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Factors of formation of a language situation at the southern (narymsky) Selkups in the 1920-30th years



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UDC 39:316.7 (571.1)

A.G. Tuchkov

FACTORS of FORMATION of the LANGUAGE SITUATION AT YOUZHNY (NARYMSKIH) of SELKUPS In 1920-30-E GODY1

Tomsk State Pedagogical University

Be the focus of attention of our article - the southern Selkups as special national and territorial ethnolinguistic education with historically developed components of traditional culture and language. A task of this work is the analysis of the social and economic and communicative factors affecting viability of language and a condition (dynamics) of a language situation. Treat such extralinguistic factors first of all: territory of accommodation of ethnic group, its number, age of native speakers; the nature of a sconce -

k and functioning of language in family, education of children of preschool age, teaching native (national) language at schools. Each of them is the unconditional diagnostic parameter defining extent of domination of the native language, some kind of guarantor of his development and functioning.

Work continues by

the researches on a problem of a condition of traditional culture of the southern Selkups begun earlier by the author [1-3]. Articles are the cornerstone materials of the 1920-30th State

1 Research is executed with financial support of RGNF within the RGNF research project "Indigenous ethnic groups of the North of the earth Tomsk: fate of traditions and language" No. of 05-01-64102a/T.

archive of the Tomsk region, the characterizing main spheres of functioning of their language.

Territory of accommodation. In the 1920-30th the southern Selkups, as before, occupied the territory of an average current of the Ob River and its inflows - Vasyugan (the lower current to lands of the Naunaksky Village Council), Parabeli, Chizhapki, Chuzika, Kengi, Tym, Ket. In areas from Kolpashev to Narym the dispersion of resettlement remained, on the Ket River the Selkups occupied its top current. Compactly Selkups lived only on the Tym River where to the middle of the 1930th they represented the dominating population (731 people) and where traditional lines of culture and language [4, l still remained. 39, 44].

In the early twenties, in the conditions of the policy directed to national-state construction and rise in national consciousness of radical ethnic groups of Siberia, in the territory of the Narymsky region the trend on reorganization of a pre-revolutionary management system was outlined. At the end of 1922 will be reorganized by the decision of board of the Provincial department of affairs of nationalities (Gubnats) which is responsible for practical implementation of national policy on places, 11 foreign volosts in the territory of the Narymsky region (by this time the Na-rymsky edge included 21 foreign volosts) into Ivankinsky and Vasyugan foreign volosts on the Ob River with indigenous people in 1525 persons. To the Ivanskinsky foreign volost with the center in yu. Ivankinykh territories being Togursko-Porubezhna, Nizhnee-Togur-skoy, Pikovska, the 3rd and 4th Parabelskaya, Larpins-koy, volosts Verkhnee-Podgorodnoy with settlements yu entered. Ezenginy, Konerovy, Tyagolovy, Igotkiny, Ivankiny, Kiyarovy, Inkiny, Zaykiny, Sagandukovy, Mumyshevy, Nevaltsevy, Laskiny, Chiryaevy and the Russian villages - Ust-Chuai, New Bylino, Peter and Paul [5, l. 10 (a); 6, l. 30-31]. In former administrative division there were territories on the Ket River and Tym [5, l. 8]. However already to the middle of the 1920th as a new form of administrative division, taking into account economic level of development and features of life of radical ethnic groups, the territorial principle uniting the population in native (national) councils is entered. During 1927-1928 in the Narymsky region the creation of national councils was generally complete. By 1930 in places of the greatest concentration of indigenous people functioned: in Kargasoksky district - Napas-sky, Chezhapsky, Nyurolsky, Vasyugan, Ah-polovsky native councils, in Kolpashevsky district - the Shirokovsky Village Council and Verkhneketsky native council. In the Larkinsky native area - Naunaksky, Praskinsky, Segilyetovsky and Kor-likovsky native councils. In 1932 in the territory

