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The reasons of emergence and distribution of the French culture in Russia during Peter I's era

i. V. Ivanskaya


Work is presented by department of philosophy and cultural science of Republican humanitarian institute at St. Petersburg State University. The research supervisor - the Doctor of Philosophy, professor V.A. Shchuchenko

In article the attention that during an era of transformations the foundation of long and fruitful cultural contacts ме^ду was laid by Russia and France is paid. The central place in work is allocated to the reasons of emergence and distribution of the French culture in rus4 2

sky society of the period of reforms. Interest in the French culture in Peter's time was caused not only those practical and educational tasks which were set by Peter I, but also some features, "the attractive parties" of the culture of France. The author in detail investigates these features in the article.

In the article attention is paid to the fact that in the epoch of transformations of Peter I there was laid a foundation of long and fruitful cultural contacts between Russia and France. The central place in the article is allocated to revealing of the reasons of distribution of French culture in Russian society in the Peter&s reforms period. Interest to the French culture during Peter time has been caused not only by those practical and educational tasks which were put by Peter I, but also some features, "attractive sides" cultures of France. The author in detail investigates these features in her article.

France holds a specific place among the Western European countries with which Russia is connected long since by strong cultural bonds. Throughout two centuries French was language of the Russian society, defining the priority status of the French influence on the domestic cultural environment (the French fashion and a manner of behavior were considered as standards; the ideas of educators, the best samples of fiction, painting, music, appearing in Russia, attracted genuine and keen interest in different population groups). The basis of long and fruitful contacts, as we know, was put during Peter I's era when the Russian society becomes more open for the western influence, is interested responding to new trends, "processing" them according to the requirements.

It should be noted that the French cultural influence in pre-Pertine times was insignificant and concerned generally four areas.

It, first, arts and crafts, religious utensils, temple architecture (X1-X111 of centuries). Considerable inflow of art utensils from the West (and in particular, from France) to Russia in the 12th century is connected with blossoming and development of the cities as centers of craft and trade. The ideas and images of Christianity, a cultural core of the European medieval community, were embodied in pieces of church utensils and a decor of cathedrals. In development of carved furniture of Dimitrovsky cathedral in Suzdal, according to the researcher V. P. of Darkevicha1,

masters from the western part of the central France (school of Poitou) took part. Since the second half of the 12th century, it is possible to speak about distribution of Romance style in architecture. The Vladimir and Suzdal carvers of a stone and builders used an album of the French architect Villar de Onnecour (about 1225). About undoubted influence of Romance style in the vladimiro-Suzdal architecture p - Sal and P.N. Milyukov2.

Secondly, loans in the field of literature (French knightly stories) relating to the 17th century. They appeared in Russia originally in the Polish, Ukrainian and Serbian options after accession of Ukraine. It is about national legends on Bowe king's son and also on stories "About Otto-not, the Queen Olunda, Dalobert, the King French", "About Peter Golden Keys" popular subsequently. Images of heroes of stories - medieval knights - gradually under the influence of the Russian tradition gain lines of the Russian athletes.

Thirdly, influence of a kartezianstvo on views of teachers Kiyevo-Mogilyan-skoy of academy. Activity Kiyevo-Mogi-lyanskoy of academy in the 17th century played an important role in spiritual transformation of the Russian society, in training of its intellectual elite ready to perception of the scientific and philosophical ideas going from the West. In works of professors of academy I. Gizel, F. Prokopovich, G. Konissky it is possible to notice influence of the Cartesian ideas (for example, matter definition as substances,

the possessing geometrically measured extent comprehended by means of reason; definition of god as prime causes of the movement of matter; also idea of the corpuscular structure of matter, idea of infinite division of matter).

Fourthly, area of human (accidental) contacts between carriers of both cultures with the first comparative and estimated judgments, mainly - subjective, but with elements of the objective analysis. These contacts were sporadic. They covered both certain people, and small groups: diplomats, ambassadors, translators, merchants and travelers, but a time were much more effective in respect of knowledge of one culture another.

