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Process of formation of writing and development of textbooks in the native languages in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug in the 20-50th of the XX century

process formation of writing and development of textbooks in the native languages in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug in the 20-50th of the XX century

E.G. Chumak

Writing was a necessary component for cultural development of indigenous people of the North. In this work features and the nature of process of formation of writing, including development of textbooks in the Khanty and Mansi languages at national schools of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug are considered (from 1930 to 1940. The Ostyako-Vogulsky district) during the period after establishment of the Soviet power and until the end of the 50th years of the XX century.

Long time at indigenous people of the North of writing did not exist. The Soviet government understood need of the solution of this problem. The question of creation of writing was relevant for the people of Far North, first of all, in connection with tasks which were set by the central bodies of national education. In 1919 at department of education of ethnic minorities of Narkompros of RSFSR the editorial board for development of alphabets as first stage in the course of development of writing was organized [Ishbayev, 1998, page 25]. The decision on creation of writing for nationalities of the North was made in 1922 for what the special commission of Narkomat's representatives of nationalities, Narkompros, Academy of Sciences, the largest linguists and ethnographers was formed.

Writing in the native languages was necessary for development and the edition of new abc-books, textbooks and other literature for national schools. Old textbooks which were applied at missionary schools could not be used because of discrepancy of new ideology. To republish them there was no sense as they demanded serious processing. From first years of existence of schools for indigenous people there was a need for special Russian textbooks where difficulties in acquisition of the second language which on the grammatical structure, on subject and contents of the dictionary differed from native [Implementation..., 1971 would be considered. Page 146]. At the beginning of 1921 SibONO (organized 25.01.20, for the management of national education in Siberia) announced a competition on development of the best textbook in the native language of pupils. It was staked on the teachers from the circle of indigenous people working at national schools [National, 1996. Page 13]. Also for simplification of training of children in Russian in 1925 Narkompros and Committee of the North made the decision on creation of the special abc-book and the book for reading in which "the local material familiar and close to children" [Bazanov, would be used 1967. Page 35].

In 1926 there were first hand-written abc-books in national languages which were preparing by the teachers enthusiasts who were directly working at schools. The first books bred manually, on bad paper, maintenance and execution of such self-editions often did not meet requirements imposed to manuals. Similar abc-books there were about ten in different languages [Ishbayev, 1998. Page 26]. Only in 1928-1930 there were abc-books printed in the typographical way. After their exit, systematic work on development of programs and sets of textbooks in languages of peoples of the North for elementary schools and also methodical literature for teachers began.

In 1927/28 academic year scientists — V.G. Bogoraz-Tang and S.N. Stebnitsky undertake drawing up the first Russian abc-book for all schools of the North, it was published in volume of 129 pages. In the same time authors N.I. Leonov and P. E.

Ostrovsky created the book for native schools of a northern zone of RSFSR "our North" of 180 pages. In these

manuals "features of traditions and customs of indigenous people" [Bazanov, Kazan, were considered 1939. Page 76].

Work on development of the alphabet was continued, and in October, 1929. The commission of national languages and cultures of Northern faculty of the Leningrad institute of living east languages accepted the Uniform northern alphabet. It developed on a Latin basis and consisted of 32 letters by which in combination with diacritical signs (i.e. additional badges to the main letter marks) it was possible to transfer various structure of phonemes of languages of peoples of the North on the letter. For convenience of the letter and the press, the number of diacritical signs needed to be reduced to a minimum. Therefore work on creation of simpler alphabet was continued [Tsintsius, 1967. Page 81]. In December, 1930 the new draft of the alphabet was presented. It was also created on a Latin basis and consisted of 39 letters (served 29 for designation of concordants, 10 — for designation of vowels) with addition of the badges designating mitigation, longitude and aspiration [Gorodenko, 1997. Page 36]. The project was approved in 1931. All-Union Committee of the New Alphabet at Presidium of the Soviet of Nationalities of the Central Election Commission of the USSR and Board of the National Commissariat of Prosveshcheniya USSR.

After adoption of this alphabet, work on the edition of new textbooks on its basis begins. The first Khanty abc-book of "Khanty book" made by teacher P.E. Hatanzeev was published in 1930 on an obdorsky dialect of northern group. However after its introduction and use at national schools it became clear that the textbook needed considerable improvement as had a number of methodical shortcomings. [From history., 1980. Page 29].

