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Category: History

Union of rural societies Antl-Ratl

b. M. Guseynova


Work is presented by department of history of Dagestan of the Dagestan state university. The research supervisor — the doctor of historical sciences, professor A.I. Omarov

In article the geographic location of the union of rural communities Antl-Ratl, his borders, the territory and ethnic structure is considered.

B. Guseinova


The geographic situation of the Antl-Ratl alliance of rural communities, its borders, territory and ethnic composition are considered in the paper.

The history of the unions of rural societies, their place in the system of feudal society of Dagestan — one of complex problems of the Dagestan history. Researchers of history of Dagestan were always interested in a phenomenon of the unions of rural communities.

The unions of rural communities played an important role in all spheres of public life of the people of Dagestan and in many respects defined features of historical development of the people of Dagestan throughout many centuries. Level of social development of the Dagestan society was defined substantially by appropriate level of development of the unions of rural communities of the mountain country.

In the territory of Avars and small nationalities of the Avarian group were raspolo-

wives three federations of the unions of communities: Antl-Ratl, Unkratl, Dido.

The unions of rural societies Avars called "бо" (army), Dargins — "herd" or "h1ureba" (army, a militia), Lezgians — "couple" (part), Tabasarans — "мягьял" (magal). At antlratl-ets were known Ljebelal bo (Gvedysh center), T1omral bo (Kolob center), Kyondol bo (Kamiluk center), Bugyundil bo (Gintib center), Tash-dil bo (Mazada center) [2, page 229].

The union Antl-Ratl (Ank-Rak, i.e. Semi-zemelye) in the West bordered on Dido, in the south — on dzharo-belokanets, in the east — on the unions of communities Kyenserukh and Penalties. From the North there were "different Lezghin tribes: khe-le, slantwise, tomsuda, bakhtukh and others..." [9, page 319].

The union of rural societies — Antl-Ratl

At the beginning of the 30th of the 19th century I.I. Nordenstam considered that Antl-Ratl's borders "are very not certain... Approximately, it is possible to assume that Antl-Ratl has in length from 50 to 60 versts and as much in width that makes about 2500 sq. versts" [9, page 319].

The federation of Semizemelye by the beginning of the 19th century included already 9 unions of communities: Tash — 27 settlements, 1120 yards; Antsukh — 21 settlements, 1000 yards; Antslus (Antsroso) — 7 settlements, 770 yards; The Kapucha (Kuanal) — 9 settlements, 720 yards; To Bokhn — 8 settlements, 630 yards; Tkhe-bel (Tkhodokolo) — 9 settlements, 300 yards; Dzhurmouth — 8 settlements, 290 yards; Khenada — 5 settlements, 200 yards; Ukhnada — 5 settlements, 185 yards [9, page 320-324].

E.I. Kozubsky as a part of Antl-Ratl calls two more societies: Toms, located on Tomsud's gorge — 11 settlements and Braids, to the west of Toms, on the left coast Avarian Koysu,-7 settlements [8, page 27]. Also D.M. Magomedov adheres to the same point of view [8, page 28].

According to field data of D.M. Magomedov, the territory of society Tomsuda served other unions of communities as the place of the reference for serious offenses [8, page 29].

The union Tash was subdivided territorially into top, average and lower [8, page 28]. As A. Berger noted, on the population and on power it was much more considerable than others, 27 of its settlements and otselok, except for villages. Orota, were located along the right bank of the river Kudiyab-Or [4, page 258]. "One from another not in a long distance, beginning from the natural boundary Rokhobotl, or connections of both sleeves Kudiyab-Aura" [9, page 321].

Antsukh and Kapucha once made the uniform union of rural societies which broke up by words I.I. Nordenstam, "80 — 100 years ago" [9, page 323], i.e. somewhere in the middle of the 18th century. "This society was the strongest in Antl-Ratle and was famous in all Dagestan for the power and wealth" [9, page 323]. Also A. Berger held the similar opinion: "The Antsukho-Kapucha was considered as heart and a stronghold not only Antl-Ratlya, but also all Dagestan; all accesses to it are protected by the whole system of strong stone blockages, towers and strengthenings" [4, page 259].

On spurs of Greater Caucasus Range, to the northwest from Dzharo-Belokan, the union Bokhnod (Bokhna) from 9 settlements was located [8, page 29] (I.I. Nordenstam has 8 settlements) [9, page 321].

The union of communities Tlebel (Tkhebel) or Tkhodokolo adjoining to Antsroso and Bokhnoda in the 16th century was mentioned as large political association [5, page 363].

The union Dzhurmouth was located at the river of the same name on border with Dzharo-Belokansky society, in the neighbourhood with society Tlebel [8, page 28].

And the Decay I.I. Nordenstam writes about Kend's union: "Small this society consists of five villages located in the gorge of the Ken-Ora River which near the natural boundary Nikish falls in Tkhomar-Or". Such settlements of the union are called: Rokhl-Khenada, Kolob, Tsymkal, Okhokh and Hakhab [9, page 324]. D.M. Magomedov lists the following settlements: Tagar, Kolo, Tsymkal, Okhokh, Hakhab, Roh-Tljanada and Simgaa [8, page 29].

The union of communities of Ukhnad located to the south of Antsroso in the gorge of the river Ukhnada-Or [9, page 321], was the smallest of the listed unions of federation Antl-Ratl.

Federation Antl-Ratl represented the terrible union of the free societies making frequent attacks on the settlements of Georgia (with assistance of dzharo-belokanets), other unions which extended the influence on the next societies (Tsez, for example) from time to time receiving a tribute from several Georgian settlements [9, page 321]. According to the estimates of B.G. Aliyev and M.-C. K. Umakhanova, all in federation there were 5215 yards, "that there corresponded more than 21 thousand inhabitants" [3, page 282].

"It is approximately possible to consider that the number of the yards, or families stretches to 5000 — I.I. Nordenstam writes. — Believing 5 or 6 souls in each family, all population in Antl-Ratle will make from 25 to 30,000 inhabitants" [9, page 324].

According to A. Berger, relating to 1842 and 1852, in Antl-Ratle there were 23,790 people [4, page 271].

According to I.I. Nordenstam, the union of free societies Antl-Ratl could "bring together from 4 to 5000 people who are well armed pedestrian


and to protect the houses, they can expose incomparably more" [9, page 328].

Military life of antlratlets was emphasized also by existence in their territory of powerful strengthenings. "Here — K.F. Gunn reports — ruins of ancient castles — very unusual occurrence in Dagestan met. Who constructed them, nobody could tell anything about it. In any case, these remains of antiquity with present constructions have nothing in common" [6, page 89].

Merging of the union of rural societies or their federation which formation was caused by need of creation of powerful blocks of the unions of rural societies not to give

to governors of the feudal possession, next to them, to subordinate to the power each of the unions separately — the main reason for existence of such unions [7, page 324].

These unions were operated by elective foremen. The affairs concerning all union Antl-Ratl were solved at a meeting of jamias of all 9 societies in the natural boundary Cherel. At jamias there were about several hundred people, at the same time "velada", or leaders of military groups, had a casting vote [9, page 326-327].

The unions of rural societies were the main form of the social and political device of the people of the Western Dagestan.


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2. B.G. Aliyev the Unions of rural communities of Dagestan XVIII — the first half of the 19th century Makhachkala, 1999. 337 pages
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9. I.I. Nordenstam. Antl-Ratl's description. 1832//History, geography, ethnography of Dagestan in XVSh — XIX of centuries / Under the editorship of M.O. Kosven and X. - M.O. Hashayeva. M, 1958.
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