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UDK 94 (47).047


Yaroslavl state university of P.G. Demidov


In article the condition of communities of Old Believers - Kapitonov in the central Russia in 50-60 of the 17th century is considered. The author investigates arrangement, activity and social composition of the Old Belief communities. The interrelation of government investigations of Old Believers and crushing of the first Old Belief organizations is for the first time analyzed. The centers of Old Believers and their relationship with patronage communities are studied. The problem of relationship of leaders of the Old Belief communities and their relation to disintegration of the uniform movement is considered.


History of the Russian Old Belief continues to draw the closest attention domestic and foreign issledovateley1. Now the regional aspect of this problematiki2 is of particular interest. However, despite the carried-out researches, the fate of Old Belief leaders and the communities created by them remains to the unknown. So, the last years of life of one of leaders of the movement Kapitona of Danilovsky connect with the Vyazniki cells. But this stage of Old Belief is poorly known to researchers. There are no exact data and on Kapiton's death.

Birthplace of the founder of one of currents of early Old Belief not ustanovleno3. It is known only that "this ubo chernets was tonsured there is no place near the house, a yak to a byasha Kolesnikovo is poor sy and a neimyasha chy in the world pitatisya, otshed far from the village of Danilovsky, to the place naritsayemy, and tamo began life on a sample pustynnozhite-leu" 4. To the middle of the 30th of the 17th century Kapiton was one of adherents of ancient piety, the authoritative and pious monk. The spiritual authorities of claims to it had no. In 1634 the aged man received from the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich the diploma with the permission to found Troitsk monastery in Kostroma uyezde5. At construction of new monastery Kapiton proved talented organizatorom6.

In 1639 the fired Ryazan Preobrazhensky's archimandrite of the monastery Gerasim living some time with brotherhood of the monastery gave for Kapiton a denunciation "about neistovstvo". Kapiton was arrested and sent to the Yaroslavl Spassky monastery, and then banished in Tobolsk7. In 12 years after arrest and exile to Tobolsk Kapiton lodged in a cell on the Shach River of the Kostroma County. Having found cells there, local authorities crushed them, but Kapiton managed to run to the Shuysky County where he lived to the middle of the 1650th in deserts at the village Kalbatskogo8. And there the aged man managed to leave from

1 Paert I. Old Believers, religious dissent and gender in Russia, 1760 - 1850. Manchester, 2003; Taranets S.V. Kurenevskoye trimonastyrye: the history of the Russian Old Belief center in Ukraine (l675 — l935 of). Kiev, l999; Taranets S.V. Dzherela z a _stor і ї Pravoberezhno's Old Belief ї Ukra§ni k_ntsya XVIII - to an ear of XX stolyttya. Ki§v, 2007; Starukhying NA. Split of Russian Orthodox Church of the 17th century Novosibirsk, 2006; etc.
2 A.V. Borodkin, K.V. Vitushkin, N.V. Prokofieva. Old Believers of the Upper Volga: last, real and future. Yaroslavl, 2008; I.S. Nagradov. Old Belief world of the Kostroma province. Kostroma, 2008.
3 Life of the monk Cornelius//Stories on Old Belief stories. SPb., l86l; The Third district message of Ignatiy, metropolitan Siberian and Tobolsk / / Orthodox interlocutor. l855. Book l. Page 3.
4 The third district message of Ignatiy... Page 96 — 99; A. Zhuravlev. Full historical news of ancient strigolnik and new dissenters. M, l890. Page 83.
5 V.S. Shulgin Kapitonovshchina and its place in split / / the History of the USSR. l969. No. 4. Page of l30 — 131.
6 Titov A. Kalyasnikovsky necrology. M, l895. Page 4l — 43.
7 Preobrazhensky AA. Unknown autograph of the Siberian chronicler Savva Yesipov / / Soviet archives. 198z. No. 2. Page 63 — 65.
8 A.I. Klibanov. The history of religious sectarianism in Russia. M, l965. Page 4l — 43.

Sagittariuses. Kapiton's elusiveness got to him huge popularity among peasants. Called by name the founder, the movement of captains became a part of the Russian Old Belief, got into Siberia, into Pomorze and to Don, covered counties of the central Russia.