Work on creation of writing of the separate people acquired special relevance after the resolution of Presidium of VTsIK on national and territorial division into districts of Far North and formation of national districts and areas there. In 1932 the linguists at the First All-Russian conference on development of languages and writing of peoples of the North approved the project of creation of the national literary languages. Writing was developed for fourteen nationalities, including Khanty, Mansi, Nenets and the first textbooks and abc-books in languages of these people are published. The conference also approved publishing plans for 1932 and established the basic principles of terminology and spelling of northern languages [Alkor, 1934. Page 23].

However, despite existence of writing for indigenous people, it was necessary to study and develop writing and for different dialectic groups. Since 1931 it was repeatedly asked about need of creation of manuals in vakhovsky dialect. The Laryaksky department of national education in 1932 set the task "drawing up the abc-book in ostyatsky language and collecting the vocabulary for the local textbook". [Ishbayev, 1998. Page 28].

In 1933 Kargar's abc-book on the latinizirovanny alphabet which was made on a kazymsky dialect of the Khanty language is published. Same year the transfer of the first part of the book for Shulev's reading and also the translation of the textbook of arithmetics of Popova [GAOPOTUO, T was released. 107, Op. 1, 532, L. 1], also the first program and methodical materials on teaching Russian at national schools of the people of Far North were presented. In 1933-1934 in languages of indigenous people there were books for reading and the textbooks of grammar and spelling prepared by research associates and teachers of Institute of peoples of the North with participation of the students knowing national languages.

In 1934 in Moscow the meeting of representatives of Committees of the new alphabet of peoples of the North, Narkomprosa of RSFSR and Committee of the North at Presidium of VTsIK concerning development of writing in national languages took place. Because writing of peoples of the North was created on the basis of the latinizirovanny alphabet, schools met great difficulties in use of literature. The lexicon of languages of the northern people was enriched most often at the expense of Russian. Writing in this case artificially from it was torn off. Children had to teach two alphabets at once (Latin and Russian) that led to mixing of sounds. Representatives from the circle of the national intellectuals raised a question of need of the translation of their writing from Latin on Cyrillics [Kiselyov, 1974, page 125]. So, in 1935 at a meeting of presidium of Ostyako-Vogulsky district executive committee the resolution "About Transition of Writing of the Khanty and Mansi Alphabet to the Russian Basis" [Gorodenko, was accepted 1997. Page 37]. The regional organizations apprehended it positively, including the Latin alphabet the phenomenon artificial, difficult for practical application. February, 1937 transfer of writing of Khanty, Mansi and Nenets to the new alphabet based on the Russian graphics [From history., 1980 was made. Page 37].

Since 1937, after the approval of this alphabet, full reprinting of all literature which left earlier in northern languages began. Educational books and all art translated literature were formed authors and translators in relation to average Ob dialect. In 1938 on the Russian alphabet the abc-book Zaltsberg, and then Sukhotina's abc-book was published at first. In 1939 the first book for reading is printed [GAOPOTO, F.107, Op.1, 532, L.1].

In 1939-1940 for a number of nationalities complete sets of textbooks, but only to the 3rd class were created. For 3 and 4 classes started drawing up textbooks before the war. However it was carried out partially as all edition of educational literature during the war in connection with the Siege of Leningrad completely stopped [Implementation., 1971. Page 147].

By the end of the 30th years instead of the general textbooks for all schools of the North Russian textbooks for everyone related on language to group of the northern people, with the appendix of dictionaries began to be created. In 1937. The institute of peoples of the North published the collection "Languages and Writing of Peoples of the North" where V.K. Shteynits's article giving a short morphological essay of the Khanty language (polnovatsky dialect of northern group) was printed. Thus, efforts of Institute of peoples of the North took the first steps not only on creation of textbooks and other literature, but also scientific research of separate dialects of the Khanty language.

Grants in the native languages at schools of the district did not find broad application. This situation can also be explained with existence of a set of dialects in one language. The literature created on the basis of one dialect was unclear to representatives of other ethnic groups. So, for example, scientists-linguists A.L. Alelekov and A.N. Balandin "About dialects of the Khanty language and about literary Khanty language" write in the report that "... the educational literature created on the basis of northern dialects for the Khanty schools cannot be used at schools of Vakh owing to complete misunderstanding by children of language of northern Khanty". Pupils of Bolshe-Laryaksky national school read 16 pages of the abc-book made in kazymsky dialect. From everything read they understood only 3 words: fetters — a copper, pokh — the son, veret — made [Ishbayev, 1998. Page 25].

