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Category: History

Role and the Chita Istpart's value in development of historical science

m. Yu. Dashinimayeva


Work is presented by department of history of the East Siberian state academy of culture and arts.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor L.V. Kuras

Article is devoted to a problem of activity of the Chita Istparta created for the purpose of collecting, study and the publication of materials on stories of the October revolution and RCP(b) in the Far East. In the 1920th. The Chita Istpart was one of the centers of development of historical science in the east of the country.

M. Dashinimayeva


The article is devoted to the problem of activity of the Chita Commission on the History of the October Revolution and the Russian Communist Party. It was created to investigate and publish the materials on the history of the October Revolution and the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in the Far East. In the 1920s this commission was one of the centers of history science development in the Baikal region.

The Siberian historical science was created and developed at the same time and in a direct connection with the Russian scientific centers. In the 1920th in the territory of Siberia, as well as through the whole country, the party and state control system worked. At this particular time the new period in development of historical science in Siberia begins. Everywhere the period of formation and development of the Soviet historical science is called "the istpartovsky period" as at this particular time the foundation of development of historical science was laid.

Istparta, created at the beginning of the 20th of the 20th century for the purpose of collecting, study and publications of materials on stories of the October revolution and the history of party, played a significant role in formation and development of a domestic historiography and formation of istochnikovy base of the contemporary history, including in the territory of the Baikal region.

In 1922 in the territory of Siberia the Far East region instead of DVR with the center in Cheeta was formed. Later, in 1925, the Siberian and Far East regions were created. Cheeta, then Vladivostok became the center of the last. In 1930 at the partition of Siberia on West Siberian and East Siberian Transbaikalia was transferred to the last. Only in 1937 the Chita region with the center in the of Chita was formed (since 2007 Zabaykalsky Krai) [6, page 230-231].

Istpartovsky work in the Far East began in September, 1922 when Dalyistpart at the RCP Central Committee Far East bureau as a part of four people [3, op was educated. 2, 110, l. 2a; 1, op. 1, 701, l. 49].

At the first meeting "The provision on Dalyistpart" in which the tasks were set was accepted, the main activities, structure are defined, the plan of works is drawn up. Prominent Bolsheviks V.A. Gubelman (chairman), N.M. Matveev, B.E. Yakovenko-Yudkevich and Karavayev were Dalyistpart's members in 1922.

On October 8, 1922 at Dalyistpart's meeting the draft of the appeal to party and public organizations "About the organization of party corners on places and acceptance was approved

participation in Dalyistpart's work". In it the abstract of an approximate essay about activity of the party organization and certain Party members was submitted, drawing up lists of old participants of revolutionary movement and party members who can be involved in collecting and processing of materials and memoirs is planned. Also at Dalyistpart's meeting the proposal to publish the magazine devoted to the history of the party organizations in the Far East [3, op is made. 2, 110, l. 1a, 3].

First of all Dalyistpart's commission collected the materials and documents relating to history of the October revolution and a role in revolutionary fight the Far East and also memoirs of living witnesses of race for power of workers in the Far East (memoirs, etc.) [3, op. 2, 110, l. 2-2 about.].

In August, 1923 Dalyistpart was turned into department of the Far East bureau that was approved by Resolution No. 45 of August 17, 1923. This resolution was preceded by circulars of the Central Committee of party No. 25 and 27 of August 10, 1923 [3, op. 2, 110, l. 28-29].

In the same time the Far East bureau suggests the gubkoma which are under its authority to allocate on one representative from lips-komov, district committees and ukom for collecting historical material on work of party, the history of the guerrilla movement and the white movement, the eserovsky and Menshevist organizations, etc. Representatives directed collected material through the appropriate party authorities to Cheeta for Dalyistpart [7]. Representatives in coordination with party bodies gave parties of memoirs which were recorded and sent in Dalyistpart. The memoirs to Dalyist-part were sent by also active participants of the guerrilla movement and party work during 1917-1922 in the Far East. At party clubs, sections which actively promoted work of representatives of Istpart worked.

In September, 1923 G. Muchnik approved

becomes the head Dalyist-parta

resolution of the Far East bureau. In the same time the board of Istpar-ta and drafting panel [3, op was created. 2, 11O, l. 28-29].

