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Category: History

Prince Vladimir Staritsky: in a step from a throne


L.Yu. Taymasova



Studying Ivan the Terrible's era, historians pay much attention to a figure of the prince Vladimir Andreevich Staritsky. Its tragic destiny became a classical example of cruelty of the tsar on the attitude not only towards the citizen, but also towards the close relative. The prince Vladimir found an aura of the martyr innocently affected on an evil denunciation.

In a historiography a quarrel reference point between cousins time of a serious illness of the sovereign, March, 1553 when near boyars refused to kiss a cross on fidelity to the juvenile tsarevitch Dmitry is considered and opposed regency of the queen Anastasia Romanova, having supported the prince Staritsky. The prince swore to the tsarevitch "on bondage", conceding to arrangements of boyars. Scientists lean on the words of the interpolator of the Regal book: "And to the ottola to be the hostility Neris to the sovereign with the prince Volodimer Ondreevich, and in boyarekh a distemper and a mutiny" 1.

To considerable confusion of researchers, not only "swaying" of boyars had no consequences, but also the prince Staritsky did not suffer from "hostility" of the sovereign. Relationship of brothers had quite friendly character of 15 more years before came to the end with a tragic outcome. So strange phenomenon can be explained with discrepancy of nature of Ivan the Terrible who generous forgave unauthorized claims of the cousin on the power.

At the same time, comparison of a number of documents gives the grounds to make a hypothesis that in interesting us an interval of time the prince Vladimir Staritsky had bulyny rights for royal regalia, than it it is accepted to think. Already his father, the prince Andrey Ivanovich Staritsky, enjoyed special favor of Vasily III.

The Postnikovsky chronicler gives the detailed description of the last months of life of the grand duke and the nature of its relationship with brothers - an average, the prince Yury, and younger, the prince Andrey. Having been angry with average, Vasily III brought closer to a throne of younger. The prince Andrey was specially called from Moscow and accompanied the grand duke on a trip on Dragged also on a bogomolya in Iosifov the monastery in the fall of 1533. It was

near the brother during his disease and an agony, held under hands Elena Glinskaya sobbing at a bed dying muzha2.

To the younger brother and anger on average reflections could not but find goodwill in the will of the grand duke. Being on Voloka, seriously ill Vasily III enjoined to burn the spiritual testament which is secretly delivered from Moscow, and made the draft of the new will. The document was processed and signed on arrival to the capital. The chronicle pays special attention to structure of poslukh, zasvidetelstovavshy the spiritual testament. Princes Yury and Andrey were informed of its contents. Perhaps, according to tradition of creation of baking sheets of the major state aktov3, for brothers copies of the document were made.

Any copy of the will of Vasily III did not remain, however further events give the grounds to assume that increase in possession of the prince Staritsky due to transfer of Volotsky lands to it was provided in the document. And also, in case of childless death of the prince Yury Ivanovich, - Dmitrovsky destiny with Zvenigorod and the Moscow yard "in the city", got to volume when sharing with brothers, according to Ivan III4's will.

After sorokovin from the date of Vasily III's death, the prince Staritsky asked humbly the grand duke Ivan IV and his mother Elena Glinskaya about transfer of the Volotsky cities and lands to him, according to the last will brata5. It to it it was refused. Instead of expansion of destiny, it received horses, a harness, fur coats and other "stuff". The fur coat from a royal shoulder for the subordinated person was an award, for equal - insult dostoinstva6. Without having endured offense, the prince Andrey went to Staritsa. Here, on July 9, 1534 his wife, the princess Efrosinya, gave birth to the son Vladimir.

On August 3, 1536 the prince Yury Ivanovich died in an imprisonment, without having left posterity. Dmitrovsky destiny with Zvenigorod was taken in monarchic treasury. Probably, the requirement of the prince Andrey to transfer it destiny of the brother, according to Vasily III's will, caused the first large quarrel of Staritsky with Elena Glinskaya. The quarrel came to the end by the beginning of 1537 with reconciliation and signing of the krestotselovalny diploma. Laying "hand" to the document, the prince Andrey swore truly to serve the grand duke Ivan Vasilyevich and his mother Elena Glinskaya "on the father of our Grand Duke Ivan the spiritual testament and to the stomach" 7.

