The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Master plans of development of Sevastopol 1946 of the 1980th.



tatyana of BOGATKEVICh

MASTER PLANS of DEVELOPMENT of SEVASTOPOL In 1946 - the 1980th

Master plans of development of Sevastopol comprise the most detailed information on geography, history, development of the industry, welfare activity and the structure of the population of the city. The data which are contained in general plans of development of Sevastopol undergo the procedure of declassification and are unique for objective display of post-war history of the city base.

General Development Plans of Sevastopol contain information about geography, history, and industrial development, social and cultural life of the city. Data from the General Development Plans, previously classified, is very important for scientific research of Sevastopol history after World War 2.

naval base, city, master plan of development, state, Soviet Union; Navy base, city, General Development Plan, state, Soviet Union.

BOGATKEVICh

Tatyana

Anatolyevna —

graduate student

Moscow

humanitarian

university

For all Soviet period for Sevastopol 5 master plans, apart from numerous corrections and plans of restoration and development of the center and certain areas were created. The first attempt was made in 1933 — 1936 which realization was interfered by the Great Patriotic War. And though the project and remained incomplete, its value is expressed not only in importance of emergence of the first large-scale development plan for the city with prospect for 20 years, but, first of all, in those materials which gave the detailed description of image of the pre-war city. For the architects collecting on particles data on each building in the destroyed Sevastopol it gave the chance in details to reconstruct many objects.

During the post-war period were created and approved by Councils of ministers of RFSFR and Ukrainian SSR of 4 master plans from which the main objective of first two (1946 and 1949) was restoration of the city after war. The plan of 1949 was developed with prospect till 1970. But actual rates of development of city infrastructure and the rapid growth of the population which is not provided by architects and also cancellation of the "closed" status of the city in post-war years caused the necessity of creation of the new plan which development was conducted in 1963 — 1965. As well as the previous, this plan was calculated for 20 years. On its basis from 1979 to 1983 the design group led by architect V.P. Shcherbinina developed the last master plan of development of the city up to 2000

The main disagreements arose concerning restoration of the downtown where, according to local architects and administration, it was necessary to maintain all subject restorations of the building not to break historically developed image of the city. The architect G.B. Barkhin sought to construct absolutely new Sevastopol — a symbol of power and power of the Soviet system, a monument to valor and courage of the Soviet people. At meetings of the architectural commission city ruins as the museum under the open sky — a live reproach to fascism were suggested even to keep options, and to build the city on the new place — for example, on North side.

The master plan of G.B. Barkhin defined basic purpose of Sevastopol — ensuring activity of base of the Black Sea Fleet: first, compliance of the project of restoration of Sevastopol to major importance of the city as main naval base

Black Sea Fleet, naval port and fortified city; secondly, coordination of the city map concerning communications and communication of city street network with bases of navy, with internal drives to the major basic objects and the enterprises and with external network of the roads serving the district of Sevastopol with the objects of special value located on it.

The main idea of G.B. Barkhin was in creating the seaside city where since any end the sea view opens; appearance of buildings, extensive parks and majestic monuments — everything has to speak about greatness and power of the Russian fleet.

However after personal arrival of I.V. Stalin to Sevastopol and signings of the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR of "About Actions for Acceleration of Restoration of Sevastopol" in 1948 there was a need of creation of the new plan of restoration. Its development took place directly in Sevastopol as it was recognized that without continuous direct contact with the construction organizations, city and naval administration high-quality execution of architectural plans is impossible.

The master plan and the project of the first stage of construction was developed by the Sevastopol architects — Yu.A. Trautman, V.M. Artyukhov and others while development of detailed local plans of quarters, projects of certain buildings were charged to various design organizations from Moscow and Leningrad.

The government of the country set the task — not simply to restore Sevastopol what it was before war, with the population in 112 thousand people, but to create the sea capital, the industrial center, the new prospering big city in all respects surpassing the pre-war level meeting the requirements of modern naval base. This task was successful is realized. According to the new project, the territory of the city considerably extended from pre-war 2,894 hectares to 4,473 hectares, with the settlement population in 200 thousand inhabitants by 1970

The second final project of restoration and reconstruction of the city was approved in 1949. The initial plan of G.B. Barkhin according to which there were systems -

a telstvo till 1949, it was taken as a basis, it is added and corrected.