The Napassky tuzsovet the native regional executive committee about 4 tuzsovetam is created: Lymbelsky, Napasovsky, Kananaksky and Wang - stint-Kinakskim. Subsequently they are allocated in a separate administrative unit - the Tymsky national area located between 80 °20& and 84 °50& VD and 59 °30& and 60 °48& SS. It bordered from the West from the Sangelkoy River, from the North and the South - on a watershed of the Vakh Rivers and Ket. The area of the area was from 2,909,000 to 3,200,000 hectares. The population of the area consisted generally of chumylkup (145 farms), shoshkup (44 farms), one family of syusyukum and two families of Tungus. Population density equaled 0.8 people on 1 sq.km [7, l. 10; 8, l. 36]. The area was considered as the special, closed for the Russian population national and economic zone in the territory of the Narymsky region. From the moment of formation of the Tymsky national area, the Tym River began to become populated actively by Selkups from territories of Kol-pashevsky, Parabelsky and Kargasoksky districts (first wave of migration).

Bodies of native management were allocated with the right of the independent solution of own affairs including judicial, according to the traditions and a way of life. Primordial fishing places and hunting grounds were assigned to each native Village Council, and the population was exempted from payment of duties on the right of hunting and fishing [5, l. 18; 6, l. 30-31; 9, l. 21].

The relations between the Selkup and Russian population were regulated by acts and decisions of regional and district authorities. Territories of the native Village Councils were closed for installation of the Russian population. So, the special resolution of presidium of the Tomsk district executive committee of June 28, 1930 forbade any installation of the citizens who are not belonging to small nationalities of the North to the Larkinsky native area on the territory of tuzsovet of the Hag soksky area (except the southern part of the Aypolovsky tuzsovet south of the river Yatyl-Yag and the mouth of the Chertaly River, to the south 58 °30& NL and the Naunaksky Village Council), to Kolpashevsky district on the territory of the Shirokovsky Village Council and the Verkhneketsky tuzsovet within a right bank of the Ket River from borders of Shirokovsky s/s to 39, 46 and 27 km of Maksimoyarsky forest giving and also up to a current of river. Cedar and left banks from borders of Shirokovsky s/s. Under resettlement of Russians the territories of Aleksandrovsky, Kolpashevsky and Kargasoksky districts which are adjoining on territories of tuzsovet, but not entering their jurisdiction and also all Parabelsko-go's earth of the area [10, l were allocated. 4]. Quite often, for protection of the territory against installation of Russians, tuzsoveta, based on the decision of native meetings, demanded from the authorities not only the ban of installation on them

territories of the Russian population, but also expulsion of the Russian families living there [11, l. 8-9; 12, l. 17]. As a rule, such requirements were met by the authorities [10, l. 16; 13, l. 46; 14, l. 10; 15, l. 1].

At the same time in the early thirties the trend of installation of Russians on the territories which were a part of national tuzsovet, but are not developed (as was considered as the authorities) in the economic relation Selkups [14, l becomes more and more steady. 1, 5; 9, l. 10]. At first it was carried out as a temporary measure, only at the time of collecting wild plants and during a hunting season, then as a constant measure. To the middle of the 1930th this trend got forms of public policy when the territory of the Narymsky region began to be considered by the authorities as the ground for installation of huge mass of special immigrants and expansion of special commandant's offices in the places of residence of the southern Selkups. In the developed situation the Selkups of Kolpashev-sky and Parabelsky districts where the bulk of special immigrants concentrated, were forced to migrate on the Tym River (second wave of migration). By 1933 the territory of the Tymsky national area for 70% was already populated with Selkups from the Parabel, Kenga, Ob and Vasyugan River [16, l. 146].

Thus, to the middle of the 1930th rather favorable situation for functioning of language of Selkups, their traditional culture and economic activity adapted to the physical (natural) habitat still remained. Especially favorable conditions in this regard developed on the Tym River where Selkups thanks to the territorial remoteness and a certain isolation from places of compact accommodation of the Russian population long time kept the original lines. At the same time in territories with the prevailing Russian population where the share of Selkups was minimum, communicative and functionality of the Selkup language steadily weakened.