Referring in krestotselovalny record to the spiritual testament of Ivan III, the prince Staritsky thereby recognized this document more authoritative, than the will of the brother. The prince Andrey swore to follow a precept of the father who urged the younger sons to listen in everything to the senior and threatened with a parental damnation to that which "uchnt under it podjiskivat of grand duchies or under its detm, or uchnt from it otstupat, or uchnt ssylatisya with whom awake secretly or obviously on it it is dashing, or uchnut whom on it podjimat or with whom uchnut on it odinachitisya, do not awake Eno on

it God's favor, both Prechistye Bogomateri, and Saints the wonder-worker of a prayer, and the parent of ours, and our blessing and in these a century and in budushch".

Putting the family press, the prince Andrey automatically undertook to follow also other precepts of Ivan III. Including to the following: "And which my son will not become, but at him there will be neither left son, nor the grandson, Eno his destiny all in the Moscow earth and in the Tfersky earth that to it gave esm, everything to the son my Vasilyyu, and his brothers at it in that destiny do not stand up" 8. Thus, signing the krestotselovalny diploma with reference to the will of the father, the prince Andrey refused the claims on Dmitrovsky destiny. Probably, after some time someone from the immediate environment of the prince pointed to this legal subtlety. The conflict erupted with a new force in several months, having developed into open opposition to the authorities.

Formal the order given in the spring of 1537 on behalf of Elena Glinskaya who disposed to send from Staritsky destiny of noblemen and children seigniorial for guard service to Kolomna was the reason. The prince Andrey regarded command of the ruler as the unauthorized, violating its specific rights, and sent the boyar F.D. Pronsky "to the grand duke to Ivan and to his mother to the grand duchess Elena Beaty a forehead about the great offenses". Moscow detained "truce envoy", to a chelobitya the sovereign did not accept.

Having received the message about Pronsky's fate and "having had been through a lot for the great offenses", the prince Andrey considered himself free from God kissing and made the decision to drive off to Lithuania. On Novgorodskaya Road it was intercepted by the prince I.F. Telepnev-Obolensky with group of noblemen. The prince Andrey "opolchishasya and a voskhotesha with voivodes from the grand duke bitisya". Telepnev-Obolensky was let to cunning: kissed a cross that the prince and his people will be let go in peace in udel9. To the rebellious prince also Dosifey, the archbishop Sarsky and Podonsky were sent, and to betray the Phylofairies, the archimandrite Simonovsky who received an order from the metropolitan Daniil in case of resistance and no-show of the prince Andrey to Moscow its church proklyatiyu10.

Frightened by threat of an anathema, the prince Staritsky went to the capital. Moscow seized him and ground in a dungeon, the princess Efrosinyyu put "in Bersenevskaya the yard", and the juvenile son alienate "Fedora Karpova to observe". The ancestral lands wrote in monarchic treasury. In half a year, December 11, 1537, the prince Andrey Ivanovich Staritsky died in fetters, under "an iron cap" of the foolish. Mockery over the captivated prince, probably, symbolized incompetence of his claims on Dmitrovsky the destiny transferred at grand dukes Vasily II Temnom and Ivan III to the second sons (the prince Andrey was the fifth) that was regarded as "a podyskivaniye of grand duchies".

In the night of April 4, 1538 the grand duchess Elena Glin-skaya died. According to Gerberstein, the reason of her death became yad11. Seven days later the prince I.F. Telepnev-Obolensky was ground in a dungeon.

On the death of the ruler and Telepnev-Obolensky's elimination in the fate of the widow of the prince Staritsky there were changes. Returned to the princess Efrosinye the four-year-old son: "And at Fedor at Karpov reign Ondreev the son stayed a little, and from Fedor he was taken yes to mother it put in tyn" 12. Passed not less than a year more before Staritsky were let out from custody. In December, 1539 the grand duke Ivan Vasilyevich on the advice of the metropolitan of Ioasafa13 and "trade" of Sylvester, the priest Blagoveschensky sobora14, released the princess and a knyazhich, having enjoined to translate them "on reign Ondreevjskoy the yard". Next year, palace villages and specific lands were returned to them, however on key posts "on the cities and volosts" were put monarchic prikazchiki15.

The legal independence of Staritskiye was received four years later: On May 5, 1544 the 10-year-old prince Vladimir Andreevich welcomed Afanasy Karachev not judged diploma on the village of Bezsolino in Starits-kom uyezde16. It was specified in the document that in case of property claims to Karachev the right of court is reserved by the prince Vladimir: "... Them I judge Eno yaz the prince Volodimer Andreevich or my boyar vvede-ache" 17. The given formula "I judge them yaz the prince... or my boyar it is entered y" is the certificate that the prince Staritsky completely owned the specific rights concerning a system sudoproizvodstva18.

