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Jurists organizers of the power of provisional government on the Southern Cossack outskirts of Russia

 © 2006 of N.V. Zvezdov


After renunciation of Nicholas II's throne on March 2, 1917 the power in Russia passed to provisional government. Photos of ministers and the charter of the February revolution announcing freedom were published in newspapers. On March 3, 1917 the prime minister of book Lviv the telegram instead of governors appointed commissioners of provisional government to whom the rights and duties of the former governors were appropriated [1] to places. Deputies of the I-IV State Dumas Mitrofan Semyonovich Voronkov (Don, the teacher, one of initiators of reform of national education in the area) became regional commissioners in the south of; Kondrat Lucic Bardizh (Kuban, Cossack officer); deputy of I, IV State Dumas Mikhail Aleksandrovich Karaulov (Terek, Cossack officer).

In formation of institute of government commissioners the significant role was played by jurists. So, the lawyer N.N. Nikolaev, the graduate of law department of the St. Petersburg university, the deputy of the IV State Duma, in March, 1917 became the commissioner of provisional government of the Black Sea province (the member of the party of cadets since 1905, from nonresident peasants of the Kuban region). In 1917 he was a delegate Kuban regional are glad. Was always a supporter of formation in Kuban of the Cossack statehood. At a regional congress of non-residents at the beginning of November, 1917 it expressed it in the statement: "Now any citizen looks for in the storming world of a firm support, but does not find it. Such support can be found only in the Cossacks" [2].

The lawyer V.F. Zeeler, the leader of cadets of Rostov since 1905, the graduate of law department of the Kharkiv university barrister (till 1917 - one of heads of Dono-Kubano-Terskogo of the territorial union) became the central figure in state governing bodies in the southern capital also. On March 3 he headed Civil committee of Rostov. And on March 6 the major general N.P. Meyer, resigning, transferred him the position of the city's mayor according to the cable order of provisional government [3]. In several days the lawyer V.F. Zeeler was appointed the commissioner of provisional government in Rostov-on-Don.

He, undoubtedly, used the high official capacity for association of jurists on area. On March 26 in Rostov under its presidency the meeting of lawyers of Area of army of Donskoy took place. Vladimir Feofilovich stated an essence of the views on questions of the Russian statehood in the report: "I say that there should not be a diarchy at us. No control, anyway, over provisional government can be. Any & #34; но"... I recognize force behind Councils of workers and soldier's deputies, but nevertheless the organization cannot be at the head of the Russian interests at all. There has to be a general submission to the government. Council of working and soldier's deputies - the adviser - only provisional government the power. I heard

here: & #34; Long live socialism! & #34;. We proclaim now: & #34; Long live Homeland! & #34;" [4].

V.F. Zeeler was seriously concerned by weakness of the Rostov Civil committee which he headed, and more powerful influence of public executive committee led by Mensheviks. On March 10, 1917 at a meeting of Civil committee with satisfaction reported about further expansion of a social support of the organization headed by it - inclusion in it of 12 more people. New members of Civil committee represented: society of dentists (doctor A.P. Hartakhay, one of leaders of cadets of Rostov since 1905, the deputy of the I State Duma), doctors of Rostov and Nakhchivan (doctor Kechek, Popov), employees of national bank, society of the journalists serving the representative for purchase of bread for army of district country presence, an authorized city meeting, post office, city food office (in total more than 20 people), commercial club, savings banks, treasury [5].

Jurists held posts of government commissioners on many very important sectors. So, on March 14 the Rostovskaya Rech newspaper reported: "For the Don region the chairman of the board of barristers of the district and the Novocherkassk trial chamber P.P. Kazmichev is appointed the commissioner of the Ministry of Justice" (the last was an activist of party of cadets). Almost at the same time in management of the Vladikavkaz railroad it was appointed the government commissioner of Rutt who was also a member of the party of cadets.

In the districts of Don the jurists who are engaged in judicial practice, sympathizing the liberal opposition to a tsarism became government commissioners N.N. Melnikov (the magistrate, the graduate of law department of the Moscow university) became the commissioner of provisional government of the II Don district, at the same time headed district executive committee; the cadet G.A. Salsky became the commissioner of the Rostov district (at the same time was the chairman of district executive committee).