Number. The number of the southern Selkups for 1920-1930 is established according to statistical data of the Tomsk gubnayets for 1922 and according to the data for 1932-1934 provided by E.D. Prokofieva and Committee of the new latinizirovanny alphabet (further KNLA). However establishment of exact number of Selkups is complicated by two circumstances. First, relativity (or approximateness) the quantitative indices given by statistics; secondly, the fact that within the 1922-1930th the southern Selkups were not allocated in separate ethnolinguistic group, and were considered together with the Khanty population of the Narymsky region under the general ethnonym of "ostyaka". Only in 1932 it was undertaken on -

the torture of quantitative accounting of southern Selkups connected with introduction of writing. But also in this case there are discrepancies on the number specified by E.D. Prokofieva and KNLA. So, according to E.D. Prokofieva in the report for Okrono, the southern Selkups was 2,151 persons. According to other data noted by E.D. Prokofieva in the report for KNLA, the southern Selkups on the main areas of their resettlement made 2,927 persons. According to KNLA for 1934, Selkups (ostyako-Samoyeds) in the Narymsky district there were 3,255 people, and according to other data of the same committee - 3,172 people [16, l. 146, 151; 4, l. 39, 44]. It is necessary to take the greatest periodic indicators of number of the southern Selkups as a basis of calculations (2,927 people according to E.D. Prokofieva and 3255 - according to KNLA). The average population for 1932-1934, it is possible to calculate as the half-sum of chislennost of the population on the beginning and the end of the period that will be made by 3,091 persons. Certainly, it is a relative indicator, however it is the most approximate to reality.

Being based on the available digital data, it is possible to remove the quantitative list of the southern Selkups and for 1922 - the end of the 1930th. According to Gubnats for 1922, absolute number (i.e. number on a certain timepoint) was the southern Selkups 2,511 people [5, l. 10 (a)]. The average population for 1932-1934 (without Khanty and Evenks) was 3,091 persons. In view of that the number of Selkups since 1922 until the end of the 1930th changed with constant speed (exponential), the average Selkup population on this time span equaled 2791 people

In this regard it is necessary to track dynamics of growth of the Russian population in the Narymsky region in the 19221930th. If in 1922 the number of Russians in areas of residence of the southern Selkups made 1,185 people, or 32.7% to the number of Selkups [5, l. 10 (a)], already to the middle of 1930 the Russian population (taking into account Ukrainians and Belarusians) increased to 100,510 people that made 97.3% of number to the Selkup population on this interval of time [17, l. 13]. Uwe - treatment of the Russian population was done due to the retaliatory colonization of edge developed in the early thirties

Because the southern Selkups lived in the basic dispersno among the Russian population which number within the 1930th steadily grew, the threat of dissolution of Selkups and their language increased. Besides, retaliatory colonization of the Narymsky region involved the forced migrations of indigenous people from primordial habitats that could not but lead to structural shifts in his environment [18, page 211].

Age of native speakers. The best opportunities for the analysis of a language situation are given by one-year or five-year age intervals. However data on these age parameters for the 1920-30th are sketchy and do not cover the Selkup population across all territory of its accommodation. Therefore it will be expedient to consider the age contingents, i.e. the groups of persons united by the general for them age, social and economic and other signs. Depending on the functional role peculiar to any given age groups, it is possible to distinguish the following age contingents from the southern Selkups: baby and preschool (children at the age of 1-7 years), school (children of 8-15 years), able-bodied (men at the age of 16-59 years, women at the age of 16-55 years), disabled (elderly and old aged people from 60 to 90 years). The analysis of data on age structure shows that 32.2% of carriers of the native language were the share of age of 1-16 years, 51.5% - of age of 1760 and 16.3% - of age of 60-90 years. The age list of Selkups of the Tym River is indicative in this regard. To the middle of 1932 the distribution of the population on age looked there as follows: from 655 people aged from 1 year up to 7 years-159 people; from 7 to 12 years - 65; from 12 to 16 years - 32; of 17 years and above - 399. The share of elderly and old people among the population Tyma for this period did not exceed 8.5% [19, l. 2].