In the next three years of Staritskiye acquired the special status at the sovereign's person. At a wedding of the tsar Ivan IV with Anastasia Romanova, February 3, 1547, the prince Vladimir was "in tysetsky", and the princess Efrosinya sat "to materino place". During the 1st Kazan campaign (December, 1547 - February, 1548) the sovereign left the cousin the head of the government in Moscow: "And about all the delekh the tsar and the grand duke ordered to come to the prince Volo a dimeasure to Ondreevichyu and the boyars to Mokaryyu to the metropolitan, and diplomas were written by the sovereign to the prince Volodimer Ondreevichyu". Going to the 2nd campaign to Kazan in November, 1549, the tsar entrusted the prince Vladimir the capital and the queen Anastasia with the newborn daughter, the tsarevna Anna again: "released the prince Volodimer Ondreevich to Moscow and ordered to be to him on Moscow and put svoyevo to protect, and with him the tsar and the grand duke boyars" 19.

Upon return from a campaign, in May, 1550, the tsar "kept saying to marry" the cousin to Evdokiye Aleksandrovna Nagoy. The wedding was preceded by shows in which the groom participated: "And the Maya in the 24th day a week the Tsar and the Prince Volodimer of maids looked and fell in love with the daughter of Nago-va" 20. Thus, the specific prince married not on "sentence", and at own choice as the brother of the sovereign. Celebrations took place on the royal yard. Ivan IV sat "in ottsovo the place". The queen Anastasia "scratched the head" neveste21.

In two months after wedding feasts the royal couple was comprehended by misfortune: in July, 1550 the tsarevna Anna died. After the message about the death of the tsarevna, the Piskarevsky chronicler tells about the big contribution made by command of the sovereign in September of the same year: was pozlashchen to a dome of cathedral of the Dormition of the Theotokos and the bell "Swan", weighing 2,200 poods is merged. Further, being sharply beaten out from the chronological sequence, the head "About spiritual grand dukes" in which the chronicler lists the poslukh certifying wills of grand dukes Vasily Dmitrievich and Vasily Vasilyevich follows: "The grand duke has Vasilya Dmitre-evicha in spiritual a prikashchika Karol of Lithuanian Vitovg yes boyars the prince Yuryi Patrekeevich, that the first in Golitsyn left from Novagorod and Ivan Dmit-reevich, Mikhaylo Andreevich, Ivan Fedorovich, Fedor Ivanovich. In spiritual the grand duke Vasilya Vasilyevich boyars the prince Ivan Yuryevich Golitsyn, Vasiley Ivanovich, Fedor Vasilyevich" 22 are written.

Comparison of the given names to the list of poslukh in spiritual testaments known to researchers yields curious result. The first group of persons was present when signing the second (from three remained) wills of the velkiky prince Vasily Dmitrievich made in July, 1417 after the death of his eldest son Ivan. According to will of the prince, the juvenile successor Vasily and his mother were charged to cares of the father-in-law and younger brothers: "And I order the son, the prince Vasilya, and the princess, and the children to the brother and tistyu, to the grand duke Vitovt as mi rekl, on Bosa yes on him as sya imt pechalovat, and the brothers it is young - necks, to the prince Ondrey Dmitreevichyu, both the prince Pyotr Dmitreevichyu, and the prince Kostyantin Dmitreevichyu, and the prince Semyon Volodimerovichyu, and the prince Yaras-lavu Volodimerovichyu, and their brothers on their dokonchanye as mi rekl" 23.

The second group of persons listed in the Piskarevsky chronicler does not correspond to that list which is specified in the only spiritual testament of the grand duke Vasily II Temny which reached our time. In the will made in 1461-1462, the grand duke gave children for guardianship of the wife Maria Yaroslavna Borovskaya (coming on the mother's side from a sort Cat's, further - Zakharyinykh-Yurye-vykh-Romanov): "I order the children to the princess. And you, my children, live zaodin, and the mother listen in everything, to my place, the father". In the document the following names of poslukh are specified: "the archimandrite spassky Trifon and the simanovsky archimandrite Afonasey and my boyars, the prince Ivan Yuryevich and Ivan Ivanovich and Vasiley Ivanovich and Fedor Vasilyevich", in the assigned diploma - "archimandrite Trifon yes my boyars, prince Ivan Yuryevich da Fedor Mikhaylovich" 24. At the same time it is known that some days before death (on March 27, 1462) Vasily Temny ordered to execute children seigniorial the Bohr prince Vasily, suspected of a plot. Probably, other spiritual testament in which his wife lost guardianship was made at this time, and witnessed

"Ivan Yuryevich Golitsyn, Vasiley Ivanovich, Fedor Vasilyevich". The last is obvious, the will which did not reach our days, the author of the Piskarevsky chronicler meant, listing names of poslukh.

