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Development of material and technical resources of mashinnotraktorny stations of the Central Chernozem region of RSFSR during the last period of their activity is investigated. According to solutions of September (1953) of a plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU the government allocates considerable resources for creation in MTS of the production and social infrastructure allowing to use effectively available technical capabilities. At the same time the directive control system could not provide equal conditions for development of all network MTS and, respectively, could not solve a problem of performance of a complex of the mechanized works on kolkhoz fields in agrotechnical terms.

For nearly three decades — since the end of the 20th and till 1958 — mashinnotraktorny stations played an important role in agricultural production of the country, being systemically important structure of collective-farm production. In 1958 were reorganized by MTS into the repair and tractor stations, and actually — are liquidated. The relevance of studying history of MTS is defined by that circumstance that in the 90th of the 20th century in Russia MTS (machine and technological stations) began to be created again. Now they successfully work in many regions of the country. The scientific importance of this problem is defined also by need of more thorough study of evolution of an agrarian system of Russia for XX veke1.

The extensive historiography is devoted to issues of studying history of the collective-farm village. The problems connected with production activity of collective farms, strengthening of material and technical resources of agriculture, training of experts for the village came under the spotlight of scientists. To a degree they mentioned also activity of MTS. The greatest contribution to a research of history of MTS is made by M.A. works Vyltsana2 who notes a huge role of MTS in the history of country agriculture, calls into question need elimination of this struktury3. At the same time many historians-agrarians gave a positive assessment to reform on reorganization of structure of MTC4.

In a modern historiography works in which reorganization of MTS is considered as the unreasoned action of the government which had ser-prevail

1 A number of works of modern researchers is devoted to the specified problem. See, e.g.: Dynamics and rates of agrarian development of Russia: infrastructure and market. Materials of the XXIX session of a symposium on the agrarian history of Eastern Europe. Oryol, 2006; M.A. Beznin, T.M. Dimoni. An agrarian system of Russia in the 1930-1980th years (new approach)//history Questions. 2005. No. 7, etc.
2 See: Vylcang M.A. Strengthening of material and technical resources of a collective-farm system in the second five-years period (1933 — 1937). M, 1959; it. Stages of development of material and technical resources of agriculture of the USSR / / history Questions. 1975. No. 9; it. Vosstanovleniye and development of material and technical resources of a collective-farm system, 1945-1958. M, 1976, etc.
3 Vylcang MA Vosstanovleniye and development of material and technical resources collective-farm sgroya. Page 232.
4 See, e.g.: A.V. Losev. The party organizations of the Central Black Earth in fight for development of agriculture (1945-1964). Voronezh, 1965. Page 100; History of socialist economy of the USSR. T.6. Vosstanovleniye national economy of the USSR. Creation of economy of the developed socialism. 1946 - beginning of the 1960th / Otv. Edition I.A. Gladkov. M, 1980. Page 243; Multistructure agrarian economy and the Russian village (the middle of the 80th — the 90th years of the XX century)//E.S. Stroyev, S.A. Nikolsky, V.A. Kiryushin, etc.; Under the editorship of E.S. Stroyev. M, 2001. Page 528, etc.


Lipetsk state pedagogical university


ezny negative consequences, both for collective farms, and for the agrarian sector of the Soviet economy in tselom5.

This work is devoted to studying a problem of creation of production and social infrastructure of MTS of the Central Black Earth during the last period of their existence.

Machine and tractor stations as basic structures of collective-farm production, by the beginning of the 1950th had no production and social infrastructure allowing to use effectively available material resources. In 1953 in Kursk region from 105 MTS only 32 (31.4%) standard premises of repair shops, sheds, canopies and garages for storage of tractors — 9 (8.6%), for combines — 2 (1.9%), for farm vehicles — 13 had (12.4%). Only 4 MTS possessed standard rooms of garages, and 10 more — prisposoblennymi6.