The Selkup population of the Narymsky region during the 1920-30th as show figures, was young. In the demographic relation this phenomenon positive. However in the conditions of the high mortality of Selkups aged from 35 up to 55 years [20, l. 1-14], continuous inflow of the Russian population and the outlined changes in the system of traditional values this fact comprises a negative indicator. The native language of Selkups ceases to be acquired at early age over time, and in the future loses the functional and communicative opportunities.

The nature of marriages and functioning of language in family. During the 1920-30th among Selkups the tendency to intra ethnic marriages still remained, and the share of mixed marriages between Selkups and Russians was minimum. The high percent of intra ethnic marriages was observed first of all in places of compact accommodation of Selkups, especially on the Tym River. From 140 marriage couples living on the Tym River in 1930 no more than 0.7%, or about 10 Selkup-Russian families where Russian wives [21, l generally were fell to the share of mixed marriages. 2-26; 22, l. 2-36].

In families where the native language is dominating, children acquire its the first. In it preimu-

shchestvo of the native language. At such children the emotional attachment to the native language thanks to which they acquire bases of traditional (semiotics) behavior develops. This general provision quite concerns also Selkups.

The mixed families represent the earliest and most intensive type of family bilingualism [23, page 156]. Mixed marriages in itself do not pose threat of fast change of the native language. In bilingual families when functions of two languages closely intertwine, it is difficult to define extent of domination of any given language. Children are capable to acquire equally at the same time two languages. At the same time, especially at early age, children in the mixed families do not pay attention to what of languages for them is native, and assimilation of nonnative language by bilingual children goes quicker, than at their age-mates in monolingual families. At the same time extent of knowledge of Russian of children from the mixed Selkup-Russian families is much higher, than the native language. The Russian speech at bilingual children is cleaner and correct, than at generation of their senior relatives and children from the Selkup families. Such children do not experience special work when switching and to the native language in communication with the senior generation, i.e. with grandmothers and grandfathers. However in the future there are fears that it will be harder and harder for generation of bilingual children to communicate in two languages, and it can become monolingual. By the beginning of the 1930th the situation when in the mixed families where mother of children was Russian, children did not know the native language of the father at all [16, l was already observed. 155].

Education of children of preschool age (day nursery, kindergartens). In the 1920-30th among Selkups the form of preschool education of children through playgrounds, a day nursery and kindergartens appeared. On the one hand, preschool institutions exempted female mothers from homework that allowed them to join on an equal basis with men in the general economic and economic life, social and political activity, to get an education [24, l. 2, 18]. On the other hand, children were already forced to be in early age out of family, torn off from traditional forms of education, and to them new, nonconventional forms of the public relations anyway took root. Employees of kindergartens and a day nursery, behind some exception, were the Russian women who ended intensive courses of teachers of preschool institutions. The qualified tutors knowing the native language of Selkups lacked. Therefore education and communication with children took place in the basic in Russian. Only from 1933 — 1934 the training of tutors of preschool institutions from the circle of Selkups begins. In osno-

ve this preparation the intensive course of the Selkup language developed by E.D. Prokofieva [25, l lay. 1-2, 7-12]. However at this conjuncture the possibility of effective use of the native language was practically not implemented.

Teaching national language at national schools and boarding schools. One of the main channels of distribution of the native language is the school. Therefore teaching the native language at schools and training in the native language is one of planned ways of preservation of language.

To the middle of the 1930th in the territory of Narymsko-go of edge 4 national schools, and 13 boarding schools functioned. National educational institutions were created, as a rule, in places of compact accommodation of Selkups. In them children of Selkups and Khanty aged from 8 up to 16 years inclusive surely were accepted. Thus, since 1922 and until the end of the 1930th children and teenagers of 1910 — were involved in educational process

1932 of the birth. Priority activity of national educational institutions, especially at first their existence, training of children at their native language was, as determined a reception condition - obligatory knowledge by children of the native language. However, as practice of annual admittance of students showed, this condition was not always met. Many children who were accepted for study badly knew or did not know the native language at all. Especially poorly the Selkup children living on coast of the Ob River where the Selkup population closely adjoined to the prevailing Russian population and also children from the mixed Selkup-Russian families knew the native language. Statistics of those years shows that from all studying children 30% knew the native language, badly owned 40% and did not know the native language of 30% at all [16, l. 146 (b)].