Breaking chronology of statement of events an extract of names of poslukh from spiritual testaments of grand dukes, the compiler of the chronicle, undoubtedly, pursued quite definite purpose: first, to let know to the informed reader that in September, 1550 Ivan IV revised wills of the ancestors and on their basis made own spiritual testament, and secondly, to specify what documents formed the basis of the will of the sovereign and what his contents was.

Thus, it is possible to claim with high probability that after the death of the tsarevna Anna, in September, 1550, Ivan IV made the spiritual testament according to which appointed trustees of future child (the queen Anastasia was three months pregnant) the brothers - native Yury Vasilyevich and cousin Vladimir Andreevich Staritsky - and eliminated regents the queen Anastasia Romanovna Koshkina-Zakharyina.

it is unconditional, such will was equitable to Staritsky' interests as in case of the death of the tsar and at the incapacitated prince Yury Vasilyevich the management of the state actually passed to the prince Vladimir.

The decision about appointment of the prince Staritsky was the head of tutorial council reasonable.

The prince Vladimir found big authority by then. The beginning of the 1550th is characterized by surge in legislative activity of the tsar in which all undertakings his cousin took part. Documents draw the prince Staritsky not only the active statesman, but also the outstanding commander. Together with skilled voivodes he took part in the Councils of War and made an important contribution to development of the plan of the 3rd Kazan campaign (April-July, 1551) providing gaining the khanate by occupation of river ways and economic blockade of Kazan.

The digit book underlines a high position of the prince Vladimir during the 4th, "Great", Kazan campaign, nothing inferior to royal. Before decisive fight both received equivalent blessings from the metropolitan Makari: the sovereign - "an image prechisty the Mother of God honest eya an Assumption; with gold and beads it is decorated", the prince Vladimir - "an image prechisty the Mother of God honest eya the Annunciation, is decorated with gold and beads; and holy water from chyudotvornyya Pyotr's crayfish of the wonder-worker" 25.

The paired relationship of the icons embroidered in beads speaks well for the fact that they left one "front room", and, most likely, were products of skilled workers of the princess Efrosigni. Blessing of the prince Vladimir a pair icon and water from Saint Pyotr's crayfish made special symbolical sense. Since Ivan Kalita the Moscow princes "blessed eldest sons

the, successors of a grand-ducal throne" cervical cross chudotvortsa26. The father of the prince Vladimir, the prince Andrey Ivanovich (the fifth son on the account), received under the will of the father blessing not by a cross, unlike elder brothers, and an icon "gold a crucifixion, is forced finifty with Kama-nyem and from a zhemchyuga" 27. Thus, blessing the spiritual children with pair icons and holy water from Pyotr wonder-worker's crayfish, the metropolitan Makari recognized the prince Vladimir Staritsky as equal to position of the brother of the sovereign, the second in seniority. The new status granted to the prince Vladimir the right to Dmitrovsky destiny.

For the Cover holiday, with 1 for October 2, Kazan was taken by Prechista Bogomateri, and the tsar "joyfully kissed the brother of the prince Volodymyr Ondreevich". Besides capture of Kazan in October, 1552 one more happy event came true: at the sovereign the son Dmitry was born. Upon return to Moscow the tsar in public thanked the prince Staritsky: "God this committed yours, the prince Volodimer Andreevich care and all our troops suffering and a national prayer, awake Lord's will!" The sovereign generously presented boyars and soldiers of people with fur coats and cups "without number", having allocated from treasury "48 thousand rubles" 28. Besides, the ancestral lands, estates and feedings was distributed. "And the prince Volodymyr Andreevich favored monarchic fur coats and great fryazsky cups and ladles golden" 29.