The tsarist government applied streletsky investigations to destruction of the movement of captains. Besides the Order of secret affairs, Ambassadorial, Digit and Patriarchal orders were engaged in investigation of dissenters. If necessary local voivodes and the spiritual authorities had access to documents of these investigations. The most interesting documents left investigations of the Patriarchal order: investigation of 1661 of the clerk A. Yakovlev; investigation of 1661 against Troitse-Sergiyev's dissenters of the monastery; investigations of 1662 near Vyazniki, in Yuryevets Volga region and in the Kostroma County, 1664 on Kerzhentsa, 1666 on Vyatka and in Vologda. The latest detective business of this order is dated 1673 9

The "last" cells of Kapiton appeared near Vyazniki: "A hail ubo Yaropolch, having the posad or the dwelling Vyazniki in the Vladimir region... to an idezha and in it time of a nikonov of confusion... from grads and monasteries of a begayushcha inoyets and wordly in deserts kryyakhusya... tamo predivny father Kapiton zhivyashche... to that schoolgirl's mnoz to a byakh of strange life his imitators" 10.

Carrying on Vygovsky hagiographical tradition, Simeon Denisov drew Kapiton the initial successor of the all-Russian monkhood, tried to achieve identity of the zhitiyny text with early monuments to the Russian hagiography. The aspiration to forms of Old Russian life forced it to end the narration Kapiton's death. However news it is not reliable. V.S. Rumyantseva reasonably believes that comparison of statements of Efrosin (80th of the 17th century) and Simeon Denisov (20th of HUS of century) about Kapiton and his doctrine show process of "ossification" of Old Belief ideology from which "all was emasculated live". And if into Efrosin's composition "ideological fight between different currents about-tivotserkovnogo movements, at the end of the century received Old Believers' registration (from it sectarian separated) still rushes", then Denisov "has a reconsideration of the initial version of split within donikonovsky orthodox tradition" 11.

Kapiton Danilovsky's biography became a part of his doctrine. In Old Belief literature various data on his death meet. Simeon Denisov demonstrated peaceful death. Some Old Belief necrologies of XV11 — mention the 18th centuries Kapiton among "The Vyazniki murdered hermits", confirming the assumption of violent smerti12. Number of early necrologies (end

XVII century) calls Kapiton svyashchennoinoky and skhimniky. Old Belief necrologies of the beginning and the middle of the 18th century are not mentioned Kapiton's priesthood. Necrologies and funeral articles of the middle and the end of the 18th century do not call Kapiton skhimonakhy. And necrologies of the beginning of the 19th century (including all their modifications) even remove a mention of the monk Kapiton, "The Vyazniki martyr", on the last place in the general transfer of the dead. In the summary Old Belief necrology Kapiton is mentioned in "The Vyazniki list" as too "injured for drevletserkovny piety" 13.

Results of government investigations of 1665 — 1666 clear up Kapiton's fate a little. "And aged man de Kapiton... your lackey, imat in the past... to year from the wood of hermits and cells burned down beyond Klyazma, and Kapiton under those cells". Chernets Varnava seized at the end of December, 1665 with Sagittariuses on the lake Yukhra showed that "about Kapiton the aged man, he heard that he lived in those deserts and is chained to a chain and

9 V.S. Rumyantseva. The people's anti-church movements in Russia in the 17th century of M., 1986.
10 S. Denisov Vinograd Rossiysky or the description of victims in Russia for drevletserkovny piety. M, 1906. Page 46.
11 V.S. Rumyantseva. People's anti-church movements. Page 79.
12 National Library of Russia (NLR). F. Sobraniye of the St. Petersburg spiritual academy. 3318. State Archive of the Yaroslavl Region (SAYR). Fund of rare books. Op. 1. 1406, 1442, 1435.
13 A.I. Pypin. Summary Old Belief necrology. SPb. 1883; GAYaO. Fund of rare books. Op. 1. 1434. L. 8.

died long ago. And itself Varnava did not see his Kapiton" 14. It is so unknown and mysteriously "violent chernets" Kapiton Danilovsky finished the course of life. But his name remained popular in the people until the end of the 17th century. There were legends that he is alive, safely disappeared from investigations and still preaches. Impostors often used this legend, giving themselves for Kapiton or for his spiritual pupils. This tradition remained till 19th century. In the 1860th Kapiton was looked for in the Nizhny Novgorod and Murom Counties, in the 1880th — in Kineshma and Kostroma. At the same time Kapiton was mentioned in Old Belief manuscripts less frequently, and to the middle

XVIII century his name began to meet only incidentally, in connection with "The Vyazniki martyrs".