In even more started state there was social infrastructure of MTS. The Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR annually allocated symbolical allocations for construction of housing and objects of cultural and social purpose. In 9 years, from 1945 to 1953, from 47,150 thousand rubles invested in capital construction of MTS of the Tambov region 2,100 thousand rubles, or only 4.5% of the total amount of means were spent for housing construction. For November 15, 1953 43 hostels for machine operators, from them standard — only 14, and the others — adapted which represented usual country log huts were the share of 99 MTS of the Tambov region. To these hostels at their most dense settling it was possible to place no more 800th persons. In MTS of area on repair work during the autumn and winter period about 7 thousand machine operators worked. Taking into account living in own houses bliz MTS, security with hostels made less than 20%7.

Not better the situation and with arrangement of constant personnel of the mashinnotraktorny stations was. For accommodation of technical and agronomical personnel and also shots of constant workers in MTS of the Tambov region it was necessary to have 4,100 apartments taking into account placement of a part working in own houses and communal flats. For November 15, 1953 in MTS of area there were 296 houses with total number of 340 apartments, or 9% of requirement. Only 15 baths and 11 clubs and red ugolkov8 were the share to area of 99 MTS. In the same state there was social infrastructure of MTS of other Central Black Earth areas.

Serious changes in agrarian policy of the Soviet state happened after I.V. Stalin. The main it were put developed on September (1953) a plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Lag of agriculture directly coordinated with work of MTS which were called "the decisive force in development of collective-farm production". The plenum put forward a problem of creation of necessary production and social infrastructure of MTS in the next three goda9.

For production and welfare construction in MTS by the state allocated resources unprecedented before. If in 9 post-war years on construction of MTS of the Tambov region 47.15 million rubles, then were allocated only for one

1954 the plan of capital construction in comparable volumes — was established
34.7 million rubles 10 On capital construction of MTS of the Oryol region in 1954 on -
5 I.E. Zelenin. Agrarian policy of N.S. Khrushchev and agriculture. M, 2001; Lovely hin D.V., A.F. Smetanin. The Komi the collective-farm village in post-war years. 1945-1958. M, 2005; V.B. Chistyakov. Production shots of agriculture of the Russian Federation, 19451965. M, 2000.
6 State archive of social and political history of Kursk region (GAO-PIKO). F.1. Op.2. 2186. L.28.
7 State Archive of the Tambov Region (SATR). F. R-3539. Op.1. 4377. L.53.
8 In the same place. L.54-55.
9 Solutions of party and government on economic questions. In 5 t. 1917-1967 Sb. documents in 50 years. T.4. 1953-1961. M, 1968. Page 45.
10 GATO. F. R-3539. Op.1. 4377. L.58.

pravlyalos 45 million rubles. It more than exceeded financing four times previous goda11. Also sharply financing of construction of MTS of other Central Black Earth areas increased.

at the same time should note an integrated approach to construction of a large number of MTS. Complex construction of MTS included construction of repair shop, two garages for tractors, two garages for combines, two canopies for farm vehicles, the concreted platform for agricultural tools and stock, a warehouse of spare parts, a garage for cars, the power plant and the boiler house, office, the 2nd — 4 houses, the hostel, a bath. Besides, complex construction included the device of an artesian well, water tower with a water supply system, laying of thermal networks, sewerages and electrification of all usadby12.

Expenses on construction of housing — apartments and hostels separately registered in allocations for capital construction in MTS without fail. These expenses made a considerable part of the allocated funds. In 1954 6.2 million rubles, or 18% of all allocations went to the specified purposes of MTS of the Tambov region. In a year it was necessary to build 23 hostels and 100 domov13. Nothing similar was before. In 1954 the state allocations for housing construction in MTS of the Tambov region exceeded the amount of financing of this sphere for all previous post-war period almost three times.

Machine and tractor stations in 1954 endured a construction boom. Completion of complex construction of MTS became an important event for area.