In Kuban the posts of commissioners of provisional government in departments of area were held: the barrister P.M. Kaplin (member of Ekaterinodarsky party committee of cadets) became the commissioner of the Caucasian department; the colonel A.P. Filimonov (military justice officer) - the Labinsk department; the Social Revolutionary A.M. Belousov - Batalpashinsky department (at the same time was the chairman of civil committee of department, it is elected as a member of the Kuban regional executive committee). Jurists A.M. Belousov and I.P. Pokrovsky were authors of the "Resolution on offenses" adopted by a regional congress of non-residents (November, 1917). This standard and legal document condemns the facts of invasion into affairs of civil society from the Cossack authorities of Kuban: "persecution against

teachers", "mass expulsions of democratically spirited teachers out of borders of the Kuban region", prosecution "persons who are at the head of public organizations in general", "violation of the rules of the unions and meetings" and

other [6].

The group of lawyers was high also in Ekate-rinodarsky Council: D.M. Sverchkov (the chairman of the board after S. Dunin), P.S. Shirsky, I.A. Simanov-sky, A.D. Solntsev. With transformation of Civil committee in the Committee of Public Safety (CPS) cadets lawyers V.Ya. Arondar, G.M. Globa-Mikhaylenko, Podushko became members of its presidium.

In the Tersky region the jurists were appointed government commissioners in the Vladikavkaz district (magistrate S.G. Talatov), Nalchik (investigator Chizhokov), Grozny (barrister Ilyin).

Commissioners of districts sought to lean on the most mass and authoritative organization in Vladikavkaz - executive civil committee (on March 9 it is announced by regional). Its chairman was originally A.E. Petrov; cadets jurists Kazmin (the chairman after Petrov), Chepelyugin (chairman's companion), lawyers P.A. Karaulov (brother of the ataman M.A. Karaulov), I.B. Manuylov were the leading center. The authority of jurists unusually increased as authors of the first standard and legal documents of new authority and release of political prisoners. For example, the lawyer I.B. Manuylov made the extraordinary statement on March 7, 1917 at a meeting of civil executive committee of Vladikavkaz: "About stay in execution of the death sentence pronounced by military district court concerning four defendants" which made great impression. The special commission which prepared the corresponding telegram to provisional government was elected. Execution of a sentence was suspended [7].

In research literature for many years was considered that Councils were original bodies of democracy. It, is undoubted, so, but in relation to the postoctober period when Councils from just public organization of spring of 1917, having realized the historical mission, became bodies of public authority. In the spring - summer of 1917 public executive committees in which were presented more and more or less significant public organizations including Councils were bodies of democracy. Executive committees announced themselves authorities of provisional government in the cities and large settlements. The dispute on essence of public executive committees does not cease till today. Therefore for understanding of their being it is appropriate to provide the documents of that time made by jurists. So, on March 8 in Rostov the Public executive committee was created (74 persons, including 30 - from Civil committee, 30 - from Council of working and soldier's deputies, 9 - from soldier's committee, 3 deputies - from officer council, 2 - from students). Jurists played the leading role in the new organization. Among them there were lawyers P.S. Petrenko (chairman), lawyers M.B. Smirnov, A.A. Nikolaev,

V.P. Litov, A.S. Alperin and others (including E. Petrenko, Freud, P.M. Sabsovich, G. Zaychik - generally deputies of Council). From civil committee the public executive committee included jurists V.F. Zeeler, N.E. Paramonov, the prof. Malinovsky, I.I. Shik, etc. [8].

About a being of the new power and its competence it is possible to judge by the first resolution published on March 11 in the Rostovskaya Rech newspaper signed by P.S. Petrenko. In the document it was noted: "From now on all power in Rostov and Nakhchivan concentrates in hands of uniform establishment - public committee. The first and main objective the committee puts: strengthening of the new free system won by blood of workers and soldiers and forces of national representation preparation of the Constituent assembly on bases general, equal, direct and a ballot, proclaimed provisional government. For this purpose the public committee will organize the power and an order in the city, controls and directs all governing bodies, takes in hand the organization of food of the population, assists strengthening in consciousness of the population of bases of a new system, promotes association of a people at large and development of their amateur performance in the form of any organization, suppresses all measures in the root any attempts of powers of darkness to bring a distemper and discord between separate groups and groups of the population for the purpose of restoration of the old power. Citizens, taking in hand the power handed to it by representatives of all classes and population groups, the public committee knows well that you, citizens of the cities of Rostov and Nakhchivan, closely rally and will become organized around the new power working in full consent with the Central government" [9].

