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Cold weapon and protective arms of Iranians in the MAE collection of RAS (Cabinet of curiosities)



e. I. Malozemova

COLD WEAPON AND PROTECTIVE ARMS of IRANIANS IN the MAE COLLECTION of RAS (CABINET OF CURIOSITIES)

Work is presented by department of ethnography of the people of the Southern and Southwest Asia of Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Cabinet of curiosities). The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences M.A. Rodionov.

Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Cabinet of curiosities) - one of the museums - owners of collections of the Iranian cold weapon and protective arms. Ethnographic material came to the museum mainly at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century thanks to purchases from private collectors, gifts of collectors, transfers from the organizations, sobiratelsky activity of staff of the museum.

The Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology (Kunstkammer) is one of the museums that own Iranian arms and armor. The items appeared in the museum mostly at the turn of the 20th century in different ways: they were purchased from private collectors, presented as gifts, delivered by organizations, collected and brought from the Middle East by the museum staff.

The Iranian weapon - very difficult subject for study. As noted X more. Stokline, all next people took part in its formation, but, nevertheless, borrowing foreign formulas and samples, the Iranian masters always adapted them for the ideas of the kultury1. At all times in the culture of Iran allocate - an elk very important place for cold weapon that was expressed as material for production of a blade, in its decorating and, at last, in preservation of function and value of a blade at the firearms which appeared in the 16th century in Iran.

Considerable meetings of cold weapon and protective arms of the people of the Middle East are stored in department of ethnography of the people of the Southern and Southwest Asia of Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Cabinet of curiosities): as a part of thirty collections 114 numbers and 162 units of storage among which there are 58 numbers and 73 units hra-appear

neniye make samples of weapon of the people of the Iranian language group. Among them there are 6 numbers and 7 units of storage - small and throwing arms, 20 numbers and 21 units of storage - objects of protective arms, 1 number and 1 unit of storage - shock weapon and 31 numbers and 34 units of storage - bladed weapon. Samples of the Iranian weapon are stored both in separate, and in the mixed registration collections No. 291, 333, 1274, 2145, 2436, 2548, 2704, 2706, 2723, 2872, 3033, 3157, 3418, 3477, 3502.3842, 5113, 7023.

Samples of ceremonial weapon - the gifts to the Russian yard from east lords appearing there in the 30th of the 18th century (images of the Persian knives remained in watercolor drawings of the exhibits of Cabinet of curiosities executed in 1732-1735 and 17491752 2) and transferred in 1852-1853 to the Tsarskoye Selo arsenal, and in 1886 in the Arsenal of Imperial Ermitazha3 were the very first monuments of the Iranian cold weapon in the Petrovsky museum.

Further collections of the Iranian weapon in the museum were formed thanks to purchases of things from individuals and gifts of both certain collectors, and the organizations.

In 1895 as a part of the mixed collection of household items of the anatoliysko-Balkan Turks, Armenians and Kurds oblasti4 P.I. Tomic were acquired from east governor Karskaya for even small collections of the museum the Kurdish saber with a sheath and a spear. Originally in a collection there were two sabers with the device, but since 1949 a saber and a sheath to it (No. 291-21 and, b) appear as utrachennye5. In two years, in 1897, as a part of a big collection of the household items and musical instruments collected by the Polish traveler B.L. Grombchevsky during his trip to Kandzhut in 1888 6 in Cabinet of curiosities objects of cold weapon (sabers, knives) and protective arms appeared (board) of inhabitants of upper courses of Inda7.

Till 1917 some more collections with samples of the Iranian weapon came to the museum. In 1908 from S.A. Tarenets-koy's madam it was bought Afghan shchit8. In September, 1913 at V.A. Ivanov, the outstanding Russian orientalist-iranista, the extensive collection was acquired (134 numbers and 149 units hr.) household items and cult of Persians (call. No. 2145), collected by it in the Iranian city of Hamadan where, according to the autobiography, it was in April, 1913 transportation from Birdzhan to Kermanshakhra9. As a part of this collection two steel hatchets of a different form and the sizes got to the museum, but, according to V.A. Ivanov, identical appointment are prisedelny axes (the Persian. "табарзин"). These axes, according to the collector, very ancient (especially No. 2145-48) also served dervishes "for fight against passions which are presented to the excited imagination of the dervish in a carnal image as, having come to an ecstatic state, the dervish swings the axe, exclaiming & #34; Now I am time -

ZIL such defect, such страсть"" 10. In view of quite magnificent decor of axe No. 2145-48 (the images of two lions executed by an engraving in a low relief against the background of a vegetable ornament under a crown), it, undoubtedly, was used as ritual whereas second (No. 2145-49) could serve and as a military weapon.

One more ritual hatchet which was full similar functions was presented to the museum by V.A. Ivanov in February, 1915 as a part of other small collection (No. 2548) of the Persian household items. The axe from this collection which is also designated by V.A. Ivanov as "табарзин" 11 double is also decorated by images of couple of fantastic animals reminding the wolves executed in a low relief against the background of a vegetable ornament and complemented with silver.