About it reported mass media, it was much told at various meetings and meetings. In the village qualitatively new production and social infrastructure was created, attractive conditions for work and life were created. At a meeting of directors of MTS of the Tambov region in December, 1954 as approximate just built up Sampursky machine and tractor station which became a subject of general pride was called. The repair shop constructed on the last project had central heating, all necessary machine equipment, washing office for tractor parts and components, defektovochny and delivery office. All shops — assembly, mechanical, mednitsky, forge, etc. — were conveniently located on a stream of repair and connected among themselves by hoisting-and-transport means. The workshop was equipped with the exhaust ventilation, had shower office. The hostel for machine operators, "equipped with beds, bedside tables, mattresses, pillows and blankets was especially noted. In the hostel there is a kitchen where it is possible to cook food where there is always a hot water". As large achievement, at a meeting such facts moved: in the territory of MTS the loudspeaker is installed, the hostel and all houses are installed radio, the bath is constructed. On border of the estate of MTS the whole settlement due to individual housing construction of workers and sluzhashchikh14 grew.

In 1954 construction of MTS gained the nature of another large-scale campaign with all that it implies costs and consequences. The scope of construction works did not correspond to their financing. In the Belgorod region from 24 million rubles which are released on construction of MTS, 18.9 million rubles intended on complex construction 9 stantsiy15. This money was obvious insufficiently. On complex construction of MTS 5 — 6 million rubles were required, or is 2.5 — 3 times more than actually allocated funds. Therefore the concept "complex construction of MTS" gained various treatment and contents in specific conditions, set vozvo-

11 State Archive of the Oryol Region (SAOR). F. P-52. Op.8. 8. L.79.
12 State Archive of Social and Political History of the Voronezh Region (SASPHVR). F.3. Op.28. 839. L.149; GATO. F. R-3539. Op.1. 4377. L.58.
13 GATO. F. R-3539. Op.1. 4377. L.58.
14 GATO. F. R-3559. Op.1. 4560. L.9-10.
15 Center of Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Belgorod Region (CDCHBR). F.1. Op.1. 119. L.69.

dimy objects considerably varied. So, in the Belgorod region 3 million rubles were allocated for complex construction of the Old and Oskol district by Saltykovsky MTS, and only 0.9 million rubles 16

are Bubnovsky MTS of the Upper Mikhaylovsky area

Development of the allocated funds became extremely complex problem. In rural areas there were no construction organizations capable to perform such large volumes of works. Therefore according to the decision of Council of ministers of the USSR complex construction of MTS was assigned to 20 construction and industrial ministerstv17.

In the Belgorod region for performance of an objective as contractors the KMA-ruda trust of Ministry of Iron and Steel, SMU-were attracted

15 ministries of food products of the USSR, SMU-2 and SMU-3 of the ministry of the industry of construction materials, SMU-4 of the ministry of heavy mechanical engineering of the USSR, Belgorodstroy trust and trust No. 25 of the ministry of construction of the USSR. Results of their work in 1954 were unsatisfactory: from released
18.9 million rubles on construction of MTS of work were executed on 13.3 million rubles or for 68% of the plan. From 132 begun objects into operation it is put only by the 52nd cost
5.9 million rubles, and 80 objects worth 7.4 million rubles remained incomplete. Of 9 machine and tractor workshops it is completely constructed only odna18. The plan for construction of housing was implemented on 43%19.

What reasons of so unsuccessful start of the construction program? Them a little. Party and state resolutions on large-scale construction of MTS were adopted at the end of the 1953rd — the beginning of the 1954th. The design organizations did not manage to provide in due time the construction organizations with technical documentation without what their financing was impossible. Therefore construction works began only in May - June. The design and estimate documentation was issued is incomplete also poor quality. Quite often in it there were no designs or the whole objects. In particular, on Sukmanovsky MTS of the Belgorod region, by mistake, did not include the hostel in the estimate. In the Belgorod region the Deraptment of Agriculture even by September 1, 1954 completely did not prepare the design and estimate documentation on one MTS. As a result construction financing in the fall of 1954 was suspended though works were conducted. For January 1, 1955 the unpaid debt to contract organizations on construction of MTS in the Belgorod region was 1,857 thousand rubles 20

