was entered only in the second quarter of the 19th century. These changes concerned only guardsmen and Cossacks the policeman of team. By 1830 they were obmundirovana in a new form of the state sample. In the 1880th in the Russian army the dress code exchanged. This fate did not manage

to avoid also to the Ural army. The clothes of the Ural Cossacks generally were blue color. On blue wide trousers there were crimson stripes by which it was possible to determine the Cossack's belonging to any given army. In cold time the Ural Cossacks wore high fur hats and papakhas.

The way of life of the Cossacks was such is that they especially did not attach significance to durability and beauty of the dwelling. Even creation of the central town (Yaitsk, later Uralsk) at Cossacks was followed by strategic reasons. The narrowness of constructions and narrowness of streets were a necessary measure for convenience of defense [11, page 133]. The constant boundary danger developed special type of the military settlements carrying names of fortresses, strengthenings, outposts, thirds, a reda-nok, cordons, redoubts and pickets [11, page 26]. Settling of the protected border was much more dense, than in internal regions of the Ural army [9, page 56]. The location of roads and stations had strategic character. In villages, outposts, settlements, "underwater teams", "flying cards" were organized. "Flying cards" within the army territory transported army and government officials. "Underwater chase" carried out a mail service in army. In the 19th century in all villages and settlements of army, underwater and police teams which accompanied arrested were made. Privileges for serving of internal business trips were provided to Cossacks of underwater teams, they were exempted from natural and monetary duties [20, page 15-16]. Such infrastructure was created not so much for convenience of civilians how many for protection of border.

Such aspects as relationship with throne, military service, respect and love for the Fatherland are mentioned in the Ural Cossack folklore. ". The Nadyozha - the tsar. We not from interest serve, we as there are slaves your true, are ready to shed blood for you to the last droplet." [10, page 11] or "for the father tsar we are ready to give the last shirt from shoulders." [10, page 32]. A certain part of legends ("Three Ivan", Ryzhechka, Harko, "Cossack the Tersky", Utva, Khiva) and songs ("As not clear sokolik soletalisya", "Not gray the eagle flew on skies", "Twined, ukhitit Harkushko.", "By sea was, to the sea blue.", "On the mountains that was across Inderskim.", "As behind a rechenka was behind fast.", "As on the mouth was, brothers, Yaikushki", "Nicely, brothers, time has come") it is devoted to various fighting collisions. It is necessary to allocate group of the Azov songs ("The pogodushka poludnenny rose", "For nice -

the Leningrad Region behind the rivulet, beyond Danube", "As went - passed yes our kazachenk from the Black Sea", "As went - passed yes our kazachenk").

In the Azov campaigns of Peter I there were about 500 yaitsky Cossacks [12, page 91]. Cossacks caused a stir and gained fame in army the fact that took the enemy prisoner. The group of the Azov songs "is remarkable what it opens. patriotic subject. love for the big homeland - Russia" [12, page 93].

Cossacks do not hide the military defeats: ".pashnya. it was sowed, brothers, the Cossack heads." [10, page 70]. This song was devoted to one of collisions between Cossacks and Kyrgyz. Also in the Cossack folklore songs and legends on unsuccessful campaigns to Khiva with Nechayem, Shamayem, Beko-vichem-Cherkasskim and Perovsky remained. Though all Cossacks, as a rule, perished, despite this "the facts of inevitable courage and courage" [12, page 87] Cossacks, for example, capture of the Khivan city of Urgench found reflection in oral poetic creativity. "Bewitched Khiva country" [10, page 76] - here is how Cossacks explained the main reason that the Khivan kingdom did not wish to obey the Russian state. In memoirs of N.F. Savichev who partly repeated a way of the Khivan campaign to expeditions across the Aral Sea the deep regret about results of a campaign of Perovsky sounds. "On several sazhens of distance, on that and other side of the road, the camel skeleton lay by all means; in other places lay on some pieces; horse skeletons. human skeletons." [19, page 6-7].

Military defeats in the description had more objective, historical character, than narrations about fighting feats of Cossacks which were surrounded with a certain fabulousness, especially at an early stage of existence of the Cossack community. In legends "Three Ivan" and "Ryzhechka" the Cossacks enter a duel with "infidelic" soldiers. The fact that these so powerful soldiers and frightening that there were no hunters to try with them forces is characteristic. And only eggs-kiye Cossacks overcome them and promote, thereby, a vostorzhestvovaniye of a victory and glory on Russian soil. In national statement aggressive and valorous traits of character of the yaitsky Cossacks reveal. "Kazaki-lytsari" - it expression is very often used in the memoirs by Zhe-leznov's contemporaries, emphasizing the fact that here what Cossacks were in the past. In the work "Ryzhechka" Cossack Prokhor Mitrich was compared on force powerful to Peter I [10, page 13-14]. Cunning and courageous the legendary soldier is represented to Harko. In honor of him and an outpost nicknamed - Harkinsky. It was allegedly spod-