Since the end of the 1650th when near Vyazniki Kapiton with pupils lodged, the Vyazniki communities became the regional center of opposition to the church policy of the government. Since the beginning of the 1660th this area was taken by Moscow under special supervision. The captains of the power running here were suspected of the organization of disorders of 1654 in Moscow. Life of the Vyazniki hermits was watched closely by the Moscow "poslukh" reporting to the capital about all what was seen and heard.

The first investigation of captains in Vyazniki was carried out in 1662. Its documents did not remain. The second — in 1665 — 1666 on April 24, 1665 the priest of the Vyazniki settlement Vasily Fedorov informed the metropolitan Pavel, the locum tenens of a patriarchal throne, on emergence "behind the Klyazma River in a pine forest" kapitonov15: they "cells put and in the earth of a hole did, and to God's church do not go" 16. These facts in 1665 were confirmed in the denunciation by the archbishop Illarion. The maintenance of a denunciation caused strong alarm of the government. Investigation was carried out under personal observation of the tsar. Since December 5, 1665 to the middle of February, 1666 he was seen forces of a regiment of the Moscow Sagittariuses of A.I. Lopukhin. To the middle of January in Vyazniki the special commission of inquiry of the prince I.S. Prozorovsky which part clerks of the Order of secret affairs A.S. Matveev and F. Mikhaylov were worked. Then, from February to October, 1666, captains were revealed by local authorities led by S. Chaadayev, under authority to which were placed capital streltsy17.

On December 19, 1665 the colonel Avram Lopukhin with two incomplete hundreds of Sagittariuses was sent to Pereslavl-Zalessky for capture of captains. The regiment had experience of actions against dissenters: in 1662 — 1663 already participated in investigations. On December 27 A. Lopukhin received the instruction to toughen investigation then undertook several horse campaigns to the forest lasting about a week. The archimandrite Anthony and the key keeper Andrey Beijing took part in them. Campaigns confirmed broad communications of local peasants with hermits, revealed contacts of the abbot of Annunciation Monastery Moisey with them. Sagittariuses arrested 55 people and burned 30 cells.

Besides Vyazniki at captains were renowned also Vologda obshchiny18. The first investigation of church rebels "on Vologda" was carried out by local authorities in 1665. It was headed by the archbishop Simon. The authorities were limited to collecting data on presence of Old Believers in rural arrivals of the diocese. Repeated investigation, in February, 1666, was organized much better. On the basis of earlier received data arrests of the most famous dissenters were executed.

But soon the Vologda voivode S.A. Zubov informed the Order of secret affairs about "-pitonstvuyushchikh" peasants of the county on the basis of "izvet" of the abbot of the Pavlovo-Obnorsky monastery Iosif on presence of captains in I.D. Miloslavsky's ancestral lands. The tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich ordered to S.A. Zubov to resume search of captains. Tre-

14 Tsit. on: V.S. Rumyantseva. People's anti-church movements. Page 79.
15 P.S. Smirnov. Internal questions in split of the 17th century. SPb., 1898. Page 35.
16 In the same place. Page 35
17 V.S. Rumyantseva. People's anti-church movements. Page 147.
18 Ya.L. Barskov. Monuments of the first years of the Russian Old Belief//Chronicle of classes of the imperial Arkheografichesky commission for 1911. SPb., 1912. Page 239.

ty investigation began on March 20, 1966. It was ordered to arrest "kapitonstvuyushchy" together with the teacher F. Artemyev and also "to order to ask on the aged man Kapiton" 19. The message about new investigation quickly extended among peasants and caused self-immolation cases. Already on March 21 in Lezhskom drag in the village of Mishutino 4 persons burned down. Voluntary "ashes" happened over all investigation in F. Dovlarov's ancestral lands, in Komelsky and Nikolsky volosts. Unlike former investigations, defendants in it peasants with families appeared that indicates presence of constant community. Among owners of "kapitonstvuyushchy" peasants monasteries were called Pavlov-Obnorsky, Spaso-Troitsky and, already known for former communications with Kapiton, Kornilyev-Komelskaya. Among secular owners — the boyar I.D. Milo-slavsky, landowners F. Dovlarov, V. Hvostov, S. Brechaninov and some other. In voyevodsky "formal reply" about results of investigation S.A. Zubov informed on detention of 71 captains and escape of the 8. 17 people burned themselves during investigation.