The estimates on conducting installation and construction works approved by the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR were underestimated, contract organizations often did not keep within them. The Belgorod SMU-3 of Donbasspromstroy trust building objects in Borchansky MTS stopped works on the reason of the underestimated prices and expected them povysheniya21. The shortage of construction materials, the equipment, remoteness of constructed facilities from production base of the construction organizations, low qualification of workers, poor organization of work only aggravated situa-


Failures in implementation of the program of construction of machine and tractor stations had system character. The country was not ready to implementation of such large-scale project. The specified circumstance found the reflection in mass media. The correspondent of the Orlovskaya Pravda newspaper N. Sokolov in details depicted a picture of complex construction of Droskovsky district of the Oryol region by Droskovsky MTS which conducted Livensky construction management. "At a wall of a new workshop the group of young bricklayers accommodated — the author writes. — Until the end of change remained three and a half — four hours, but people sit without -

16 In the same place.
17 GARF. T. A-259. Op.7. 3833. L.91.
18 TsDNIBO. F.1. Op.1. 119. L.69.
19 State Archive of the Belgorod Region (SABR). F. R-17. Op.1. 640. L.29.
20 TsDNIBO. F.1. Op.1. 119. L.70-71.
21 In the same place. L.76.
22 GABO. F. R-17. Op.1. 640. L.29.

la — there is no solution. So almost every day happens, there is no brick, a stone, solution... Almost nothing becomes on construction of an external heating system and the power supply network, sewerage, water supply. There are no pipes, the equipment, electric equipment. On building of MTS the qualification their very low there are enough people, but. The most part of workers came here, without having specialty. The masters sent by management are also unexperienced. It is enough to tell that there are here no bricklayers who could conduct a laying of corners of internal walls.... On building there are no mechanisms. The tray and giving of a brick on forests, preparation and a tray of solution are carried out manually" 23.

For the construction organizations of the ministries the contracts for construction of objects in MTS were unprofitable, objects were on considerable removal, they had to spray labor, the equipment. Considering results of work of 1954, some ministries in every possible way tightened terms of coordination of works on construction of MTS for 1955, and others — refused flatly their carrying out, referring to congestion of the construction organizations for their primary activity. So, the Ministry of oil industry of the USSR, the Ministry of heavy mechanical engineering of the USSR, the Ministry of municipal services of RSFSR, the Ministry of preparations of the USSR, the Ministry of construction and road mechanical engineering of the USSR issued the refusals official pismami24.

Unsatisfactory execution of the program of construction of MTS in 1954 forced the government to introduce essential amendments in it. Neediness of construction materials and limited opportunities of the construction organizations did not allow to implement the program in original form. Further financing of works on construction of MTS is reduced. If in 1954 across RSFSR 1,710, 3 million rubles, then in 1955 — 1,336.1 million rubles 25 were actually invested in construction of MTS, or is 22% less.

In traditional areas of agriculture the reduction of financing of construction of MTS happened in even large volumes, for the government areas of development virgin and laylands were priority. In the Central Black Earth the specified factor was shown very visually. 13.8 million rubles 26 were allocated to the Lipetsk region for financing of construction of MTS for 1955 of the Belgorod region —

11.8 million rubles 27 that made according to 57.5% and 40.3% of allocations of 1954. To construction of MTS in most cases it was necessary to refuse the idea of an integrated approach, even the begun construction of many objects was frozen.

In 1955 in the Belgorod region on 27 MTS there was a preservation of objects of the passing construction by total estimated cost for the sum of 6.588 million rubles. So, in MTS of Lenin, Shatalovsky district, construction of a water tower, warehouse of spare parts, a garage, the shed for combines, sheds to houses, bathrooms to houses was preserved. On other MTS were included in the list of preservation of construction objects — baths, boiler houses, heating systems, the external sewerage, a water supply system, clubs, hostels, inhabited doma28.