At a meeting of old Bolsheviks and Dalyistparta the Resolution "About Relationship Dahl-istparta with Society of Political Convicts" was accepted on September 27, 1923. For studying history of the reference and penal servitude of Dalyist-partu it was entrusted to come into contact with society, to allow members of society in archives only through Dalyistpart, to study biographical material of society [3, op. 2, 11O, l. 1O].

In the same time in Chita at gubkoma and oblakoma Istparta Bureaus, according to the Provision on Dalyistpart [3, op were organized. 2, 11O, l. 2a].

The managing Dalyistpartom G. Muchnik, the editor of the Dalnevostochny Put newspaper Karavayev and Dalyono Malyshev's manager entered into structure of an editorial board and Dalyist-parta's board.

For storage and use of the collected materials Dalyistpart uses libraries, the museums and exhibitions both in Cheeta, and in other provincial cities of the Far East region. Together with Regional archive takes active part in the organization of historico-revolutionary archives. Besides, for study of materials on stories of the October revolution, the Russian Communist Party, party movement of the Far East region organizes congresses of erudite workers and Istpart's representatives on places, organizes public lectures, meetings, evenings of memoirs, creates societies and clubs [3, op. 2, 11O, l. 11-12].

In 1923 by Dalyistpart it would be collected near volumes with copies of the Japanese documents of times of military intervention which shed light on events 192O of g in Primorye. This material was sent to Moscow in the Central archive subsequently, including

5 boxes of archive materials across Primorye. A part of valuable material was on hands at the representative Istpart of the Priamurye gubkom at this time. These are materials on the history of party, Soviet power in Khabarovsk for 1917-1918. For this period it was published

two collections "Dalyistpart". The collection about 19O5 of g was prepared, the collection about S. Lazo [3, op is sent for the press. 2, 11O, l. 21-21ob].

In the report for 1923 Muchnik notes that "Istpartotdel's work of the Far East bureau, both, and on places, was in the center in embryo, without leaving is farther from preparatory activities". As shortcomings during the first period of work Dalyist-parta Muchnik pointed also to inertness to istpartovsky work on places [3, op. 2, 11O, l. 28].

The materials collected for this period on the history of party with 19O1 g were published in the collection "Dalyistpart". It memoirs of participants and also processing of the materials relating to the period of the Soviet power in the territory of the Far East region i.e. from 1917 to 1923, covering the guerrilla movement, intervention and White Guards. Meetings of workers of Istparta Cheeta which in general yielded positive results both on search of materials, and on establishment of communication with the necessary persons were held. At this G. Muchnik in the report noted that "the representative of the Transbaikal provincial committee in work did not prove and attended meetings once, did not execute the duties assigned to it. Communication with places was carried out by mailing of circulars and instructive instructions, but answers from places were not received, except for Nerchinsk and factory, Nerchinsk ukom, Cheeta's district committees 1 and 2. Only by the end of the year it was succeeded to establish relation with Istparta's workers on places, using at the same time various regional meetings to which came as delegates on other line of work" [7, page 289-29O]. Further this communication gave the chance to establish objective ideas of situation on places in collecting of materials and their processing for the press.


for the purpose of acquaintance of broad masses with historical materials and drawing attention to the history of party and revolutionary movement organized Istparta's exhibition and Societies of the former political convicts which took place in Cheeta in Holiday house of Lenin. The exhibition opened on March 8, 1924 and

attracted great interest from a general population: workers, the studying youth and Red Army men [3, op. 2, 112, l. 28-28 about, 3O-3O about].

G. Muchnik, N. Anikeev and other workers of Istparta and Societies of political convicts took part in the organization of an exhibition. Success of an exhibition was noted in the local newspaper "Dalnevostochny Put".

Due to the preparation for the 2O anniversary of the first Russian revolution before Istpartami of the Far East bureau there was a task as it is possible to light more stoutly history of revolution 19O5 of g in the Far East region, to collect names, dates, etc. [3, op. 2, 112, l. 31, 49].