The master plan came from the main structure of the territory of the city and was developed with thorough accounting of an environment: the nature of a relief, the system of hills, numerous bays, alternation of deep beams with steep slopes and watersheds, existence of comfortable territories. The project supposed to organize the semi-ring highway connecting the City and Ship sides and also the system of the radial directions. The street network considered the remained basic building, but received noticeable integration in comparison with the old city; streets lay between hills and descents to the sea.

During implementation of the master plan of 1949 the restoration of the city was completed, the central ring of Sevastopol gained the modern look, the most significant monuments and buildings, including houses on B. Morskoy St., Lenina, etc., the building of the well-known Panorama of the 1st defense of Sevastopol, the Palace of pioneers, a park complex of Primorsky Boulevard, etc. were constructed and restored. And even new buildings, such as theater of Lunacharsky and Sevastopol hotel on Nakhimov Avenue, sought to sustain in one style, organically entering them in historically developed image of the city.

The period of "thaw" of the second half of the 1950th — the beginning of the 1960th for Sevastopol became time of significant changes, increases in a civil component in city base life. First of all, it was connected with enhanced action of fish port and also with the decision to open the city.

The new master plan of development was developed by the Sevastopol branch Giprograda under the leadership of the architect K.V. Butova (consultant V.M. Artyukhov) and approved in 1965. It was the full project calculated on systematic long-term development of the city. During the period from 1963 to 1965 in connection with opening of the city, with construction of the large industrial enterprises of exact instrument making, radio engineering, radio electronics and also fish port and development of the fish processing industry the updates of the master plan were made and the project is developed

a residential suburb until 1980 with estimated population in 300 thousand people.

In the 1960th — the 1970th there was a significant growth in the territory of the city, new residential districts appeared: Cane and Streletsky bays, building of the top part of Gorpi-shchenko Street was carried out. The word "residential district" and large-scale construction of the standard houses which remained in memory of the people as "five-storey apartment blocks" and "brezhnevka", also belonged to this period.

With emergence of need of further expansion of the territory of the city in the mid-seventies development of the new master plan of development the next 20 years began.

the Last master plan of Sevastopol was systematic continuation of the predecessor. The main project works were carried out in 1979 — 1983 under the leadership of V.P. Shcherbinina's architects and V.M. Artyukho-va. The plan was calculated till 2000 and continued to remain the main town-planning document of Sevastopol up to 2004 (despite events and tests of the period of Post-Soviet history).

There are no doubts that the specified period became the most saturated and contradictory in the history of the city base, but, nevertheless, the project met the requirements of growth of living spaces: active building of North side was carried out, Ying Kerman, etc., proceeded the continuous growth of the population, the industry developed. Remained the leading industries for Sevastopol ship-repair, ship-building, instrument-making and radio engineering, providing fleet base, the fishing, fish-processing enterprises, wine growing at the same time actively developed.

Cancellation of free entry into the city did not interfere with natural developments of the city — in 1984 Sevastopol was closed again. The continuous flow of persons interested to study, to work and live in the hero town which at that time was one of the cleanest cities of the country with the developed infrastructure and great opportunities for career became the reason of such decision. But not the last role was played by need of ensuring complete control, safety and privacy for military facilities that was impossible at a large number of visitors.

The role of the Black Sea Fleet the red line passes through all master plans of restoration, reconstruction and development of the city. On the one hand, its basing in Sevastopol limited possibilities of development in some spheres (for example, in the field of tourism, sea trade), and with another — continued to be the main meaning of existence of the city where most the enterprises provided activity of naval vessels where the territory of military facilities closely intertwined with the civil sphere.

The management of the Black Sea Fleet during all post-war period not only helped with restoration and construction of separate objects, but also carried out by own efforts construction of housing for families of officers, public buildings, schools and kindergartens. For the fleet Sevastopol always remained the capital, the main base, pride; everything that in it occurred, directly infringed on the interests of sailors of the Black Sea Fleet. The fundamental role of the Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol was the firm principle during the entire period of existence of the city which was reflected in all master plans of development of Sevastopol during the Soviet period.

Bruce Gibson
Other scientific works: