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To the history of development of military and expert health service in Russia in the 18-19th centuries



UDK 61 (091)

To the HISTORY of DEVELOPMENT of MILITARY and EXPERT HEALTH SERVICE IN RUSSIA In HU1P-H1H CENTURIES

Marat Mukhametsadykovich Nagayev, Vladimir Ivanovich Krasilnikov

A military-medical commissariat (the chief — M.M. Nagayev) the Republic of Tatarstan, Republican hospital (the chief physician — M.V. Kormachev), Kazan

The first data on military-medical practice in Russia are provided in Old Russian historical "Stories about capture of Tsargrad by Turks in 1453" in which it is mentioned delivery of health care to the voivode. This admitted fact confirms presence of the individuals who were engaged in military doctoring. Ivan the Terrible's decree of October 1, 1550 created streletsky troops, and further development of medical care in them was closely connected with activity of the Pharmaceutical order and emergence of court medicine (M.D. Hmy-rov, 1869). Date of establishment of the Pharmaceutical order is discussed, it is considered more reliable 1581 when in Moscow on service there arrived the English physicians and in 1615-1616 in the Russian army of doctors began to enter in lists of the digit order as shtatnykhdolzhnostnykhlitsa (A.Ya. Chistovich, 1883).

The first publications devoted to assessment of the state of health of recruits belong to 1620 when in Russia the Pharmaceutical order as which also medical examination of health of soldiers entered [1] was created. For the first time in Russia on October 4, 1681 doctors manufactured medical examination of Sagittariuses, and the official conclusion about their suitability to military service is drawn [4]. In 1699 in Russia the first recruitment was announced, at the same time in recruits "handed over" young people, obviously unusable on health, and a half of them reached regiments hardly. So, in 1756 43088 recruits were "sentenced" to return in troops, and in shelves arrived twice less — 23571 recruits [2]. In the 19th century (1834) R.S. Chetyrkin formulated rules of medical examination of recruits at receipt them on military service and the organizations of medical examinations not

more rare than two times a month. In Russia in 1889 among defective recruits 2/3 patients with a craw made. The Kazan province on number of sick recruits took the fifth place among other regions of Russia [5]. However date of origin of military-medical service in Russia it is considered to be 1621 when in "The book military about any firing and fiery cunnings..." bases of the organization and rendering medical assistance in the Russian army were for the first time listed. Being the regulating documents for formation in 1630-1632 of regiments of an overseas or "new" system, they became the beginning of the organization of the military-medical commissions (Klyuchevsky B.O.,1923). In the subsequent the rights and duties of regimental doctors were made and devoted to Peter I by the general Veyde in 1698. By the way, military-medical business gained special development at Peter I in connection with establishment in 1706 in Moscow of the first constant hospital and with the organization of activity of other medical ranks which found reflection in "Army regulations" in 1716. The simplest elements of improving actions in the Russian army were put by A.V. Suvorov who, caring for fighting capacity of troops, on one of the first places put health of soldiers, and connected their diseases with living conditions of life. He wrote in the work "The Science to Win" that he follows "the causes of diseases to find not in infirmaries between patients, but between healthy.". Creation in 1805 to the medical expedition of the Ministry of Defence which became since 1867 became a further stage of improvement of military-medical service. Head military-medical department [3].

LITERATURE

1. N.P. Zagoskin. Doctors and medical matter in ancient Russia./N.P Zagoskin. — Kazan, 1891. — 72 pages
2. Kersnovsky AA. History of the Russian army. From Plank beds -
165

you to Paris. 1700-1814. — M, 1992. — T. 1. — 302 pages

3. V.I. Krasilnikov. Current problems of health of men of military age. — Kazan state medical academy. Kazansk publishing house. State. un-that of V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin. the 2nd prod. dopoln. re-slave., 2004. — 282 pages

UDC 61 (091)

4. M.K. Kuzmin. Medicine history. — M.: Medicine, 1978. — 193 pages
5. N.A. Tolmachev. About number of defective recruits for the last six years on materials of reports of medical department//the Doctor. — 1889. — No. 5. — Page 3.

Arrived 01.12.2008

KIND MEMORIES OF HARD TIMES

Lyalya Mukhametovna Ishimova (Moscow)

And girlfriends on life I devote to light memory of Galina Galeevna Akhmadullina of the colleague from science...

We got acquainted at the very beginning of 1943. There was the second military winter — ice cold and hungry. The Red Army just broke through the Siege of Leningrad. Near Stalingrad, heavy fighting continued. And I then studied on the second year of the Kazan medical institute. My many fellow students combined study with work in hospitals, hospitals, scientific institutes. And I decided to work too. Enlisted me the laboratorian in the group of professor Andrey Dmitrievich Ado conducting researches on the basis of Kazan research

institute of epidemiology and microbiology (KNIIEM). Andrey Dmitrievich managing at us department of a pathophysiology called me for himself and asked:

— What is the pasterovsky pipette, know?

By then I already handed over microbiology and bravely answered that I know.

— And you will manage to extend?

I was not able to do this and in general vaguely represented how it is "extended".

— You will go to KNIIEM, you will find doctor Akhmadullina in laboratory of intestinal infections there. Let she you will teach to pull the pipette, to sow culture, to do dabs. Week you will work with it.

Doctor Akhmadullina is very young, black-eyed, very cheerful and fun-loving woman — was on the place. A real name she had Gaysha, but I learned it later — all people around called her Galina Galeev - ache. Having learned about my problems, it took away me to the institute glass blower. The middle-aged man laconic, quite gloomy by sight passed with me in a glass cabin, took seat on a high stool and began to explain knowledge of the business:

— This crane — gasoline vapors. Here —

current of air. This — a torch. You take the glass call...

One-two — and glass in his hands was made red-hot. In several seconds the pipette was ready.

— Understood?

I scaredly nodded.

— Then sit down and pull — and the glass blower left, having slammed behind himself a door.

I began "to pull", but it turned out at me worse than ever. Glass broke, was extended and dripped on a floor. Having ruined a set of tubes, continually burning fingers, I did not manage to manufacture the decent pipette. And when the despair developed into belief of own professional unsuitability, at me suddenly darkened in eyes, the head began to spin, and I crashed down on a floor. Regained consciousness because that someone shook me for shoulders, someone brought to a nose sal ammoniac, and someone — to lips glass with water... Galina Galeevna Eto decided to look how I work, and found me insensible among beaten glass. She made noise, employees ran together and began to pump out me. Fortunately, I quickly recovered, and we went to department to have tea. Then it became clear that the glass blower forgot to include ventilation in a glass cabin, and I got poisoned by fumes. This ridiculous story, of course, could end very nasty — I think that Gaysha saved to me life. Our friendship also began with it.

In glass-blowing I was not sent any more.

Development of elements of microbiological experiments became the following (much more successful) stage of my work: Understand studying bacterial cultures, nutrient mediums, crops in cups, calculation and differentiation of bacteria under a microscope — trained in all this me Gaysh.

Kerrie Lesley
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