Undoubtedly, the prince Vladimir regarded royal gifts as humiliation of its advantage because he waited that the increase in its status which received blessing from the metropolitan will be legally enshrined in Ivan IV's will made after the birth of the tsarevitch Dmitry. Respectively, Dmitrovsky destiny will depart in its use. Calculations of the prince Vladimir and his mother did not come true, and between brothers the cooling which then developed into open disobedience of supporters of the prince Staritsky was outlined.

In the state "not building" began spring of the next year. The author Letopistsa Russkogo connects "fire cannot" the tsar with the disturbing news received from the Kazan lands, placing both messages under one heading: "Messages from Sviyazhsk and a disease of the sovereign". As a link the compiler used the quote which sends the reader to the third episode preceding two first: to appearance of Matvei Bashkin who laid the foundation for case of heresy of the Zavolzhye aged men.

In a chronological order of an event developed so. In the Lent, that is on February 13, to the priest of the Kremlin Annunciation Cathedral Simeon a certain son seigniorial Matvei Bashkin came to a confession and expressed that the doubts concerning morality. He reminded the priest his duty to observe flock and to keep Christ's commandment: "Love the iskryanny as to". In a week, February 20, in the capital received news from Sviyazhsk of a revolt of "the Orsk and meadow people" which led to the actual loss of gains in Kazan, and on March 1 the sovereign got sick with a "fire" disease.

The chronicler unites these events, explaining "not building" in Kazan and "infirmity" of the God's tsar with punishment for arrogance and ingratitude: "And in us proud words, but not grateful were, iuchal of persons are wise byst, having forgotten an evangilsky word: hto hoshcht in this world it is wise life, a buoy yes will be" 30. The compiler almost literally quoted the aged man of Artemiya31 brought to church court in December of the same year in the matter of Bashkin. Obviously, according to contemporaries, Ivan IV's disease was God's punishment for the ingratitude shown in relation to the neighbor whose care got a victory over Kazan - to the prince Vladimir.

The tsar was so bad that all were ready to death: "the Izh to a niktozha already to it life hoped" 32. The clerk Viskovaty "to a vspomyan to the sovereign about spiritual; the sovereign enjoin spiritual make, always bo to a byasha at gosudry this is ready" 33. Probably, it was talked of the will made in October, 1552 after the birth of the tsarevitch Dmitry.

From the words of the interpolator of the Regal book it is possible to understand that after the tsar disposed "to make" the will, somebody advised to swear in boyars and noblemen, and in the last turn - the prince Vladimir. Most likely, such measure was caused by the fact that the contents of the "ready" spiritual testament were contrary to the interests of the prince Staritsky. In the evening of the same day in the presence of Ivan IV the cross was kissed by the clerk Viskovaty, the prince I.F. Mstislavsky, the prince V.I. Vorotynsky and other "near" people. Next day the oath from other boyars was taken by the prince Vorotynsky, and the clerk Viskovaty held a cross.

Disagreements arose for the third day of a disease of the sovereign when the contents of the will became known to a wide range court. Some of men of weight, including princes Dmitry Kurlyatev, Ivan Prons-ky, Ivan Rostovsky, the treasurer N. Funikov, the priest Sylvester and others, expressed discontent and evaded from God kissing. They did not want to swear Romanov, including the candidate for the prince Staritsky more acceptable as the regent.

The prince Vladimir was called to kiss a cross on the last turn. The boyars who swore by then forced him to swear an oath: "And an odva of the prince Volodymyr forced a tselovata cross, and kissed a cross on bondage". However his mother, the princess Efrosinya, refused to apply the family press to the document. Three times boyara went to it, but heard from it only "abusive speeches". Negotiations of royal parliamentarians with the princess Staritskoy were completed no later than March 12. The princess gave the press, but added that the oath given "on bondage" means nothing. Formally the truth was on the party of the princess for two reasons. Waugh-first, there was a Post during which was forbidden to give klyatvu34. Volodymyr, the prince Vladimir did not reach 20-letnesh age (was born on July 9, 1534) for execution of the procedure of a krestotselovaniye that was considered as the oath "on bondage" 35.

Sources do not report on what conditions the princess Efrosinya made concessions, but, undoubtedly, the reached agreement received reflection in the document dated on March 12, 1553. Signing krestotselovalny record and hanging up to it the family press "on a crimson snurk", the prince Vladimir not only swore an oath on fidelity to the tsar, the queen Anastasia and the tsarevitch Dmitry, but also stipulated the specific rights according to which it could hold "voivodes with people" and also "to administer justice on old times in the truth" 36.