Further the collection of Cabinet of curiosities of ritual axes pole-axes was replenished with several more samples, in the form and the sizes reminding axe No. 2145-48. Three such hatchets were brought in 1914-1915 by one more famous orientalist, the graduate of faculty of east languages of the St. Petersburg university A. A. Romaskevichem as a part of a big collection of household items and a cult (No. 2436) which it collected in the cities of Isfahan, Shiraz, Mashhad, Tehran, Kerman on an assignment muzeya12. All three axes (No. 2436-128, 2436-129, 2436-130), first of which double, judging by a form a naver-shiya, to the nature of very magnificent vegetable ornament with cartouches and technology of its execution (an engraving, a low relief with a silver taushirovka), were executed in one workshop, and the decor, most likely, was executed by one master (the interpretation of an ornament and its composite arrangement on a blade are almost identical in all three cases). Using V.A. Ivanov's terminology, such axes so -

can be called "табарзин" though they and all above axes in a form and the sizes differ from those which in literature are called prisedelny, former traditionally smaller size, than ordinary axes (the Persian. "camp") 13.

In general, the workmanship of this group of hatchets seems above, than at previous, however the most refined hatchets pole-axes appeared in the museum after 1917: in 1919 from the famous orientalist V.A. Zhukovsky the collection of household items and a cult of Iranians came to the museum (No. 2704)14 in which at No. 13 and 14 two hatchets decorated with the epigraphic ornament on the basis of the Arab ligature executed on a vegetable background and entered in a cartouche, one more cartouche of the smaller size and the stylized vegetable ornament located along an edge were registered. Both of these hatchets are identical in terms of style of execution, however forms a navershiya and a blade, and as a result, and arrangement of a decor are a little various that forces to believe that they, unlike the previous group, are made or in different workshops, or at different times and different masters.

Thus, by the beginning of the 20th of the 20th century in Cabinet of curiosities the collection of ritual Iranian steel hatchets of different forms from which six samples in general of identical stylistics of execution are distinguished, but executed in different workshops, from metal, different in quality, and at different times was collected (no later than the beginning of the 20th century) that allows to study trends in production and use of these objects of arms in Iran in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century

Along with replenishment of a meeting of cold weapon objects of protective arms of Iranians also came to the museum. On June 10, 1919 the prince E.E. Ukhtomsky donated the museum a collection from two before -

met of arms of the Persian work, collected by it in the Caucasus (Georgia) and Persii15, - the helmet which is magnificently decorated by a vegetable ornament and medallions with the Arab ligature taushirovanny gold and silver, and a chain armor.

In the whole ambassador of 1917 of a collection of the museum, in particular the Iranian fund, began to be replenished enough rapidly. Collections of the weapon created in 1918. Department of the Muslim people of Central Asia, and then Department of Western and Central Asia in 1919 were enriched transferred from commission of experts by the helmet and a board appearing in collection No. 2872 together with the astronomical table as persidskiye16. The same year from the Moscow Extraordinary commission two big registration collections entirely consisting of weapon were donated the museum. Collection No. 2724 was registered as a collection of the Turkish weapon whereas collection No. 2723 appears in the inventory as a collection of cold weapon persov17. In fact the collection consisting of fourteen numbers and twenty units of storage contains not only the Persian weapon, but also, for example, the Afghan saber sheath (No. 2723-26), a sheath for the Turkish yataghan (No. 2723-8), the two-bladed dagger Mada occurring both in India, and in Morocco (No. 2723-7, c), the folding knife-shaped weapon with an inscription Latin on a blade reminding the Spanish navakha (No. 2723-6) and also the saber, judging by a decor executed perhaps, the European master (No. 2723-1) (in similar style one more saber (No. 3116-2) acquired in 1925 from R. by Mukhammedova18 is executed).

The similar situation developed with the collection transferred in 1924 from the Pushkin House - No. 3033. As a part of the collection collected in Iran carpets and weapon different narodov19 appear. For carrying out attribution of objects of arms in Cabinet of curiosities the assistant to the keeper the Hermitage - was invited

a leg of the Arsenal of E.E. Lenz, and since 1924 and the keeper of section of weapon A.A. of Avtonomov20. Questions of terminology east oruzhiya21 entered a focus of interest of A.A. Avtonomov that allowed it to allocate as a part of a weapon part of a collection the Turkish saber (No. 3 033-9), the Albanian yataghan (No. 3033-10), the Turkish yataghan (No. 3033-12), the Polish saber with the Turkish blade (No. 3033-14), the Arab sword (No. 3033-15), two Bukhara daggers (No. 3033-17, and the 3033-18th, b) and the Arab dagger (No. 3033-20, b) with a sheath, Turkish gid (No. 3033-21, c) and to date pamyatniki22. Thus, thanks to collections No. 2723 and 3033 by 1925 the collections of cold weapon of Cabinet of curiosities considerably were replenished not only the Iranian samples, but also objects of arms of other countries and the people of the Middle East.