Almost not solvable in the 1920-30th was a shortcoming problem (quite often total absence) of the qualified teachers knowing the native language of the southern Selkups and lack of necessary educational literature in the native language of pupils. Only at Shirokovsky boarding school in the early twenties were the teachers knowing language of the Ket Selkups, but also they used it as explanatory language [26, l. 73]. All subject matters were conducted at schools and boarding schools in Russian. The lesson schedule was made in such a way that hours were not planned for the native language at all, on learning Russian 12 h a week, and on mathematics, for example, 6 h a week [17, l were allotted. 4]. The attempt to translate educational process into language of tazovsko-turukhansky Selkups thanks to E.D. Prokofieva's abc-book at the beginning of 1933 was not able to do success. The first experiments rabo-

you with this training material (at first in the Kolpa-shevsky normal school for the ethnic man in the spring of 1933, and then at four schools of the Tymsky national area) revealed a number of the difficulties connected with process of assimilation by children of language tazovsko-turukhans-kikh Selkups. Special difficulties in children of the southern Selkups were caused by phonetics and vocabulary. The problem was not only that children of the southern Selkups just did not understand language of northern Selkups as the teachers giving classes in E.D. Prokofieva's abc-book tried to regard it. The developed steady associations in dialects of the southern Selkups encountered difficulties of formation of new associations from language of northern Selkups. Knowledge of the native language, thus, prevented studying another, despite its genetic proximity. Moreover, the attempt to translate classes into language of northern Selkups, with simultaneous learning this language, began to be regarded by many Selkups as violent introduction of a dialect, almost new to them. It caused discontent among the southern Selkups, misunderstanding of need to study at the stranger for them a dialect, fear that introduction of language, new to them, will lead to degradation of their culture by them, will become "a brake in economic and cultural development" of their people. The situation was complicated also by that circumstance that in national educational institutions the children representing different territorial and dialect groups of the southern Selkups studied. Difficulties in communication with each other in the native language forced children to use Russian both during study, and during the games. Russian, thus, served as the "international" language, and all educational process eventually came down to teaching in Russian.

The conflict situation led to the fact that in 1934 the southern Selkups represented by department the ethnic man of the West Siberian regional executive committee began to demand from regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of cancellation of teaching on Selkup (tazovsko - to a tour - hanskom a dialect) language and the translation of educational process completely into Russian on which practically all southern Selkups [16, l spoke. 146-146 (b)].

with

However to the middle of the 1930th the policy of "general alignment", the ban on manifestations of parochial ideology already began to work. Language of northern Selkups was announced by the uniform literary language in which not only educational process and publishing, but also administrative work of tuzsovet has to be based. In language of northern Selkups also preparation of pedagogical shots for national schools [27, l begins. 20; 28, l. 96-99, 102].

Despite all efforts, the situations with teaching the native language undertaken for improvement in national educational institutions, the lack of available manuals in the native language complicated training and interfered with final transfer of national educational institutions on the native language of training. The native language of the southern Selkups was actually excluded from educational process. At children the feeling of uncertainty in need of knowledge of the native language was formed, they hesitated to use it. Russian becomes for all the only language both in the sphere of communication and education, and in the sphere of teenage industrial practice activity. Degree of safety of the native language in the conditions of an internatsky education system significantly was influenced also by long isolation of children from parents, from traditional economic classes.