Stepan Razin's bench hammer. But after suppression of a revolt was removed on Yaik. After death of twelve companions of Harko lived in loneliness ". on a high seven-barreled Oscar. in the warm gnezdushk." [10, page 44]. Different cunnings he constantly annoyed Kyrgyz, and it did not manage to them to revenge him in any way. In the ancient song by Harko acts as the defender of the earth. "Harkushka has a good intention, .hristiansky: to break, beat Kyrgyz batyry, to discourage at them foolish - to trample down meadows Cossack are green, to stir up, skvernit waters yaitsky, to frighten, send fish red." [10, page 45]. To Kyrgyz got from yaitsky Cossacks more than once. "As Yaitskiye's Cossacks to a sobranyitsa Kyrgyz broke, and having broken began duvan to duvanit." [10, page 126].

The works created in the 19th century are quite realistic. During this period songs about Patriotic war of 1812 appeared: "As from twelfth year posedely eagles", "Vykhvalyalsya angry frantsuzik", "Is not expensive to us, the hostess, beer drunk yours", "Platov-kazak the soldier was", "You drink, you walk", Napoleo-nushka, "On the mountain were, brothers, on high", "On the edge of Russia extensive", "Not two good fellows, two guardsmen". The whole group of songs is devoted to events of the second half of the 19th century (accession to Russia of Central Asia, Kazakhstan): "We, the Ural Cossacks, go with pleasure to a campaign", "Lay a way-dorozhenka on the mountains", "We live in steppes long ago", "As in Dzhuleke's fortress", "From Dzhulek acted", "Not fog from the sea rose", "About storm of Akhal-Teke", "The tsar sent us to the steppe to a ziatsk", "The general Skobelev with us", "As not a cloud covers the sky", "The commander with us was Sladkov", "Friends, in we will common gather", "Well, vspom - it-those, children", "On Darya we, brothers, long lived", "Behind mountains, behind dales" (poem), "At Turkestan we sat down", "At the steppe wide under Icahn", "Praise to you, Ural residents, Icahn's heroes", "On Caspian at the sea costs fortress on the mountain". A certain group of songs is devoted to the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878: "As behind the nice river", "Writes, the tsar Turkish writes", "In fights are strong tempered". The last works finishing the whole era of existence of the Ural army are the songs devoted Russian-Japanese and World War I to wars: "That in the settlement for alarm", "Rise, Cossacks, - here the royal decree", "On the Prussian-German border", "As at a bosk there was a battle", "Struck alarm". "They are deprived of art pictorialism. The Syuzhetnost and poetry in the Cossack song of modern times dies away, it is quickly forgotten" [12, page 107].

E.I. Korotin separately selects military and marching songs by the Ural Cossacks as a kind of song creativity. He carried to them - "Rose, the zorenka scarlet woke up" (the early period of the Cossack life), "Beyond the Urals behind the river the Cossacks walk", "To good fellows to Cossacks is cheerful to us to live", "Riders, amicably in a campaign gather", "Our dashing Ural horses", "Because of the wood, the wood of copies and swords".

the Military service was the first source of education: quartering on the cities and borders (Moscow, the Caucasus), military campaigns, captivity. Skilled Cossacks gathered, ". told about the services, campaigns, battles in Ekaterina, Paul and Nicholas I's century" [19, page 182]. From stories they learned about situation in the large cities and provinces of Russia, that they are and as there live Kyrgyz, Tatars, hivinets, the French, Germans, Poles, Turks. In the 19th century the younger generation of the Ural Cossacks began to get an education in military schools which were not in the Ural region. Young Cossacks studied in the following military schools: Neplyuevsky in Orenburg [17, l. 1], Aleksandrovsky in St. Petersburg [15, page 144], Vladimir in Kiev. Several Cossacks got military vocational education in Mikhaylovsk artillery and Nikolaev cavalry schools, also in Imperial army medical college [14, page 29], in the Orenburg yunkersky school [16, l. 15].

Summing up the result, it should be noted that the Ural Cossacks during the period from XVI in beginning 20th century, successfully mastered an average and lower watercourse the Urals (Yaik), the Cisural steppes, came into cross-cultural contacts with the different people. Ural residents also actively promoted development of an average of Zavolzhye by Russia, its advance in depth of Central Asia.

The constant military service created a peculiar inner world of the Ural Cossack, his outlook about the Fatherland - the small and general Homeland. The way of life was substantially subordinated to one purpose - protection of the Russian borders. Further it motivated new generation of the Cossacks to study and improve the militarized schedule in the internal organization of army. Its preservation during the long period and also demand by the state of its combat potential became result of the military organization of the Cossack community.

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