In the next two years the arms objects connected with the culture of dervishes came to a collection of the museum again. In July, 1925 at E.G. Chernyakovskoy, employees of the All-Russian institute of crop production, for three rubles the small collection of household items persov23 as a part of which there was a saw of a piloryl ordinary was acquired. According to the inventory, the saw was used by dervishes for production of a sword - one of dervishesky atributov24. It is the second copy of such Cabinet of curiosities in a meeting, the first sample appeared in 19141915 as a part of A.A. Romaske-vich's (No. 2436-132) collection. Saws of piloryl brought to Iran or from territories of Asia Minor, or, what is more probable, from the countries of the Far East where them, having put in order a handle, used as ritual swords too.

In December, 1926 also the collection of ritual hatchets was replenished. M.G. Vyacheslov in Afghanistan, in Aybaka, got from the passer dervisha25 the small steel hatchet decorated with a gold notch and

the birds who are roughly engraved on a cloth, ornaments and not read inscriptions an arabitsa which he donated the museum in December, 1926. Some more objects of cold weapon collected in Afghanistan and characteristic of the Afghan nomads were acquired for the museum not later than 1927 from D.D. Bu-kinicha as a part of a big collection of objects byta26, and in April of the same year V.K. Kleshchinsky sold for ten rubles to the museum magnificently decorated three-bladed Kurdish steel dagger in steel nozhnakh27.

Proceeding from the data given above, the second half of the 20th of the 20th century was noted by regular receipts in the museum of weapon of Iranians who came to the end in 1928 with transfer from the museum OGPU of the big collection of weapon consisting mainly of Iranian protective vooruzheniya28, and the collection received from the famous orientalist R.A. Galunov, objects of a religious cult (Moharram) as a part of which there was a spear.

The next years were characterized by separate insignificant receipts of objects of the Iranian weapon in the museum among which there was a scepter mace received from M.B. Kritsyan in June, 1934 as a part of a collection of utensils, amulets and other objects religious kulta29 and the saber remade from a braid, which arrived from the academician E.N. Pavlovsky who made three expeditions to Iran in 1941-43 and collected the considerable collection of household items and a cult of Persians donated the museum in three stages - October, 1958, November, 1961 and December, 1965 30 It is also necessary to note that in 1962 in exchange for a collection of household items of Koryaks the extensive collection of household items and a cult including objects of cold weapon of Nouri - stanets, long time of the languages of an Indo-Aryan branch which were considered as carriers Indo-was transferred to Cabinet of curiosities

the European family of languages or even languages of the Iranian group, but the carriers of languages recognized as the last researches independent gruppy31. The helmet transferred from

became the most last acquisition of department of ethnography of the people of the Southern and Southwest Asia in a collection of samples of the Iranian cold weapon

numbers stored in MAE funds predmetov32.

Thus, the department of ethnography of the people of the Southern and Southwest Asia possesses the extensive collection of the Iranian cold weapon showing the different types of objects of arms representing generally military and ritual weapon.

of the NOTE

1 Stycklein H. Arms and Armour. P. 2555 / Pope U.P. A Survey of Persian Art. Volume III. London, New York, 1939. P. 2555-2578.
2 E.P. Karpeey, T.K. Shafranovskaya Cabinet of curiosities. SPb., 1996. Page 96-97, 105.
3 A.A. Ivanov, V.G. Lukonin, L.S. Smesova. East jewelry. Collection of the Special storeroom of department of the East of the State Hermitage. M, 1984. Page 28.
4 Op. 291.
5 Op. 291.
6 N.L. Luzhetskaya. It is expensive to Hunza (B.L. Grombchevsky about the travel to 1888). Page 352 / Cabinet of curiosities. Ethnographic notebooks. Issue 11. SPb., 1997. Page 352-362.
7 Op. 333.
8 Op. 1274.
9 V.A. Ivanov. Short help biographic note (publication of the text and O.F. Akimushkin's note)//St. Petersburg oriental studies. Issue 10. SPb., 2002. Page 446-458.
10 Op. 2145.
11 Op. 2548.
12 Op. 2436.
13 Melikian-Chirvani A. S. The Tabar of the Turkish Dervish. P.112/Islamic Arms and Armour. Ed. by Elgood R. London, 1979. P. 112-115.
14 On. 2704.
15 On. 2706.
16 On. 2872.
17 On. 2723.
18 On. 3116.
19 On. 3033.
20 Hermitage. History and present. L., 1990. Page 276.
21 In the same place.
22 Op. 3033.
23 Op. 3157.
24 In the same place.
25 Op. 3418.
26 Op. 3502.
27 Op. 3477.
28 Op. 3842.
29 Op. 5113.
30 Op. 6370.
31 D.A. Edelman. Once again about stages of a filiation of Aryan linguistic community//linguistics Questions. M, 1992. No. 3. Page 44-66.
32 Op. 7023.
de Vos Jonas
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