Attentive acquaintance to the document shows that his originators took as a basis provisions of the declaration of provisional government of March 3 on need of the solution of such important problems of the moment as strengthening by the won revolution of freedom, preparation of elections of the Constituent assembly on the basis of universal suffrage. The public executive committee considered itself as the supreme body of public authority in the city. The second standard and legal document of Public executive committee - an order - declared it "the higher public and administrative local government and body of supervision of activity of all government and public institutions and faces within Rostov to Dona gradonachalstvo" [10]. The public executive committee appointed 12 commissioners in city institutions and dismissed the Rostov and Nakhchivan thoughts. In the telegram the Minister of Internal Affairs Shchepkina not later than March 15 the Public committee explained to the companion dissolution of City Council of Rostov with "full unfitness of its structure to maintaining municipal economy" [10].

The decision of Public executive committee on dissolution of the Rostov thought caused objections of cadets, first of all lawyers. The protest of the scientist-jurist Derezhanov was published, he suggested "not to delete vowels of an old thought with force, and to suggest them to resign, give them

an opportunity to attend thought meetings, but with advisory capacity". He emphasized that "the competence of the municipal government of 90 percent is exhausted by the sphere of the private-law relations... the civil code is not repealed and it is possible to interfere with its sphere only carefully... Even the Rostov municipal government should not be abolished, and is kept whenever possible in its full legal essence, only entering of amendments into it is admissible. I suggest to eliminate as suppression from structure of a thought of the brightest representatives of a chernosotenstvo and an old regime at the choice and the instruction of Public committee, but in such number that the legal quorum by city situation remained" [5]. City self-government was spoken out in defense more than once by V.F. Zeeler who urged "to treat more carefully such attribute of local government as city municipality" [11].

Along with Public Menshevist executive committee the cadet Civil committee of Rostov under the chairmanship of V.F. Zeele-r continued to work. At a meeting on March 10 he considered the question "About the Resolution of Public Committee on Dissolution of the Nakhchivan Thought". By 22 voices against 4 at 10 refrained committee spoke against dissolution of a thought. Cadets at the same time resolutely spoke against combination of a position of the chairman of Public committee of Rostov (him was the Menshevik P.S. Petrenko) and the mayor's position. The member of Civil committee, the member of a justice of city self-government who then will really participate in work of self-government of the city has to become the last, according to cadets. Members of Civil committee collected 300 thousand rubles for the device in the city of free dining rooms. The prof. Malinovsky, L.A. Paramonova, A.S. Kistov were elected to the commission on development of the project of the device of dining rooms. The commission of promotion in the city and the area which included cadets professors Malinovsky, Lebedev, Kurilov and also moderate socialists A.Z. Gorodissky, I.G. Dobrokhotova, Ozerov is organized. The commissioner in a food justice was appointed [5].

On March 17, 1917 the Rostovskaya Rech newspaper commented on the resolution of Public committee on the statement of 12 commissioners of the new power: finance, improvement of the city, the concession enterprises (the tram, power plants, a water supply system, phone, etc.), the national education, medicine, sanitation and veterinary science, public contempt and the help to families mobilized, the real estate and city rent, city bank and a pawnshop, military unit and a room allowance of troops, food, an administrative part and staff, the real estate of the cities and construction. The absence in public committee of the commissioner of justice, apparently, was only temporary because in public committees, especially in the cities, there were organizationally registered legal commissions and groups (for example, in Novocherkassk, Taganrog, Azov, etc.). According to the decision of committee the commissioners were established for a while before elections to City Council on a four-membered formula. Thus, after dissolution

The Rostov City Council on March 10 the Public committee undertook functions of city self-government. The provided list of commissariats allows to make sure of it once again, confirms areas of jurisdiction as the self-government institutions dealing with issues of care of local polza and needs.

V.F. Zeeler as the head of cadets of the city was concerned by pushing off of his adherents on party from management of Public committee where Mensheviks headed by the chairman P.S. Petrenko got the best. For this purpose not later than March 21 in Nakhchivan jurists, activists of cadet party, professional. A.S. De-rezhanov, D.I. Zhuchenkov and others initiated election of 11 vowels of the Nakhchivan thought in members of the formed Public committee of Nakhchivan and were its part. One more body applying for the power of provisional government was so founded (the law professor A.S. Derezhanov became its chairman).