Despite resistance of the management of the ministries, their refusal to build MTS by the country leaders it was not accepted. But even at reduction of volume of construction works and strong pressing from the party and state management, the contract construction organizations and in 1955 — 1956 did not implement the plan for construction of MTS. The ministries and departments treated tasks on construction of objects of MTS as to non-core, additional orders. The bureau of the Oryol regional committee of the CPSU recognized work of contract organizations on construction of MTS of area in

1955 "absolutely unsatisfactory". For 1955 the plan for construction of MTS
23 Oryol truth. 1954. August 11.
24 Russian State Archive of the Contemporary History (RSACH). F.5. Op.45. 24. L.159-159.
25 In the same place. Op.46. 116. L.148.
26 GABO. F. R-17. Op.1. 640. L.14.
27 TsDNILO. F.34. Op.3. 84. L.16.
28 GABO. F. R-17. Op.1. 640. L.45-48.

The Oryol region contract organizations executed for 75%, from 11.7 million rubles they mastered 8.798 million rubles. Instead of 9 repair shops only 429 were put in operation.

Heads of areas had no effective levers of impact on the ministries, they repeatedly asked for the help in the Central Committee of the CPSU. In the letter addressed to the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU N.I. Belyaev the first secretary of the Belgorod regional committee of party Krakhmalev notes that in 1956 in the area it is necessary to carry out complex construction 11 MTS. But the ministries having the construction organizations in the territory of the area refuse to accept on contract construction of MTS. In this situation the Belgorod regional committee of party asked the Central Committee of the CPSU vmeshatsya30.

Under the influence of the Central Committee of the CPSU of the ministry were forced to conduct construction of MTS. Heads of the construction organizations worked "under pressure". "Here the third year we build MTS — the secretary of the Belgorod regional committee of the CPSU G.M. Corot-tayev at a meeting of bureau of regional committee of party said on June 5, 1956 — but did not construct any MTC31. It is so possible not to construct 100 years.... Why are badly cost to MTS? First of all because people do not understand importance and the importance of MTS. Builders consider it behind the plan therefore they treat as loading of regional committee of party. Unless it is possible to allow such situation with MTS of Lenin, Shatalovsky district? The remote area, difficult conditions and here procrastinate the third year this station. You will press — will a little make and again will sit down" 32.

And still in 1954 — 1956 a lot of things changed in MTS of the Central Black Earth. In particular, in three years in MTS of the Tambov region 34 standard repair shops were constructed, 22,248 sq.m of housing, 7 baths, 69 dining rooms, 9 buildings are adapted for clubs. As of January 1, 1957 in MTS of area 649 houses of 42,773 sq.m, 65 hostels of 8,865 sq.m, 57 standard workshops were registered. Thus, in the considered time in MTS of the Tambov region 60% of standard workshops and 44% of housing were constructed. By the beginning of 1957 in MTS of the Tambov region the security with standard repair shops made 60%, housing — 50%33.

Despite backwardness of production and social infrastructure the financing of construction of MTS tended to decrease. If in 1954 it was actually invested in construction of MTS of RSFSR 1,710.3 million rubles, in 1955 — 1,336.1 million rubles, in 1956 — 1,306 million rubles, then for 1957 only 815 million rubles were allocated, or is 2.1 times less, than in 1954 34

Sharp reduction of financing led to turning of construction of MTS. On places there was a paradoxical situation. The least equipped machine and tractor stations were in a peculiar waiting list for complex construction and therefore construction of separate objects in them was not made. In 1954 — 1956 the turn reached not all, and in 1957 the program of construction of MTS was closed up. For 1957 the Belgorod region on capital construction of MTS 7.6 million rubles on which it was necessary to put into operation of 8 workshops and 3 thousand sq.m of housing were assigned. There were not enough allocated funds for completion of already begun construction. For January 1, 1957 in MTS of the Belgorod region in a stage of incomplete construction there were 4,585 sq.m zhilya35.

29 RGANI. F.5. Op.46. 152. L.31-32.
30 TsDNIBO. F.1. Op.1. 151. L.202.
31 Completion of construction of all complex of objects of MTS means.
32 TsDNIBO. F.1. Op.1. 268. L.78-80.
33 GATO. F. R-3559. Op.1. 4941. L.4.
34 RGANI. F.5. Op.46. 116. L.148.
35 TsDNIBO. F.1. Op.1. 450. L.39.