The resolution DRK (Dalrevkom) created the Commission on celebration 2O-y anniversaries 19O5 of g. Were a part of the Commission the Manager of Istpart G. Muchnik to whom creation of a literary and publishing subcommittee [3, op was entrusted. 2, 113, l. 27].

By century of a Decembrist uprising the Far East bureau distributed the circular in which urged all representatives to be engaged in search of materials in the history of the decembrist movement, including personal letters of Decembrists and to send them in Cheeta for Dalyistpart [1, t. To P-81, op. 1, b5o, l. 118].

Dalyistpart also raised a question

about the organizations of Regional archival bureau for association of activity of Provincial archival bureau and preservation of archives in the Far East [2, t. P-b9, op. 1, 4O9, l. 1O].

At the Transbaikal provincial committee in Chita the commission of Istparta which part the editor-in-chief of the Dalnevostochny Put newspaper Karavayev and the manager Dalyono Malyshev, etc. were was created. Issues of distribution of duties and also issues of protection of archives [1, t. By P-81, op were discussed at a meeting of board. 1, 7O1, l. 5O]. Thus, Istparta's Commission in Chita was formed only in 1925. Till this time the representative Istparta of the Far East bureau was engaged in istpartovsky work.

The appeared collections "Dahl-istpart became results of work of the Far East bureau Istparta. The collection of materials on the history of revolutionary movement in the Far East".

All there were three collections published from 1923 to 1925. The second collection which was published in 1924 included articles on the history of revolutionary movement in the Transbaikal region [4]. These are I. Vorontsov's articles "Revolutionary Cheeta from 1905 to 1909", I. Babaylova "To the history of the RSDRP Chita organization from 1909 to 1923", article about the famous Chita revolutionary D. Krivonosenko, etc. N. Anikyev's article about the guerrilla movement in East Transbaikalia in 1918-1920 is presented in the third collection (1925). Also the collection included I. Malov's article which is quite in detail telling about the troitskosavsky tragedy.

Meanwhile editors of the collection recognized that it is published without strict systematization and without careful processing of materials. Articles and memoirs of the collection, except for small article "The RSDRP Chita Organization in 1905-1906.", are devoted to the period of civil war. So, D.D. Bulatov's articles "The guerrilla movement in lower reaches of the Amur River in 1918-1920", P. Okuntsov, etc. are presented "1917-1918 in Nerchinsk and its county" in the collection. The rest of the book is generally filled with various documents found in archives representing valuable material for historians of revolution and RCP and also guerrilla movement. In the review of this collection V.D. Vegman * noted that the published materials under the heading "Last Days of a Kolchakovshchina", were found in "a drainpipe in the basement of industrial and economic technical school in Vladivostok in which the group white before evacuation was located". For example, "The copy of the official report to the Major Morins of November 6, 1919". This official report demonstrates in what captivity the interventionists had Kolchak [5, page 192-193].

Thus, the Chita Istpart who was under authority of the Far East bureau made a noticeable contribution to development of historical science in the territory of the Baikal Siberia. Not only publications of separate materials in the Dalnevostochny Put newspaper, but also release of several collections on the history of revolutionary movement became an important result of its activity.

* Veniamin Davidovich Vegman (1873-1936). Not only the history Sibistparta, but also creation of the Siberian archive, the Siberian Soviet encyclopedia is connected with his name. Under the direct guide of Vegman sibistpartovsky editions were edited and written. Become the historian in the 1920th, he played a huge role formation and development of a historiography of revolution and the civil war in Siberia. V.D. Vegman wrote more than hundred articles, brochures, reviews concerning the history of party, revolution, social movement in Siberia.


1. GAChO. State archive of the Chita region. F. P-81.
2. NARB. National archive of the Republic of Buryatia. F. P-69.
3. RGASPI. Russian state archive of socio-political history. T. 70.
4. Dalyistpart. The collection of materials on the history of revolutionary movement in the Far East. Vladivostok: Book business, 1923-1925.
5. Criticism and bibliography//Siberian fires. 1924. No. 4. Page 192-193.
6. I.V. Naumov. History of Siberia. Irkutsk: IRGTU, 2003. 256 pages
7. Proletarian revolution. 1924. No. 4 (27). Page 289-290.
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