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In a shadow of great: images and destinies / otv. edition of L.P. Repin. SPb., 2010. 400 pages.



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In a shadow of great: images and destinies / otv. edition of L.P. Repin. SPb., 2010. 400 pages

The St. Petersburg publishing house "Aleteya" which won recognition in the scientific world such series of books as "Antique library", "The Byzantine library", "Library of the Middle Ages", "Library of the Renaissance culture", "Pax Britannica", "Gender researches", issue in the spring of 2010 of the collection "In a shadow of great: images and destinies" opened the new scientific series "Person of the Second Plan in the History". The book represents as a matter of fact "favourites", from the scientific collections "Person of the Second Plan in the History" which are earlier published in Rostov-on-Don under the auspices of the Rostov regional office of the Russian society of intellectual history (the Issue 1 - 6. Rostov N / D, 2004 - 2009).

Many readers of the magazine probably know that the similar research project was initiated by historians Rostov (nowadays - Southern federal) university in 2002. His idea belongs to the expert, widely famous in a professional circle, in national history N.A. Minin-kov. Mainly Rostov scientists originally participated in development of a concept (V.S. Savchuk, A.V. Korenevsky, A.E. Ivanesko, N.A. Trapsh, V.Yu. Apryshchenko, A.A. Harchenko, etc.), but soon the project drew attention of many researchers from the most various cities of Russia (Moscow and Stavropol, Kazan and Voronezh, Saratov and Syktyvkar, Nizhnevartovsk and Samara, etc.). Also understanding of the concept was gradually transformed. Originally "the person of the second plan" was considered first of all as the figure taking the place between "the keeping silence majority" and "outstanding persons". And in this sense the biography of the similar character was, on the one hand, more typical for this era, than a course of life of "makers of history", and with another - it was possible to recreate it on the remained sources, unlike the fate of vast majority of people which sank Into oblivion.

As authors note, "in process of implementation of the project one more important property more and more distinctly was found in the concept elected by us: than more fixedly we peered at an image & #34; person of the second плана" its internal heterogeneity became more obvious those" (page 24). It resulted in need of a rubrication and the scientific collections which appeared in Rostov-on-Don, and was enshrined (with some changes) in the book "In a Shadow of Great". Besides, participants of the project began to pay the increasing attention to those aspects of "personal history" which are connected with a problem of historical memory. Experience shows that many historical figures seeming to contemporaries people of "the first rank" nowadays are based in "the annals of history" far on

the second plan, and, on the contrary, some characters who are obviously underestimated during lifetime, now, after decades, and even centuries, are represented by historically significant persons.

The book opens article of her editor-in-chief L.P. Repina "From the Historical Biography to Biographic History" in which evolution of a biographic genre is briefly tracked, beginning from Plutarch and by that works of participants of the research project "Person of the Second Plan in the History" are considered, it is possible to tell without exaggeration, in line with world historiographic process. Then the heading "Theoretical Aspects of Personal History" in which three articles of the Rostov scientists are placed follows. In N.A. Mininkov, A.V. Co-renevskogo and A.E. Ivanesko's article "The person & #34; the second плана" in the context of a modern historiography: five years later" initiators of the project sum up the preliminary results of its realization and draw a conclusion that "the heuristic potential of a concept is not exhausted at all, and continuation of the project within a book series of publishing house & #34; Алетейя" will be promoted opening and judgment by all of new and new sides of this phenomenon" (page 28). The interesting analysis of character and changing throughout XVII - the beginnings of the 20th century of structure of "personal historiographic hierarchy" (on the example of development of pre-revolutionary historical science) is offered by N.A. Trapsh. The place of "the person of the second plan" in modernist concepts of the nation is explored by V.Yu. Apryshchenko. He pays attention to relevance of this perspective in the context of discussions between the so-called perennia-sheets considering that "the nation is the eternal and repeating phenomenon" (page 41), and the constructivists believing that the nation consciously "is under construction" her members.

The heading "Why Not the First?" is very typical for the considered research project. In it the works of specialists in an ancient and medieval era devoted to reconstruction of biographies of the noticeable historical characters who did not become, however, "makers of history" and clarification of the reasons are placed why it occurred. A.N. Markin's (Izhevsk) articles about "the unaccomplished emperor" Agrippa, A.P. Skogoreva (Moscow) about the "forgotten" apostle Varfolomey and L.V. Mininkova (Rostov-on-Don) about the eldest son of Yury Dolgorukiy differ in the thin source study analysis and uncommon, but quite valid conclusions.

When use expression of "people of the second plan", often there is an image metaphor "eminence grise" though it, in understanding of participants of the project, only one of forms of this concept. But nevertheless without such heading - "& #34; Grey кардиналы"

real and imaginary" - creators of the book could not manage. In it are placed S.N. Gavrilov's (Obninsk) article about "the first minister" of the English king Henry VIII - Thomas Cromwell and, I would tell, a "semi-detective" research of A.V. Brazhkina (Moscow) "Almost scandalous death & #34; almost great человека"", devoted to M.N. Katkov (some called it "a pillar of the Russian conservatism", others - "a sentry dog of autocracy").

Several biographic works are published in a heading "Policy: between a stage and the scenes". As appears from heading, it is about "special category of historical characters who never were on a political proscenium, but at the same time, being by the nature of the activity and to personal qualities public figures, were not also in & #34; заку-лисье"" (page 26). In the center of attention of D.A. Kolchugin (Moscow) an image of the English diplomat of the end of XVI - the beginning of the 17th century of sir Jerome Baus, A.P. Petukhova (Moscow) - interpretation of "the Finnish question" the Russian general and the historian Mikhail Borodkin shot in 1919 as the hostage by Bolsheviks. A.M. Ermakov (Yaroslavl) analyzes activity of the "imperial labor Fuhrer" of K. Girl who was not entering a Nazi top, but obediently carrying out its will in the work.