About areas of jurisdiction of executive committees it is possible to judge by the agenda of a meeting of Public committee of March 16, 1917: "About a flood of the Don River and Temernik", "About taking measures to regular payment of taxes", etc. According to the decision of committee funds for the help to victims of a flood were raised. In P.S. Petrenko's speech it was noted that "the population considers that the taken place revolution grants the right not to pay taxes", the speaker saw the failure to pay reason as well that "podatny inspection lost messengers of the agenda acting through policemen", though hid such important reason as discontent of citizens for those that the continuing war devours big monetary cash and demands new taxes. The lawyer speaker in conclusion noted: "The public committee is negative to the existing tax system and the government gets in the way of reforms in this direction". The public committee accepted the address to the population in which it was specified that "all types of taxation as that: a room tax, the tax of trade, a tax on immovable imu-shchestvo, income tax, stamp and others remain in force" [12].

Not later than March 30 at a meeting of Civil committee under the chairmanship of V.F. Zeeler N.E. Paramonov's report on results of his trip to Petrograd was heard (it was accompanied by Bakhtadze from Taganrog). The speaker stated existence of disagreements between public executive committee and provisional government in relation to a question of reform of local government. He urged to liquidate a divergence because further reforms to Dona without the consent of provisional government are impossible as also correct housekeeping is impossible [13].

The interim cadet Public executive committee in Nakhchivan became a counterbalance of strengthening of Menshevist influence in Public committee of Rostov. Its chairman Menshevik P.S. Petrenko and Co in a different form acted

against further development of the organization of Public committee in Nakhchivan. On March 29 at a meeting of Public committee in Rostov it made cable request for legality and expediency of the organization of the new power in Nakhchivan to provisional government and received from it the telegram that the Public committee in Nakhchivan should not be that "in Rostov there is a uniform Growth and Nakhchivan committee which will execute all functions concerning it competence" [14]. Thus, disagreements of local government with provisional government were available, however you should not exaggerate them because with development of revolution many problems were removed special delegations in the center and exchange of telegrams.

In the declaration of provisional government of March 3 the task to replace "police with national militia with the elective administration subordinated to local governments" [15] was set. The Rostov Public committee charged to the leading jurists who are its part drawing up a regulatory framework on this matter. So, in the first resolution the new power noted: "It is brought to the general attention that at each militia site national defenders from among t are appointed. t. barristers and their assistants to whom it is also necessary to apply for any references and also legal councils, claims of any given criminal acts, or other sort the offenses made by anyone to the population" [9].


For strengthening of law and order created "The judicial commission of Public committee of Rostov and Nakhchivan" which prepared and published "Rules about search and arrests" (9 rules). The commission included jurists I.I. Shik (chairman of the commission), A.S. Alperin, P.S. Petrenko, L.I. Kopylov, V.P. Litov. For the purpose of the termination of lawlessness of searches and illegal arrests the Public committee undertook duties of consideration of questions of illegal arrests [16]. On March 17 the cadet newspaper "Rostovskaya Rech" published the editorial "Against the wrong searches and arrests". As a part of Public committee the commission on city affairs where lawyers V.F. Zeeler - the chairman of civil committee of Rostov entered, prof. I.A. Malinovsky was organized - the representative of scientists-jurists of the city, N.E. Paramonov is the famous businessman, M.B. Smirnov is the deputy of the Growth and Nakhchivan Council, etc.

In the same issue of the newspaper it is mentioned two telegrams of the Minister of War A.I. Guchkov to Don where the question of how the provisional government saw the power on the Cossack Don reveals.

"The first (telegram. - N.Z.) the Minister of War authorized temporary election as the Don executive committee, the army ataman the army foreman E.A. Voloshinov until convocation of an army circle and election of the new ataman as the last... The second telegram the Minister of War recognized for Donskoy

executive committee the higher civil authority in the region. In this regard it is offered to reform the Don executive committee, having allocated from it the Novocherkassk district executive committee" [11].

A month later, shortly before A.I. Guchkov's resignation, on April 15 in his telegram it is noted to the Army Don ataman: "Until creation by the special law of provisional government of constant governing bodies and self-government to Dona, organization of regional life on the basis of a new system, in connection with an outline of the government, remains still under the authority of the Don regional executive committee and district committees united by it". The Minister of War put the army ataman into dependence on the Don executive committee and imputed to it a duty "to coordinate the activity with work of regional executive committee" [17, page 25].