As showed investigations, important difference of the Vologda communities from Vyazniki was a significant amount of heads of "kapitonstvuyushchy" communities, in certain cases in own way interpreting the doctrine Kapitona. So, if Stepan Vasilyev's doctrine (village of Cheshashno Obnorskoy of the volost) and Timofey Trofimov in general corresponded to kapitonovshchina bases, then in Ivan Omelyanin's (village of Kiselevo) doctrine some differences already appeared. The special patronage relations between Vyazniki (center) and Vologda were opened (community). For example, Alexey Gribanov (village of Perikovy) distributed the doctrine Kapitona that was confirmed with testimonies of the family of Perfilyev-Neusypayev arrested in the village of Zarechnoy.

Distribution of a kapitonovshchina in Kostroma and partly Yaroslavl regions had the features. First, there was more strict supervision of moods of flock. In the Kostroma County carried out it Ipatyevsky and Bogoyavlensky monasteries which abbots received from the tsar direct instructions in this respect. In the Yaroslavl County, some were also engaged in it monastyri20. Secondly, in the neighborhood of Kostroma and Yaroslavl, only separate cases of "kapitonst-vovaniye" whereas the North of counties represented the area with high concentration Old Belief obshchin21 were observed. It could not but affect social composition of communities. If in the south they consisted, mainly, of posadsky people and a part of the lowest clergy, then in the north — of peasants and parsons. The North of the Kostroma County and the related districts of the Vologda and Yaroslavl lands became the place of distribution of suicides staroobryadtsev22.

The passive type of a protest characteristic of this region was expressed, in particular, in the anonymous podmetny letter beaten in March, 1666 on the main passable gate of Kostroma. The local wrote it: pointed awareness of the anonymous author of rather some details which could be known only to the resident of Kostroma to it. Suggested the statement which is carefully veiled under accusation of "lie" about belonging of the abbot of Epiphany Monastery Gerasim to "anti-christian servants" an idea of the author's belonging to "captains": it completely coincided with views of the Vyazniki aged men. The authorities attributed authorship of the letter to the Kostroma captains or run away from "punishment" Vyazniki pustynnikam23.

19 V.S. Rumyantseva. Detective business of the Secret order on the Vologda captains//History USSR. 1978. No. 2. Page 170-180.
20 Yaroslavl provincial sheets. 1890. No. 12; Yaroslavl Historical and Archival Memorial Estate (YHAME). T. 7. 52231; A.E. Videneeva. Keeping of Old Believers in monasteries of the Rostov diocese//Old Belief: history, culture, present. M, 1995. No. 4. Page 22.
21 V. Dmitriyevsky. Split of Old Belief in the Growth and Yaroslavl region. Yaroslavl, 1909. Page 74-81.
22 S. Zenkovsky. Russian Old Belief: spiritual movements of the 17th century. M, 1995. Page 381-383.
23 V.S. Rumyantseva. People's anti-church movements. Page 147 — 149; Diyev M.Ya. Kapiton — races-kolouchitel of the 17th century in the Yaroslavl and Kostroma provinces//the Yaroslavl provincial sheets. 1890. No. 12; The Raman S. Sostoyaniye of split and sectarianism in the Kostroma diocese//Kostroma

The first investigation in Kostroma was carried out till March, 1666, the Kostroma voivode Z.V. Volkov headed. During investigation it was grabbed living in a churchyard of church of Nikola Chudotvorts of the village of Nefedova, in the Plaksiny camp, the solitary man Isachko Andronikov. As it was not a face of a ministry, he was imprisoned in city prison. The second investigation was carried out in April-May, 1666, it was reaction to the podmetny letter. Investigation the head F. Alexandrov was at the head of streletskiya. However priests of villages, adjacent to Kostroma, convinced him of reliability of the flock. The Streletsky teams acting in vicinities of Kostroma did not manage to find community of captains, also attempts to establish the author of the letter ended with nothing. Judging by results of investigations, the Kostroma communities of captains were weak and shattered. At the end of the 17th century of data on them from sources disappear. Further communities in the northern and adjoining to them northeast Areas of Yaroslavshchina developed samostoyatelno24. To them there was a process of disintegration of a kapitonovshchina on separate exercises.

In the Nizhny Novgorod County of "kapitonstvuyushchy" communities there was a little. Approximately from 50th of the 17th century the county got to a coverage of the Vyazniki aged men. In the territory of the county, both the Vyazniki, and local preachers of a kapitonovshchina actively acted. There was no own center of Old Believers-kapitonov. Moreover, the Old Believers' deserts of followers Habakkuk and Dosifey which are available in the Nizhny Novgorod County completely controlled this region25. Therefore here starovery quickly broke up to separate techeniya26. Investigations were carried out also in the Nizhny Novgorod County. Investigation of 1664 covered the small territory. Repeated investigation of 1664 was carried out by the Nizhny Novgorod voivode A. Lopukhin near Kozletsky swamps.

Kapiton did not leave the uniform, acceptable for all doctrine that predetermined its fast disintegration on certain currents. Already in Vyazniki communities the doctrine was divided into two parts: "Old Belief" (adapted to a starove-riya) and "sectarian". Most widely the kapitonovshchina extended in several counties of the Central Russia: Vladimir, Gorokhovetsky, Kostroma, Vologda, Kineshma. To a lesser extent — in the Novgorod, Pskov, Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow and Yaroslavl Counties. The social composition of this anti-church movement was rather uniform — in general it was country. At the same time clergy, and in some cases — posadsky participated in it a part small and average rural (is more rare city) monashestvuyushchy.

To the middle of the 17th century the kapitonovshchina quickly covered all new and new areas. Kapiton's death coincided with the peak of popularity of the doctrine (1650 — 1664). After Kapiton's death the "kapitonstvuyushchy" communities created by him remained in private with the opponents. The most known of them were Vladimir and Suzdal obshchiny27. The Yaropolchensky volost of the Vladimir County was the center of formation of the most radical of them. The social composition of communities was rather uniform: the lowest clergy, palace peasants, monashestvuyushchy, posadsky people. Along with a kapitonovshchina the area was under the influence of initial a staroveriya which center was Vyazniki Blagoveshchen-

diocesan sheets. 1904. No. 6; L. Grandilevsky. The antichurch dissenting movement in Kostroma//the Kostroma diocesan sheets. 1904. No. 16.

24 State archive of the Kostroma region. T. 1028. Op. 20. D.8. Nekrasov A.A. Starets Kapiton Danilovsky: To a question of the beginning of church split of the 17th century in the Yaroslavl region//the Last days binding thread. Yaroslavl, 1995. Page 79 — 82.
25 A.T. Shashkov. The redneck nobleman-conservative F.Ya. Tokmachev and disputes of the end of the 17th century around heretical letters of the Archpriest Habakkuk / / Sources on stories of public consciousness and literature of the period of feudalism. Novosibirsk, 1991. Page 105 — 112.
26 S.V. Sirotkin "Raskolnichya charm" in the Arzamas County in the 70th of the 17th century//Old Belief in Russia (17-20th centuries). M, 1999. Page 262.
27 V.S. Rumyantseva. People's anti-church movements. Page 147-170. Russian State Historical Archive. T. 796. Op. 197. 204.

sky monastery. In the next years, active government investigations partially liquidated the main "kapitonstvuyushchy" communities. The movement broke up, lost mass character and gradually disappeared.



Yaroslavl State University n.a. P.G. Demidov


The article describes the condition of the communities of old believers-capitons in the Central Russia of the 50-60 of XVII century. The author investigates location, activity and social composition of old believers& communities. The interconnection of governmental searches of old believers and the division of the first old believers& organizations is analyzed for the first time. The centers of old believers have been studied, as well as their interrelations with the patronage communities. The problems of relations between the old believers& leaders and their attitude to the collapse of the united movement is investigated.

Gustafsson Camilla
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