The existing Russian textbooks in 1939 at the conference convened by the National Coalition Party of RSFSR also underwent criticism. The edition of textbooks not for separate nationalities, and for schools of each ethnic group separately was recognized necessary that would give the chance more precisely to consider the phonetic and grammatical difficulties caused by distinctions of a grammatical system of native and Russian languages. In such textbooks it was supposed to give texts for the translation from native into Russian and from Russian on native that would help children easier to master Russian [Implementation., 1971. Page 148]. Implementation of this decision was interfered by war.

A considerable shortcoming during creation of textbooks and literatures was also the fact that all work was concentrated in the Leningrad office of Uchpedgiz and was carried out by forces of representatives of radical nationalities,

the Peoples of the North working at institute, in a separation from real living conditions. In this regard, in 1940 all preparatory work, with the right to develop educational books was transferred to Khanty-Mansiysk, in Leningrad only the final registration of products and its edition [GAOPOTUO, T was carried out. 107, Op. 1, 532, L. 7].

There were difficulties in creation and practical application of the literary languages for separate language groups. Existence of various dialects in the Mansi and Khanty languages complicated use of uniform languages in districts of the district. The divergence in dialects of kondinsky and sosvinsky Mansi was based on phonetic, morphological and lexical distinctions. According to contemporary records the population, using a sosvinsky dialect, was 2481 persons, and kondinsky — 1955 (see the tab.). The sosvinsky dialect which the vast majority of representatives of this nationality spoke was the basis for the literary language. This language was intended only for northern territories as most of kondinsky Mansi knew Russian, their considerable part absolutely lost the native language, and children studied according to programs for the Russian school. For this reason the question of creation of writing in kondinsky dialect was not brought up [Balangding, 1957, page 7]. V.N. Chernetsov was an author of the first Mansi abc-book and other initial educational literature in the Mansi language. Later I.Ya. Chernetsova, A.I Yemelyanov, A.N. Balandin, N.M. Sadomin, E.I. Rombandeeva, M.P. Vakhrusheva [Balangding, got 1960 into this gear. Page 55].

The difficult situation existed also in literary Khanty language. In the presence of several language groups, the kazymsky dialect was its basis. It was necessary to develop the literary languages and for other linguistic groups. For this purpose in 1940 the bureau of the Khanty-Mansi district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) adopted the resolution by which the decision of a district conference on creation of the uniform literary language of the Khanty people was fixed, on the basis of the average and Ob dialect as middle [GAOPOTUO, T. 107, Op. 1, 532, L. 1]. In parallel with it issues of development of writing for the population of different language groups were resolved. The question of development of writing in vakhovsky dialect was considered at a conference of teachers (10.07.40), in 1940-1941 paid off to begin its practical application. Here the decision to address for methodical support in Institute of peoples of the North [Ishbayev, 1998 was made. Page 30]. In 1941 the director of the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute of peoples of the North also brought up a question of development of literature and writing in the Khanty language. Its scientific-theoretical study, and first of all, the dialects which are been the basis for the literary language was necessary. At that time in Linguistic section NIA INR the specialists in languages were not. In this regard there was a problem with training of translators. In this case training from the structure of the national intellectuals [GAOPOTUO, T was assumed. 107, Op. 1, 532, L. 45]. The district Commission on the leadership in creation of uniform literary Khanty language held a number of the events connected with creation of author's and translation crews. They were created in all Areas of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, their numerical structure was the following: Surgut — 5 people, Laryak — 13, Samarovo — 4, Mikoyanovsky — 6, Beryozovo — 7. The people who were well knowing a spoken language of indigenous people were a part of crews. Their task consisted in collecting folklore material on the basis of which then dictionaries of different dialects had to be formed. At that time at all national schools of the district the dictionary of the Khanty language of Sukhotina which needed to be overworked taking into account collected information was used. In 1941 the first reports [GAOPOTUO, T began to come to the District Commission. 107, 0. 1, 532, L. 7]. Work on learning northern languages was carried out also in the Khanty-Mansi normal school where in 1942 the teacher of the Khanty language P.K. Zhivotikov published "An essay of grammar of the Khanty language" [Balangding, 1960. Page 58].