Thus, the provisional government considered the Don regional executive committee as the higher authority on the Cossack Don, and the executive committees subordinated to it in districts - as its local authorities. The central government had the same relation also to executive committees in Kuban and Terek. However the relation of the Center to executive committees in the spring of 1917 was dual: the government wished to lean on them, but refused to finance them.

The enormous role in formation of the Don executive committee as regional power was played by lawyers who headed this organization and became authors of the major standard and legal documents regulating interaction of attributes of this power and relationship with the population. So, the presidium of the Don executive committee included deputies of the II State Duma, lawyers A.I. Petrovsky (chairman), K.P. Kaklyugin, I.A. Elkin (all were members of the party of cadets and headed its Novocherkassk organization since 1905, and since 1917 - and regional). Under the leadership of A.I. Petrovsky in connection with the accruing inquiries from districts the short initial instruction for education and activity of local committees" was developed ". The Don executive committee approved four appeals on behalf of the regional power ("To Cossacks and peasants", "To citizens of Novocherkassk", "To the population of the Area of Army of Donskoy", "To officers and soldiers"). Lawyers of Donskoy of executive committee developed the program of the union of Cossack farmers. Also the commission of the Don executive committee of 10 lawyers "for the management of legal side of activity of militia" was created. "For obtaining directives from Provisional government" at the beginning of March Petrograd was visited by members of Donskoy of executive committee the lawyer K.P. Kaklyugin and doctor Brykin [18].

Lawyers headed work on dredging of classified documents from regional gendarme management, atamansky office, at the senior chairman of trial chamber, the prosecutor of trial chamber and the prosecutor of district court. This work was carried out by the special commission of the Don regional executive committee into which the jurists who recognized provisional government entered. The chairman of the called commission

there was a member of the Novocherkassk district court V.I. Matveev [17, page 6-8].

Lawyers of Donskoy of executive committee raised a question of need of further reorganization of militia and insisted on fast acceptance of additional "measures for protection and more correct statement of detective office" [17, page 29] and also on creation of the special legal commission as a part of regional bureau on the preparation of a regional country congress headed by the leader of Social Revolutionaries of Don S.P. Shvetsov. In it A.I. Petrovsky saw a possibility of strengthening of the management of the Don executive committee in such important question as the organization of the peasantry in regional scale [17, page 25].

Influence of lawyers affected also in designing of structure of the Don executive committee in which new departments were created: legal, promotion, investigative, staff, agronomical [17, page 6]. A.I. Petrovsky confirms drawing up to them and his colleagues of all major standard and legal documents of the Don executive committee. He recognizes that the question of means in March - May, 1917 for this organization "remained in is disturbing uncertain situation". The petition before A.I. Guchkov for allocation to the Don executive committee of 250 thousand rubles was made by wealthy residents of Petrograd - natives of Don - delegates of the State Duma, capital lawyers M.S. Adzhemov and I.N. Efremov [17, page 35].

A.I. Petrovsky in April, 1917 sent the second telegram to provisional government with a request of the transfer to the address of the new regional power of money. He with alarm at the same time noted that "public executive committees will be forced to stop work on the organization of area and settlement of an order". Such position was supported by the regional commissioner M.S. Voronkov who emphasized that the Don executive committee "should not manage the means" [17, page 37]. On May 20 A.I. Petrovsky stated total absence of financing and announced "the termination of activity of commissioners in the region". He pointed to heavy expenses of the Don executive committee, for example, 75 thousand rubles on preparation of a regional country congress on May 14, 1917. Not enough calm concerning cash security of the power was brought by the minister of provisional government A.I. Shingarev who during stay in Novocherkassk said on May 18, 1917 that "expenses of the Don executive committee can be probably somehow refunded by a part and in that measure only in which these expenses are nation-wide, but not local".

In the declaration of provisional government of March 3 the task of the organization of elections city self-government is set. The law of April 15 indicated the need of a general election in City Councils, having called more than 450 such municipalities and the number of vowels in each of them. Such elections took place in the majority of places in July, 1917. There is a huge number of documents - generally lists of candidates for the vowels with the indication of a social status of the candidate confirming that in municipalities the legal intellectuals planned a sphere of application of the activity. So, in the list of candidates for vowels Taganrog

thoughts on the first place of a surname of lawyers P.M. Berman and M.D. Weizman. The fifth in the list magistrate Kean-lovsky [19].