The adult population also was involved in education. According to experts, for 1920 - the beginning of the 1930th a share competent among radical

Apparently from the table, for the 1920-30th the language of the southern Selkups kept the dominating status practically in all communicative spheres. At the same time it is also obvious that Russian during this historical period took the dominating positions mainly in education too. Characterizing a language situation in the Narymsky region in the 1920-30th in general, it is possible to speak about steady bilingualism. Bases -

the population of the Narymsky region did not exceed 1%. For elimination of illiteracy in places of compact accommodation of adult population were created a face points. Training in them was provided also in Russian and trained first of all in Russian. Depending on quantity illiterate in a year on areas trained from 100 to 250 people [29, l. 10]. Practically in the territory of each tuzsovet for the aid to workers-liquidators of illiteracy and the population reading log huts, red corners and libraries in which literature and also newspapers and magazines were completed only in Russian were created.

All considered social and economic and communicative factors influencing formation of a language situation (we will designate them as domination factors), it is possible to present sets of the characteristics allowing to define extent of domination of one of two languages for the 1920-30th in the form. The received results are tabulated where positive assessment of domination of language will be designated & #43;.

ache percent of bilingual fell on younger age groups. In areas of disperse resettlement of Selkups practically all age groups were bilingual.

At the same time the trend of gradual transition of the southern Selkups into Russian was outlined in the developed bilingualism. Language contacts between Selkups and the Russian population, taking into account all considered factors, posed in themselves threat of that,

Domination factor Adult Children and teenagers

Language

Selkup Russian Selkup Russian

Territory of accommodation (compactness) & #43; & #43;

Territory of accommodation (dispersion) & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43;

Age categories: the early childhood (1-3 years) (in the Selkup families) the early childhood (in the mixed families) the childhood (preschool age of 4-7 years) (in the Selkup families) the childhood (preschool age) (in the mixed families) school age (8-16 years) (in the Selkup families) school age (in the mixed families) working-age (17-59 years) elderly people (60-74 years) old people (75-90 years) & #43;

& #43; & #43;

& #43; & #43;

& #43; & #43;

& #43; & #43;

& #43;

& #43; & #43;

& #43;

& #43;

Nature of marriages (Selkup) & #43; & #43;

The nature of marriages (mixed) & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43;

— 1bb —

that the native language of Selkups will lose the dominating status, the communicative role in society. Changes happened in the system of the Selkup language which was exposed to strong external pressure from Russian, especially in the field of vocabulary.

As a result, on the general background of development of a historical situation of the 1920-30th the native language of the southern Selkups gradually began to lose not only the communicative role (Russian began to carry out this role more and more), but also ceased to perform function of symbols for the corresponding forms of culture of ethnic group. It was explained by that, as the traditional culture of Selkups changed under pressure of external social and economic, political and ideological factors. In new conditions the culture of Selkups "national in a form, socialist according to contents" as her reformers of the Soviet era defined, inevitably lost the traditional color, and together with traditions also language as the spokesman of this culture left. An important role was played also by a psychological factor. Knowledge of Russian and possession began to be regarded by it among Selkups as sign of level of culture, as a possibility of familiarizing with the Russian culture, a possibility of the device of the better life. It was often reached to the detriment of the native language [24, l. 18, 32].

Only on a short interval of time (1920-

1933 the factor of the consciousness which increased at them became) the condition guaranteeing the dominating status of language of the southern Selkups. The attraction tendency when various ethno-lingvo-territorial groups of Selkups sought not only for territorial association (especially it became noticeable after formation of the Tymsky national area), but also to understanding of as uniform ethnic group was observed. In the early thirties the ethnonym "чумылькуп" became when an attempt to give to language of the southern Selkups the status of the national literary language was made, the general ethnonym for most of Selkups, and attached to a chumylkupsky dialect significance of the spokesman of national consciousness, capable to unite the southern Selkups in uniform ethnic group [30, l. 35.].

However the era of the 1920-1930th, contradictory in many respects, could not promote preservation of traditional tenor of life of indigenous people of Siberia. The southern Selkups, as well as most of the people of Siberia, got under a powerful press of the Soviet ideological car, they physically could not resist threat of loss of the identity. It naturally was reflected also in degree of survival of their language.