The attention to the French culture in Peter's times (as well as interest in the culture of other European states) was caused by those practical and educational tasks which were set for himself by Peter I, being a bright spokesman of trends of an era (development of industrial, scientific and technical, military base of the country, training of specialists). However if in Holland and England Peter I was attracted by the developed shipbuilding and the strong fleet, then in France possessing also strong army, the fleet developed by the ship-building industry, which at Zh. - B. Colbert achieved considerable success, he was interested more "the sphere of the ideas". This "sphere" included: in political and legal area - the relationship of the monarch and other society based on compliance with laws and the rights of the personality; in the field of economic - to politician of mercantilism, i.e. politician of promotion of development of the industry (manufactory production, including for needs of the Royal Court) and trade; in the field of scientific and educational - development of natural sciences, their practical application and influence on progress of society; in philosophy and art - glorification of power of the state and the governor, art and philosophical judgment of the ideas of absolutism; at last, in the field of cultural and community - secular etiquette, ability to behave in society. All their achievements, the French culture which arose on a joint of the Roman and German civilizations and absorbed in itself during Louis XIV's era with its versatility, rationalism, with installation much, on recognition of a role of reason and influence of the Cartesian ideas became the fullest expression of the European culture of Modern times. The universal nature of the French philosophy where the person and his mind as a certain abstraction, without concrete and personal and national approach, promoted penetration of the French ideas into other European countries. It was noted by the literary critic and the art critic Gyu-stav Lanson: "The French mind dealt only with the ideal person, with definition of the person, but this person & #34; in most себе" was not a Frenchman more, than the German, he was European, it was everywhere where there were people and all truth learned by reason of the person" 3. On the other hand, the distinguished secular manner of behavior peculiar to the French, ease, ease in a conversation, their sociability imposed the European court circles. "The Frenchman likes to be in society on a natural instinct" 4, - the psychologist and the art critic Ippolit Teng wrote. France presented to Europe a certain model of communication in secular society. "Aristocratic education same at all civilized people, and this education was French. Royal armies were rather afraid of Prussians, this Prussian spoke French and more resembled the Frenchman, than that grenadier who died for him" 5, - Guus-tav Lanson in "Stories of the French literature" noted. One of the brilliant yards of Germany, Saxon, contained the French chorus and the ballet in 1716. The historian Ernest La-viss speaks about his really "Parisian" luxury. (En Saxe Jean George II deployait un tel lux "a la parisienne", que le pays, deja bien appauvri avant son avenement, etait reune en 1660" 6.) At court of the Prussian king yes fall the French comedies. Even in England, the competitor of France French and etiquette reigned. The Russian diplomat B.I. Kurakin, being accepted by the English queen Anna on February 14, 1711 wrote about it in the notes: "Today, in the evening was on an audience at eya royal majesty. And to a kakov the speech spoke French" 7.

So, the French culture during Louis XIV's era "blossomed in the conditions of the strong centralized statehood, social domination of noblemen and economically already rather strong bourgeoisie" 8. The idea of the managing center - a basis of the French absolutism was in consonance lips - to remleniye of Peter I seeing itself at the head of process of transformations in which "the rationalism and the idea of the regulating order interfaced to it" 9 were combined with the idea of the monarch as "the absolute prime mover of public processes" 10. The Danish diplomat Yust Yul remembered that "quite often when in direct talk it came to good luck and feats of great sovereigns at us, the tsar did justice to many governors and sovereigns, in particular the king French" 11. Even the message of the chief prosecutor which remained in papers of the tsar and dated 1717 from Lorraine "about prediction of the prophet Nostradamus for Peter I and Louis XIV's reign" 12 confirms apparent interest in the identity of the French king and indicates some analogy in activity of two great monarchs. However, as the French researcher Roger Portal noticed, "a concept of royal advantage which was important for such sovereigns as Louis XIV, Peter I's contemporary, lost at the last personal aspect. Peter the Great was not vain. Greatness of the monarch contacted for it power of the state and the interest of the people, Russian people" (the translation of the author). (La notion de gloire royale qui est au center des preoccupations d&un souverain tel que Louis XIV, contemporain de Pierre le Grand, perd chez ce dernier son aspect personnel. Pierre le Grand n&est pas un orgueilleux. La