In the first post-war years due to the lack of shots and financing the issues of creation of Russian textbooks for each national school do not manage to be resolved completely. Despite this, in 1946 the edition of textbooks in the native languages was renewed. In 1946 only D.B. Elkonin's abc-book, general for all schools, was published. For five years it was the main grant on which children of indigenous people studied the initial diploma at Russian. From 1946 to 1949 the textbooks, general for all schools, on Russian were published (grammar and the anthology of reading for 3 and 4 classes), for the 2nd class the manual by D.B. Elkonin [Implementation..., was published 1971. Page 149].

In 1947 in Leningrad the first All-Union scientific conference on finno-ugrovedeniye questions took place, establishment of the acyclic edition "Sovetskoye Finno-ugrovedeniye" where it was planned to publish, first of all, scientific research on languages became result of its work.

Current situation with the edition of scientific and practical literature in the Khanty and Mansi languages, demanded specific actions. The edition during 1947-48 of dictionaries was entrusted to the associate professor of the Leningrad state university A.N. Balandin: Khanty-Russian, Russian-Khanty, Mansi-Russian and Russian-Mansi [GAOPOTUO, T. 107, Op. 1, 1000, L. 89]. In "The certificate of the edition of abc-books in dialects of the Khanty language" it was noted that according to the decision of Board of the Ministry of Public Education of RSFSR (14.10.54), the Head department of schools carried out work on studying a question of need of the edition of abc-books in three dialects of the Khanty language: kazymsky, Surgut and vakhovsky [GAOPOTUO, T. 107, Op. 1, 1884, L. 3]. The issue of creation of abc-books in dialects of the Khanty language was resolved only in 1957. The minister Prosveshcheniya of RSFSR of E. Afanasenko in the order "About an Order of Training of Children at Schools of the Khanty-Mansi National District" (06.03.57) recommended to Academy of Sciences of the USSR (office of language and literature) to include in the plan of work of institute of linguistics of Academy of Sciences of the USSR for 1957 drawing up manuscripts of two abc-books of the Khanty language and also development of manuals for pedagogical normal schools in the Surgut and vakhovsky dialects. It was supposed to carry out this work together with the State Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen. The academy of pedagogical sciences of RSFSR together with Institute of national schools in 1957 started drawing up the abc-book in kazymsky dialect and methodical instructions to it, planning to finish work to

01.06.57 [GAOPOTUO, T. 107, Op. 1, 1884, L. 14]. Work on learning a vakhovsky dialect in the 50th was conducted by the famous scientist-linguist N.I. Tereshkin. In 1958 under its management "The abc-book for a preparatory class" was published. The sound system given in the abc-book in the next decades was lost. Further researches on this dialect were not conducted, preparation and the edition of textbooks stopped [Ishbayev, 1998. Page 35].

The edition of manuals encountered also difficulties of bureaucratic character. For example, the letter from the chief of the Leningrad office Uchpedgiz Bessonov, and the editor-in-chief Letov in whom it was said that they prepared for the edition in 1954 the abc-book and the textbook of the Khanty language for a preparatory class on the basis of a kazymsky dialect came to the Tyumen regional committee of the CPSU (02.02.54). The abc-book was made by teachers A.M. Obatin and N.M. Aksarina who worked at Berezovsky's schools of the Region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. But because the Ministry of Public Education of RSFSR did not receive from the Tyumen regional committee of the CPSU of the response to the request for dialect base of the Khanty language, the commission refused to consider a question of the edition of these textbooks. Because of prolonged decision-making of this problem Uchpedgiz was forced to remove from the plan of the edition for 1954 textbooks and literature for a home reading in the Khanty language, and by the beginning 1954/55 academic years of school were not provided with textbooks. [GAOPOTUO, T. 124, Op. 1, 193, L. 21].

Despite all these difficulties, by 1955 for the indigenous people which had the writing special abc-books of Russian were created. In them the sequence of studying the Russian sounds and letters was defined by features of a phonetic system of the native language of pupils and also specifics of a sound and graphic system of Russian [Boytsova, 1955, page 12]. Russian textbooks for 1 and 2 classes were formed for separate ethnic groups. Textbooks for 3 and 4 classes and also books for reading for 1-4 classes remained the general for all pupils of radical nationalities.