However in several months the God kissing became invalid: On June 6 the tsarevitch Dmitry died. The baby drowned in time bogomolya a royal couple, on the Sheksna River, in close proximity to the Goritsky Monastery arranged with works of the princess Staritskoy. Due to the death of the successor, changes were made to the spiritual testament of the tsar. The document is lost, but it is possible to claim with high probability that the interests of the prince Vladimir in it were considered fully. The tsar made concessions Staritsky, being afraid of God's anger as the queen Anastasia carried under heart of the child granted on a prayer at a coffin of the Reverend Nikita of Stolpnika37. To fall of 1553 when pregnancy of the queen did not raise doubts, Staritskiye towered at court more than ever before.

The new status of the prince Vladimir and his mother received confirmation de facto at a wedding of the tsar Semion Kasimovich with Maria Kutuzova who took place on November 5-7, 1553. After a mylna the young spouse "sent druzhek with porridge to the tsar, to the prince Yury and to the prince of Volodimerovy mother of Andreevich to the princess Afrosinye and to the prince Volodimer Andreevich". Young people asked blessings not only from the sovereign and metropolitan Makari, but also from the princess Efrosigni. Newlyweds and their put parents presented each other with rich fabrics, it is obvious from stocks of "front room" of the princess of Staritskaya: 14 types of "Boer and Veneditsky" barkhat, a lump and altabasov38 are listed in the wedding category.

In the put time, March 28, 1554, at the sovereign the son was born. The baby was christened Ivan on April 15 in Chudovo the monastery. After this the sovereign made the new spiritual testament, having appointed the prince Vladimir together with the metropolitan Makari the executor and the head of tutorial council to achievement of the 20 anniversary by tsarevitch Ivan. In case of the death of the tsar and his children the prince Staritsky appeared the heir to the throne, at the same time he was obliged to mark out destiny to the queen Anastasia. These conditions, with reference to Ivan IV's will, are entered in the text of new krestotselovalny record of the prince Staritsky which that signed in April, 1554 39

As well as the krestotselovalny diploma of 1553, the new document it is made in the form of the contract stipulating not only a duty of the prince Vladimir to serve faithfully to the tsar, the queen and children, but also the specific rights of the prince. The contract included point which is absent in the previous document: the prince Vladimir swore "not to listen to the mat -

ri if it uchnt you direct on dashingly" at the tsar, the queen, the tsarevitch, boyars and clerks mentioned in the spiritual testament of the sovereign. The oath was strengthened by imposing of a church damnation in case of "crime of a word".

The prince Vladimir signed the document and sealed, however conditions of krestotselovalny record not in everything suited the princess of Starits-kuyu. Disagreements arose, in particular, concerning point limiting number of people whom the prince was free to hold at himself on a farmstead.

Negotiations continued about a month. In May the prince Vladimir Andreevich signed the third krestotselovalny diploma. Text volume it exceeded previous a little, and, according to researchers, in it the corresponding changes made to the spiritual testament of Ivan of IV40 received reflection. The new document is expanded due to change of the separate formulations specifying the specific rights of the prince Staritsky. In the diploma the exact number of servants whom that had the right to hold on the Moscow yard of-108 people is specified, and the others - in the ancestral lands.

The name of the prince Yury which also should have marked out destiny was entered into a counterbalance, into point where obligations of the prince Vladimir as the executor made a reservation, besides the queen Anastasia: "And God and your son, the tsarevitch Ivan will take, and there will be no other your child of our Sovereign left, and me yours, the Sovereign, the order all will correct to your queen of the Grand duchess Anastasia and your brother prince Yury Vasilyevich, on yours the Sovereign to the sincere diploma and on this God kissing, about everything how the Sovereign in the sincere diploma wrote es to them". Obviously, it was talked of allocation to the prince Yury of the Uglich destiny bequeathed to it by the father, the grand duke Vasily of III41.

The most important change was made to a final part of the krestotselovalny diploma. Promising "not to listen" to the mother if she takes in head "to intend which dashing" over the tsar, the queen, the tsarevitch or boyars, the prince called to the own harm: "ino zbudisya it is necessary me how the grandfather our Prince Great Ivan wrote an oath and a neblagoslovenye to my father in the sincere diploma" 42. Thus, the prince Vladimir, like the father, the prince Andrey, recognized privilege of the will of Ivan III, and, therefore, swore "not to look for the grand duchy" and also the destiny automatically refused any claims on Dmitrovsky.