grandeur du roi se conford pour lui avec la puissance de l & Etat et deja avec l&interet du peuple, la nation russe" 13.) Resulted influence of absolutism on life of the French society in visible results which Peter could not but notice. The French chargê d'affaires of Shvetsii de Bozenval to the Russian emperor of April, 1722 wrote in the letter: "... I will dare to notice to your Majesty that from all European powers only one France has such qualities which you can wish to find your Majesty in the faithful ally. The form of government permits to her sovereign fast decisions, his power gives him means to urgently execute them, the courage and art in the industry of his citizens deliver it sources inexhaustible" 14. As far as experience of the French absolutism was important for the Russian tsar, confirms a number of the facts: for example, a parcel to France in 1701 of the agent Pyotr Vasilyevich Postni-kov, in 1705 the Russian ambassador in Holland Andrey Artamonovich Matveev for studying life of the French society, the Peter's trip to Paris and, at last, the translation of works of figures of the French absolutism (Richelieu, Masarini).

In the zapiskakh15 A.A. Matveev pays special attention: 1) to political and legal aspects of life of the state, namely relationship of the king and his citizens according to the legislation; 2) to accurate definition of duties of each official; 3) organizations of army and fleet (ranks, charter); 4) to education, comprehension of various sciences; 5) to architecture and "picturesque arts"; b) to secular entertainments. It in detail describes assemblies and balls in France. Matveev noted free behavior of Frenchwomen in society more than once. "The nikakova to a gap has no female of France in all honest at all communicates povedeniye with a male, kind of samyya men with any sweet and chelovekolyubny succession and courtesy" 16. So detailed description of all parties royal

life, emphases on certain spheres of activity of the state suggest an idea that all this was made by the Russian diplomat not without intention and aimed to present to Peter an example, worthy at least some podrazhaniya17.

Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev in work "A conversation about advantage of sciences and schools" emphasized: "France is the state autocratic, more than Italy, Gishpaniya, Germany and Poland. To be ruled the power of the sovereign, odnakozh to expansion of sciences not tokmo does not interfere, but more lyubomudriy sovereigns and diligence of citizens from - hour of science are multiplied and prosper" 18. The attitude towards France as for example for imitation, it is characteristic of many Petrovsky associates and especially of those who visited this country and got acquainted with her people and culture. Conan Zotov's letter of January 11, 1717 is in this regard interesting to Alexey Vasilyevich Makarov, an office secretary of Admiralties boards. In it Zotov justified himself before the tsar for the willfulness - the Talk with the marshal д&Эстре about a marriage of the tsarevitch Alexey Petrovich on one of daughters of the duke Orleans. A canon Zotov assured that he tried for the sake of the fatherland benefit, and gave very interesting arguments in defense of a marriage, "because it was necessary for date of the reason of that desire, a yak an essence: 1) that court such princess could vvest at us in customs courteous manner; 2) that the sovereign through neya all sciences could privest to Russia" 19. This fragment visually displays - howls to us that the benefit of the state becomes the most important value of Peter's time, a criterion of acts and views of the Russian person of the beginning of the 18th century. And important for the benefit of the fatherland is a studying sciences and rules of conduct in what France is, according to K.N. Zotov, a sample. In 1709 in Russia the translation of the book of the cardinal Giulio Masarini "A short book of politichny affable acts" appeared, in 1725 "Political testament" of the cardinal Richelieu was translated. French copy of the book