Laryaksky regional committee of the Tyumen region (30.01.57) on the basis of the letter OK of the CPSU of 16.01.57 No. 21, having discussed an issue with workers of national education of the edition of textbooks in vakhovsky dialect, put forward on this matter the following recommendations. First of all it was noted that K.F. Hwatei-Muchi's abc-book in Russian for a preparatory class which schools used was absolutely unsuitable and demanded processing towards reduction and simplification. Within two years this abc-book was used in the practice by teachers and drew the following conclusions: the abc-book could be studied only within one year (in the second half of the year of a preparatory class and the first half of the year of the first class), but not during the one third quarter in a preparatory class as it was supposed training programs. It was also necessary to simplify the book for reading which was used in 1 classes [GAOPOTUO, T. 107, Op. 1, 1884, L. 8-9].


In 1957 at a meeting of workers of national education and teachers of schools of peoples of the North which took place in Leningrad on August 19-24 made the decision on development of the special Russian abc-book for schools at which from the very beginning training was provided in Russian. This abc-book was developed and published in 1960

In 1958 were published in one collection of the program for all subjects of the curriculum, except for programs for the native language. Programs for each language for indigenous people were released by the separate brochure [Implementation., 1971. Page 151-152].

By the end of the 50th considerable results were achieved. From eight dialects used in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug the writing in three dialects was developed: average and Ob and kazymsky the Khanty language and sosvinsky the Mansi language (see the tab.). In these dialects it was supposed to conduct training in Mikoyanovskom, Berezovsky and Surgut areas. The Surgut and Laryaksky (vakhovsky) Khanty had everyone the dialects and did not understand either the average and Ob, nor kazymsky dialects at all. Pupils of national schools of these areas were forced to study at Russian as in their dialects the writing was not created yet.

Thus, existence of dialects in Khanty and in Mansi languages complicated not only communication between various groups, but also was the reason of impossibility of use of the uniform literary languages in the course of training.

In the course of development of the literary languages and studying features of different dialects only those groups of indigenous people for which the writing was developed could study at the native language. During the period from 1917 to 1929 when there was no uniform alphabet even yet, the textbooks created by teachers enthusiasts did not meet requirements imposed to manuals. During the period from 1929 to 1935 the alphabet on a Latin basis was created, but textbooks on its basis did not find broad application at schools. From 1935 to the 40th years, with the advent of the alphabet on the Russian basis, there is a new problem of misunderstanding by different language groups of the uniform writing developed for separate indigenous people. the 40th years of the XX century can be characterized as the period of development of writing and textbooks for different dialectic groups of the Khanty language. The Mansi language on the basis of a sosvinsky dialect could be used by the majority the population as kondinsky Mansi in communication and when training used Russian. As for the Khanty literary language, existence of several dialects led to its misunderstanding by different groups and, therefore, to impossibility of development of uniform manuals in the standard literary language. Despite this, by the end of the 50th of the XX century the scientific learning dialects and attempt of creation of writing for different groups of indigenous people and optimum manuals for national schools of the North was important result.

Dialects on the Areas of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug for June 1, 1950

Areas Language Dialects Number of the population

Surgut Khanty Surgut 1572

kazymskiya * 1272

Mikoyanovsky kazymskiya 1184

average and Ob 1577

Kondinsky southern Ob 692

Berezovsky average and Ob 869

Samarovsky southern Ob 1162

X-M southern Ob 199

Laryaksky vakhovskiya 1345

Berezovsky Mansi sosvinskiya 2159

Mikoyanovsky sosvinsky 322

Kondinsky kondinskiya 1768

X-M kondinsky 89

Samarovsky kondinsky 37

Surgut kondinsky 61

Note. * dialects for which writing was developed are designated.


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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

Article is devoted to studying the course of formation of writing at peoples of the North, processes of preparation and the edition of textbooks in the native languages for national schools of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug in the 20-50th years of the XX century, on the basis of the analysis of materials of the State archive of social and political associations of the Tyumen region. Formation of writing and preparation of textbooks in the native languages faced throughout this period a number of difficulties. Existence of various language dialects in the Khanty and Mansi languages caused impossibility of use of the uniform literary languages which were developed in the 30th years. Therefore there was a search of the adapted writing option for various ethnolinguistic groups, features of dialects were for this purpose studied. Development of textbooks took place in close connection with formation of writing. Initially there was the general literature for all peoples of the North, but, having met difficulties in its practical application, development of special literature for each group of indigenous people began. Scientific learning dialects and attempt of creation of writing for different groups

was important result in these processes

indigenous people and also optimum manuals in the native languages of pupils.

Hede Katharina
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