Probably, repeated deception, this time - the ingenuous prince Vladimir, caused angry indignation of the princess Efrosigni. History of 1537 repeated in 17 years. Obviously, also Staritsky' supporters did not stand aside. Their discontent soon developed into "swaying" and a zamyshleniye of high treason.

Data on secret negotiations reign with Lithuania were opened in two months, in July, 1554 when trial on the case of escape of the prince Nikita Lobanov-Rostovsky began. The prince Nikita was seized in That -

ropets it is also interrogated with addiction. He admitted the intercourses with Lithuanians and intention "to drive off from the sovereign". Then details about secret intrigues which affected the course of diplomatic negotiations of Russia and Lithuania in August, 1553 emerged. In this regard "the prince Semyon Zvyaga Lobanov-Rostovsky was taken in interrogation". That confessed that issued to the Lithuanian ambassador Dovoyna important information, reported "the tsar's thought" therefore negotiations ended with failure: Russians were forced to make concessions to Lithuanians and instead of "everlasting peace" to call a truce for two years. Further the role of the princess Efrosigni in "swaying" of boyars was opened during a disease of the sovereign in the spring of 1553. The authorities received data

about its secret intercourses with princes Shchenyatyevy, Turuntay-Pronsky, Kurakin, Dmitry Nemy, Silver and "others many". As the prince Semyon Zvyaga reported, "and to me on a farmstead priyezzhivat (the Person. - L.T.) from the princess Ofrosigni and from the prince Volodimer Ondreevich that I went to the prince Volodimer you serve and perezyvat people" 43.

The prince Semyon was sentenced to death. However on a prayer of the metropolitan Makari the tsar softened a sentence: the execution was replaced with exile to Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Opala had to concern inevitably and Staritsky, but they avoided punishment. Moreover, the tsar himself went to bow to the cousin.

force majeure could serve

as the Reason for that.

As reports the chronicle, solemn consecration of wooden cathedral of the Cover on the Ditch in honor of the Kazan victory with unusually large number of side-altars took place on October 1, 1554 (seven) for which "a prine-sosha images chyudotvornyya a mnogiya" 44. In a week, October 8, the sovereign left Moscow to the palace village of Cherkizovo. Being there, he unexpectedly made the decision to go to the North: "posoglyadat craved" for the Klin forests. Royal "train" went to Klin, then through Dragged to Mozhaisk, and from there - to the village Goroden. With all possible haste the royal family arrived to a farmstead of the prince Vladimir where the touching meeting of cousins took place. "And the prince Volodimer Ondreevich of the great sovereign met. Both the tsar and the grand duke of the brother prince Volodymyr Ondreevich welcomed, ate bread and feasted in Volodya Merowe knyazha a mudflow in Gorodna" 45.

Sources are held back motives which forced Ivan IV to temper justice with mercy and instead of imposing disgrace, to treat kindly the cousin. However Ivan Timofeev in the Vremennike connects together bringing to Moscow of a large number of shrines and a disease of the tsarevitch Ivan: "It is unfair to conceal also the following: when at chest age the baby (the Tsarevitch Ivan. - L.T.) got sick and when for the sake of his healing from all their earth were taken down to one place (many shrines) for molebny singing, in the middle of this meeting God as it is reported in the written life of the Saint, glorified the flatterer Nikita: water from chains

the Saint wonder-worker Nikita, consecrated in a vessel when the adolescent's hand over it was given, immediately, among other brought there water, boiled. Marvelous miracle! Then together with perfusion by water the baby recovered, health overcame a disease, and till last days of life the Saint in all circumstances protected the adolescent from that time" 46.

Thus, by the beginning of October, 1554 in the state "not building" was found, and the 6-month-old tsarevitch Ivan was seriously ill. Besides, conquest of Astrakhan hung by a thread, the tsar with nervousness expected messages about results of a summer campaign against the khan Yamgurchey. History of 1553 repeated: the Heavenly penalty - the death of the heir to the throne just about had to overtake the tsar. Perhaps, threats of death of the firstborn of the God's popushcheniye also were those "children's strashila" by which, according to Ivan IV, he was frightened by Silvestr47. Following "crafty advice of the priest" the sovereign went for reconciliation with the cousin and his mother and visited relatives in the village Goroden.