Staff of MTS, three years in vain expecting reorganizations of the stations, felt strong disappointment. They asked about the help. The feeling of injustice and offense appeared in a speech of the director of Kubrakovsky MTS of Veydelovsky district Potapov at a meeting of an asset of the party of the Belgorod region in January, 1957. "Our MTS was constructed in 1933 — he said. — Workshops were located in two small adapted rooms. Now they completely decayed and are not subject to operation. Inspector of the Central Committee of labor union of t. Maltsev, then a sanepidstantion surveyed and drew the conclusion that these rooms are strictly forbidden to be used for work. Here in such conditions it is necessary to work. Because of narrowness we established neither heating, nor load-lifting means. Floors earth, walls have through cracks, ceiling overlappings completely rotted through and can fail.... MTS within 3 years is planned to construction. In 1955, technical calculations were made, researches are carried out, working drawings are made. Construction was planned for 1956. Then planned it for 1957" 36.

In a similar key the speech of the secretary of the Zadonsky district committee of party Chalyshev on a plenum of the Lipetsk regional committee of the CPSU is sustained on October 9, 1956. "Work is carried out by machine operators at the price of inhuman efforts — he said — because in one MTS there are no workshops, hostels, offices, red corners. In essence MTS huddle under the open sky. Came it is time to resolve capitally an issue of construction of MTS" 37. Just the same picture was observed also in MTS of Terbunsky district Lipetsk oblasti38.

The government did not manage to provide MTS with necessary production and social infrastructure in 1954 — 1956, schedules were moved up for the end of the 1950th. So, on a long-term plan of construction of MTS of the Lipetsk region for 1956 — 1960 it was necessary to build 60 standard workshops with necessary providing, including 34 — in 1958 — 1960 39

The adapted repair shops in MTS of the Central Black Earth remained much. For their January 1, 1958 was in MTS of the Belgorod region 31, Voronezh — 58, Kursk — 47, Lipetsk — 32, Oryol — 27, Tambov — 2040. Many buildings adapted workshops served the term, and were not subject to further operation, to be there was life-threatening. But they were used until then, "so far the thunder will not burst". "The thunder rattled" more than once: in 1957 in 6 workshops of MTS of Kursk region there was a collapse perekrytiy41.

In the 1950th, despite the known costs, in machine and tractor stations the production and social infrastructure adequate to solvable problems of the organization and material support of collective-farm production began to be formed. Process of formation of production and social infrastructure most intensively proceeded in 1954 — 1956. It was not completed. But changes not only in MTS, but also in life of all collective-farm village happened striking. In the mid-fifties in the agrarian sphere actually began to be applied elements of industrial culture of production, first of all, the line technology of repair of difficult agricultural machinery, its diagnostics took root. Certain conditions were for this purpose created. Qualitatively the production base of many MTS changed. It allowed to raise labor productivity and to improve working conditions and lives in MTS and to make them more attractive to country people.

36 In the same place. 411. L.105.
37 TsDNILO. F.34. Op.4. 24. L.61.
38 In the same place. 125. L.163-165.
39 State archive of the Lipetsk region. F. R-584. Op.1. 156. L.5-9.
40 RGAE. F.7486. Op.15. 1295. L.112, 203. 1297. L.35, 71, 253. 1298. L.241.
41 RGANI. F.5. Op.46. 190. L.135.



Lipetsk State Pedagogical University


The article is devoted to the development of the financial and technical basis of the machine-tractor service stations (MTSS) of the Central Black Soil Region of the RSFSR in the last period of their work. In accordance with the Central Committee of the CPSU&s decisions (1953, September), Soviet Government gives innumerable resourses to create the production and social infrastructure of the MTSS and to use their technical opportunities in the most effective way. At the same time this system of directive management failed to guarantee equal conditions for the development of the whole net of the MTSS and didn&t manage to solve the problem of realizing the whole complex of mechanized works in the collective farms& fields at the fixed dates of technical agronomy.

Tammy Russell
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