Barristers A.E. Shirinov (it is a member of town council, the companion of the chairman of the board), V.M. Poderna (the member of the commission of a thought on labor protection), E.H. Muratov (public thoughts, the member of the Kuban KOB), lawyers I.P. Sokolov (member of a justice of executive committee of Council), G.K. Demenin (public City Council), M.A. Mikhaylov (the emissary of provisional government - so in a source - the ensign of artillery) were called candidates for vowels of City Council of social democrats (Mensheviks) of Armavir [20]. Lawyers Levitsky (prosecutor's companion) and V.I. Merkulov (notary) [21] became candidates for vowels of the Pyatigorsk thought.

After July municipal elections the election of heads of City Councils was carried out, among them there were many lawyers. In Rostov-on-Don A.A. Nikolaev (Social Revolutionary) became the mayor, and the chairman of the Rostov thought - B.S. Vasilyev, in Taganrog - P.I. Nikolsky (Social Revolutionary), in Novocherkassk - V.P. Litov (Menshevik), in Kislovodsk - V.P. Ovaksyan (Social Revolutionary).

We will sum up told. Jurists of the Cossack outskirts of Russia were the convinced supporters and conductors of bourgeois judicial reform of 1864 [22] and till February, 1917 became hot admirers of the liberal opposition to a tsarism, many became members of the party of cadets. Being figures of bodies of court and prosecutor's office, lawyers and notaries, they welcomed the February revolution and were spring of 1917 in the thick of things, began to participate in construction of local government actively. They held posts of government commissioners of many districts of Don, Kuban and Terek, headed a number of executive committees, became vowels of City Councils (mayors, members of the legal commissions), headed many party organizations of ruling parties: in Rostov - V.F. Zeeler is the Chairman of the Committee of cadets; M.L. Kogan-Bernstein is a member of the Central Committee, the chairman of Social Revolutionaries - in May moved to Voronezh; B.S. Vasilyev is the chairman Donkoma of Mensheviks and the RSDRP Don regional center (Mensheviks); in Ekaterinodar - P.S. Shirsky is the Chairman of the Committee of Social Revolutionaries, Ryndin is the Chairman of the Committee of cadets; in Vladikavkaz - K.B. Mamulov is the Chairman of the Committee of party of Social Revolutionaries; etc.

After the victory of the October revolution the jurists from the office of the bourgeois power began to protect it, being in the structure of the anti-Soviet governments: N.M. Melnikov is the chairman of the board of ministers of the Southern Russian government in 1920; N.D. Mirandov is a member of the joint Don government, - lawyers R.H. Kapla-nov and P. Kotsev, presumably Tersko-Dagestansky, L.L. Bych and Sultanov the pasha-bek - Kuban; V.F. Zeeler - Crimean, etc.

Units from lawyers passed to positions of the Soviet power. Among them there are, for example, left Social Revolutionaries on Dona G. A. Varelas (Taganrog), A.I. Avtonomov (Novocherkassk), Berdichevsky (Rostov-on-Don), etc.

Many appeared in the camp of anti-Soviet forces, having shared sad lot of emigrants.

Literature and notes

1. Revolutionary movement in Russia after overthrow of autocracy. Documents and materials. M, 1957. Page 449.
2. War leaf. 1917. November 9.
3. Rostov speech. 1917. March 7.
4. In the same place. March 29.
5. In the same place. March 13.
6. War leaf. 1917. November 12.
7. Tersky sheets. 1917. March 8.
8. Rostov speech. 1917. March 9.
9. In the same place. March 11.
10. In the same place. March 16.
11. In the same place. March 17.
12. In the same place. March 18.
13. In the same place. March 31.
14. In the same place. April 6.

North Caucasian academy of public service

15. Bulletin of Provisional government. 1917. No. 1 from 5 on March (18).
16. Rostov speech. 1917. March 15.
17. The report on activity of the Don regional executive committee on March 2 is on May 2, 1917 Novocherkassk, 1917.
18. Rostov speech. 1917. March 6.
19. Messenger of work. 1917. July 15.
20. News of the Armavir council. 1917. June 21.
21. Caucasian edge. 1917. July 22.
22. Appreciation to judicial reform of 1864 was given in the speech on January 6, 1914 at a meeting of the IV State Duma of collums by I.N. Efremov who noted: "Judicial charters of the emperor Alexander II are so clean, so perfect monument of a liberating era of great reforms that the grateful posterity, of course, needs to take serious measures to that quite worthy historical description of this great reform both the reform, and all life of the institutions created by it during the expired fiftieth anniversary was made".

On December 20, 2005

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