Works in the heading "Biographic Reconstruction" are of special interest. In them attempts to recreate a course of life of those historical characters who were not spared by the ruthless time which left very few certificates on their activity are undertaken (in our opinion, very successful). The authors of articles forced by a time to use "circumstantial evidences", and sometimes hypothetically to connect "biography splinters", do it with such skill that the reader sincerely trusts their reconstruction. Here and articles of three Rostov historians (A.A. Harchenko - about Asandre and Hrisalisk, characters of bosporsky history of the 1st century BC; A.V. Korenevsko-go - about the certain Philip who is convincingly correlated to the creator of the theory "Moscow - the Third Rome" - the aged man Filofey; D.P. Isaeva - "The Prince V.V. Golitsyn V.N. Tatishchev's eyes" in which work of the last on "History the Russian" is reconstructed), and the small biographic etude by M.V. Vinokurova (Moscow) devoted to reconstruction of the biography of the English vicar Henry Tilson, "the person who could remain an unknown".

The researches included in a heading "In female destinies in & #34; мужской" stories", are kind of at the intersection of two modern scientific directions - "new biographic" and "gender" history. In M.I. Degtyareva's article (Moscow) "The history of one address: Sofya Svechina" is analyzed the surprising fate of the Russian woman of the first half of the 19th century which was coming from an ancient Moscow surname, but addressed in Catholicism and who became the friend of such famous French figures of that era as the religious thinker Joseph de Mestr and the historian Alexis de Tocqueville. V.A. Sagalayev

(Rostov-on-Don) Garriyet Taylor Mill (the spouse of the famous philosopher and the political figure of the Victorian England John Stuart Mill), but also the relation to this biography changing within one and a half centuries traces in the work not only the biography, doing the conclusion as "the destiny of gifted women is difficult...". L.M. Makarova (Syktyvkar) devoted article to studying "the myth by Eva Peron" and influences of this woman on political life of Argentina of the middle of the 20th century

According to a remark of associate editors of this volume, "emergence of the heading "Collective Hero of the Second Plan" including articles about characters, "intermediate between figures & #34 became a fruit of long discussions between participants of the project; the second плана" and anonymous & #34; массой"" (page 27). The book included I.A. Krasnova's articles written on extensive source study and historiographic material (Stavropol) "Forms of self-identification of the Florentine citizens of the end XIV - the beginning of the 15th centuries in the conditions of decrease in the political status" and S.G. Malkina (Samara) "& #34; Secret советники": Duncan Forbes's correspondents from Kalloden and a pacification of Mountain Scotland in 1715 - 1745". The political relevance and publicistic sharpness celebrated Yu.A. Girenko's research "Condottieris of public policy: political technologies and technologists in the history of modern Russia".

It is quite natural that participants of the project addressed also studying persons of historians. The thematic block "Istoriopisateli of the Second Plan" united the researches which are on crossing of biographic and historiographic genres. The book included three works of the Rostov scientists: detailed article of V.S. Savchuk about the German medievalist Rudolf Kyochke, one of founders of the "re-gionovedchesky" direction in science of the first half of the 20th century; N.A. Mininkov's research "Gene padishah, a bear on chains, literary symbolism and a protest of the second plan" based on studying archive materials, memoirs and the literary heritage of N.L. Yanchevsky who died in 1937; M.A. Vaskov's article devoted to life and creativity of S.V. Utekhin who appeared in the years of World War II on forced labor in Germany, remained in the West and became there the famous researcher of the Russian political thought.

The book "In a Shadow of Great." is finished by the heading "Heroes of Local Value". They are meant "as historical figures which as the fates decree moved forward for noticeable roles in the conditions which developed at the regional level. But in wider context the status of such persons changes: out of a local context they are on the second plan" (page 26). In the center of attention of the Rostov researchers P.A. Avakov, V.N. Korolev and O.M. Morozova there are respectively "works and days" of one of typical figures of the Russian Education, the military engineer and the historian A.I. Rigelman; Don local historian,

there is a lot of Novocherkassk statistical committee of A.A. Popov which made for formation; legendary commander of the Steel division of the Red Army in days of Civil war D.P. Jerks, shot on false charge in 1938

Even the short review of the works which entered the collection demonstrates that in it innovative teoretiko-methodological approaches are successfully combined, the deep and thin source study analysis with ability of authors it is fascinating "to build" plots of the narrations about people of "the second plan". Many articles are read with indefatigable interest, and at their reading there is a conviction that history is "made" not only by her conventional creators, but also those who remained "in the shadow great".

This scientific collection sums up a peculiar result of development of the Person of the Second Plan project.

Experience of seven last conferences and seven collections which appeared by their results shows prospects of a research of history through biographic foreshortenings and the personified approaches. The concept of "the person of the second plan" which is originally filled with several obvious ideas during implementation of the project played paints, allowed to lift new problems in historical science and also to open unexpected sides in a research of human destiny on a wide historical background. Thus, the slogan of "hominifying of history" which was heard in the 1990th in the period of crash of dogmatic Marxism and world outlook crisis of domestic historical science gains real filling and development in this project of the Rostov regional office of the Russian society of intellectual history.

_e. V. Vdovchenkov

Michelle Ray
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