"will Zh. - B. Colbert" was stored in private library of A.P. Hannibal. Peter I of France emergence in Russia turned out to be a direct consequence of visit in 1717 of the French architects, sculptors, artists and "the whole army of masters" (60 people) led by Zh. - B. Le Blond, N. Pino, F. Pilman, L. Karavakom20. Both development of the Russian-French scientific communications, and creation in 1724 of Academy of Sciences was connected with Peter I's stay in France. His phrase became a fruit of serious internal work, the reflections and observations made by the Russian tsar in France: "To adopt good at the French of an art and science, I would wish to see this at myself" 21. Results of learning French of an opa - that became: emergence of the Russian sea charter, foundation of a shpalerny manufactory in 1717 in St. Petersburg, military and engineering construction with use of manuals of the marshal of France Voban, the engineer Blondel and with the assistance of the French experts in Kronshlot, Riga, Revel, Ro-gervike, Azov (Joseph Gasper Lamber de Ge-ren, the pupil of the marshal Voban, participated in development of the plan of fortress on the Hare island and it was awarded the order to Saint Andrew the First-Called). At last, ska should - be zat that assemblies in the French style as a new type of communication, played a huge role in the course of cultural rapprochement as various people living in St. Petersburg and different population groups. They promoted emergence of new behavioral types also much - "young people of Peter's time". "Lyudskost" and "politeness" as spoke then, began to enter life of the Russian society.

So, Peter I addressing the French culture, the French statehood, set the following tasks for himself: 1) political - strengthening of the political legal framework of absolutism; 2) educational - training in various sciences, crafts, art forms, cultivation of domestic experts; 3) educational - training in manners, behavior in society, to ability to put on, messages secular

conversations, i.e. instilling of culture of communication. Naturally, all these tasks were connected among themselves by an ultimate goal - creation

new strong state and new person, first of all citizen and patriot of the country.

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2 P.N. Milyukov. Essays on the history of the Russian culture. M.: Progress culture, 1994. T. 2. Part 2. Page 11.
3 G. Lanson Istoriya French literature. M.: Type. A.I. Mamontova, 1898. T. II. Page 12.
4 I. Teng Proishozhdeniye social order of modern. France. SPb: Prod. M.V. Piro-zhnikova, 1907. T. 1. Page 175.
5 G. Lanson. Decree. soch. Page 11.
6 Lavisse E. Histoire general du IV siecle a nos jours. Paris: Librerie A. Colin, 1922. T. VI. P. 584.
7 Archive of the prince F.A. Kurakin. Saratov: Type. S.P. Yakovleva, 1893. Prince 4. Page 24.
8 Zhane D.K. French in Russia 18th century as the public phenomenon//Messenger of MSU, 1978. No. 1. C. 175.
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10 V.A. Shchuchenko. Decree. soch. Page 20-21.
11 Notes Yusta Yul, the Danish envoy at Peter the Great (1709-1711). M.: Univ. type., 1900. Page 209-210.
12 RGADA F. The 9th office of Peter I. Otd. II. Prince 34. L. 220-221.
13 Roger Portal Pierre le Grand. Bruxelles: Ed. Complexe, 1990. P. 37.
14 Collection of Imperial Russian historical society. SPb.: Type. imper. Academician of sciences, 1881. T. 34. Page 219.
15 The Russian diplomat in France. Andrey Matveev's notes. L.: Science, 1972. Page 296.
16 In the same place. Page 197.
17 The Lublin A.D. Sharkova I.S.A.A. Matveev and his work//the Russian diplomat in France. Andrey Matveev's notes. L., 1972. Page 21.
18 V.N. Tatishchev Razgovor about advantage of science and schools. M.: Type. M. Katkova, 1887. Page 122.
19 Baking P.P. Nauka and literature in Russia during Peter I's era. SPb.: General advantage, 1862. T. 1. Page 160.
20 RGADA F. The 9th office of Peter I. Otd. II. Prince 32. L. 867, 870, 871; ^ Prince 34. L. 386.
21 Peter the Great. Memoirs. Diaries. Paris - Moscow - New Iork: The third wave, 1993. Page 311.
John Huff
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