Nevertheless one of family members prince Staritsky was comprehended by disgrace in the fall of 1554. Probably, on the wife of the prince Vladimir, Eudoxia Aleksandrovna Naguyu, suspicion in "targeting fell it is dashing" on royal family. Most likely, she was violently tonsured and banished to the monastery - half a year later the prince Vladimir he was already single. On its care there were three juvenile children: Vasily, Eudoxia and newborn Maria. Not it is clear, whether it was caught in "are dashing" the princess Efrosinya, but from now on her name disappears from wedding categories. In April, 1555 the prince Vladimir married second marriage - Eudoxia Romanovna Odoyevskaya. The sovereign gave the cousin "from himself", but this time - without shows, and a name of mother of the groom in wedding painting not upomyanuto48.

If the female half of family of Staritsky fell into disgrace, then the royal anger did not concern the prince Vladimir. In the next several years he took active part in public affairs. In June, 1555 seigniorial children of the specific prince were in "a big regiment" in a campaign to Tula "on the Crimean messages" 49, in June, 1556 under its management there passed a set of troops for the Livonian campaign. Thanks to zeal of the prince Staritsky the unknown number of ratnik, "a hedgehog before this not byst" 50 was taken. However intention of the tsar to be at war Livonia was apprehended in the immediate environment extremely disapprovingly. In the message to Kurbsky Ivan IVuprekal of those who opposed his ox: "The same ubo nachen-shes to war, a hedgehog on Germana... to the priest ubo to Selivestr and with you the advisers about that on us Luth nalezhashche, and a hedgehog ubo, trespassings for the sake of our, happening diseases on us both on our queen and on chadekh ours and this ubo all to a vmenyakh like them for the sake of, ours to them disobedience this to a byvakh!" 51

Sylvester threatened with new penalties for arrogance, new diseases while the queen Anastasia was pregnant with the boy. The sovereign on -

went for reconciliation with the princess Staritskoy: probably, transfer of a number of volosts of Dmitrovsky the county to the prince of Vladimiru52 belongs by this time. By the beginning of 1557 the tsar won the back to the princess Efrosinye. In January many gifts of Ivan IV Sredi them were sent to the Athos Hilandarsky monastery the katatsetazma of a board, on it images of the Lord our Jesus Christ and Prechistyya his Bogomateri, both Forerunner Ioann, and many Saints is mentioned ", and to the chyuena it is created by sewing golden and srebry and a mnogiya of a chink" 53. Judging by the description of a veil to church doors, so complex multifigured composition was executed in "front room" of the princess Staritskaya.

The tsarevitch Fedor was born on May 11, 1557

With the birth of the second son necessary additions about the section of possession between children were made to the spiritual testament of the sovereign. Possibly, there was a matter of Dmitrovsky's fate destiny which, by tradition, was referred to the second sons, and had to depart to the tsarevitch Fedor. There are no documentary evidences about what Ivan IV's order was, but from further events follows that if not all Dmitrovsky destiny, then a part it - the Moscow farmstead of the late prince Yury Ivanovich Dmitrovsky - was bequeathed to the sovereign's brother, the incapacitated prince Yury Vasilyevich. Possibly, the legal precedent when Dmitrovsky's part destiny had to depart, contrary to tradition, not the second son of the tsar, but his brother was created. In case of the childless death of the prince Yury the disputed lands could be transferred to the cousin of the tsar - the prince Vladmir. The prince Yury Vasilyevich and his wife Ulyaniya of 12 years lived in childless marriage, and, in connection with an illness of the spouse, the probability of the birth of the child was extremely small.

However in a year the situation changed.

In June, 1558 the two-year-old tsarevna Eudoxia died. By surprising coincidence, in the same month - June, according to calendar calculations, the spouse of the prince Yury Vasilyevich, Ulyaniya at last "incurred". In March, 1559 the prince Vladimir was present at a baptism of the nephew Ivan IV - Vasily Yuryevich. In this regard a joyful event the prince Yury, probably, made own will, having written all the lands to the newborn son. The relevant amendments were made to the spiritual testament of the tsar then in his relations with the prince Staritsky there occurred noticeable cooling.

1 October, 1559 in Moscow national celebrations - consecration of the stone temple of the Cover on the Ditch erected in honor of the Kazan victory were held. At consecration there was all royal family, the prince Yury, baptized tsars Kazan Alexander (Utemish-Girey) and Semion (Ediger-Magmet). But name of the prince Vladimir not upomyanuto54. Two months later, on Nikola winter (on December 6), in Mozhaisk ached?

Charles Carr
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