Came to edition 08.11.2006

Literature and sources

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plank beds. konf. "First historical readings of Tomsk State Pedagogical University" (16-17 November 2004). Tomsk,

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6. In the same place. 1246.
7. In the same place. F. R-747. Op. 1. D. 128.
8. In the same place. F. R-991. Op. 1. D. 29.
9. In the same place. F. R-747. Op. 1. D. 1.
10. In the same place. 29.
11. In the same place. 57.
12. In the same place. 5.
13. In the same place. 2.
14. In the same place. 81.
15. In the same place. 71.
16. In the same place. F. R-591. Op. 1. 5.
17. In the same place. 21.
18. S. Krasilnikov. Sickle and Moloch. The country reference in Western Siberia in the 1930th years. M, 2003.
19. GATO. F. R-747. Op. 1. 166.
20. GATO. F. R-747. Op. 1. 76.
21. In the same place. 36.
22. In the same place. 25.
23. U. Vanraykh. Language contacts. Kiev, 1979.
24. GATO. F. R-991. Op. 1. 22.
25. In the same place. F. R-591. Op. 1. 31.
26. In the same place. F. R-214. Op. 1. 335.
27. In the same place. F. R-591. Op. 1. 7.
28. In the same place. 40.
29. In the same place. 13.
30. In the same place. F. R-747. Op. 1. 99.

UDC 39:316.7 (571.1)

E.Yu. Kosheleva

TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES IN SPIRITUAL CULTURE of SELKUPS AND KHANTY of the TOMSK REGION In 1990-2000-E GODY1

Tomsk State Pedagogical University

This work is devoted to consideration of the new phenomena in spiritual culture of peoples of the North of the Tomsk region for the last two decades.

A complex of factors, such as migration flow of the Russian-speaking population on the territory of Siberia, interethnic marriages, the educational policy of the state, processes of modernization led to the fact that the indigenous people of the North living in the territory of the Tomsk region (Selkups, the Khanty, Evenks, the Chulym Turkic peoples) substantially lost traditional culture. The continuity chain parents - children was broken and information transfer from generation to generation was interrupted. Due to the global crisis of identity of the end of the 1980th, now traditional knowledge is again demanded as they are an important component of ethnicity of indigenous people. However the big problem which rose before enthusiasts of national revival was the fact that it is possible "to revive" many traditions only inventing them: in a number of cases there is no detailed description of ceremonies of these people left.

Now in the Tomsk region exists several creative associations in which national language is taught and work on preservation and reconstruction of traditional culture of indigenous people is carried out.

Learning the Selkup language is conducted since 1991 in the House of children's creativity of the village of Parabel as a circle, in national small school

the village of Ivankino the subject "Selkup language" is included in the school program.

Since the beginning of the 1990th the children's Selkup folklore Kogolika group to the village of Ivankino of Kolpashevsky district, the ethnic center acts in the village of Parabel of Parabelsky district.

Studying culture of Khanty is conducted in club of culture of peoples of the North "Ai Pyayakh" in the village of Kargasok and in public organization of indigenous people "Spring" of Mr. of Strezhevy Aleksandrovsky district. Teaching the Khanty language in the Tomsk region is not conducted. Now work on collecting material for creation of manuals in the Vasyugan dialect of the Khanty language comes to an end with linguists of the Tomsk State Pedagogical University (TSPU).

Heads and employees of on-stage performance groups of indigenous people of the Tomsk region and teachers of the Selkup language in the majority are women with the higher or secondary vocational education. Many researchers note that for the last several decades indigenous people had a gender shift of educational level. It led to the fact that "among persons with an average special, unfinished by the highest and actually the higher education of the woman considerably prevail over men, and average educational level at women appears higher, than at men" [1, page 190]. Indigenous people of the Tomsk region do not show an exception in this row.

1 Research is executed with financial support of RGNF within the RGNF research project "Indigenous ethnic groups of the North of the earth Tomsk: fate of traditions and language" No. of 05-01-64102a/T.
Simone Magdalene Anne
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