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SARTIKOVA evgeniye


In article the national education as the mechanism of the Soviet modernization of Kalmykia is considered. The author depat attempt to show characteristic features and the principles of the Soviet system of national education.

In the article the national education is considered as a mechanism of the Soviet modernization of Kalmykia. The author makes an attempt to show typical features and principles of the Soviet system of national education.

national education, modernization, illiteracy, survival, native language; national education, modernization, illiteracy, survival, native language

Evgenia Viktorovna SARTIKOVA — to. and. N, associate professor; senior research associate of department of history and archeology of the Kalmyk institute of humanitarian researches of RAS of

For the first time years after the revolution the Soviet state started creation of a new system of national education. The main directions of reorganization of the Soviet school were planned in "The provision on uniform labor school of RSFSR" of September 30, 1918 and "The declaration on uniform labor school" of October 16, 1918 1 By the end of Civil war in the Soviet territory there was a new education system. It was characterized by an ideological priority (national education as means of formation of "the new person"), class approach ("the worker from the machine" and "peasant from a plough" became the main figures in educational institutions, access to educational institutions for natives of the intellectuals is complicated), directive planning and a command way of carrying out transformations.

Sharp decline in quality of the average level of education became result of such "democratization". Heads of educational institutions took fixation on "quantitative coverage", but not on quality of training. There was a characteristic chain: mass school — the mass teacher — the mass pupil — training in a template — an alignment at assessment of knowledge on poorly prepared pupil.

All these features and the principles of the Soviet system of national education by 1920 were widespread on all Soviet Russia including in Kalmykia. However to develop at once all links of the Soviet system of national education here it was not represented possible. Interfered with it unpreparedness of indigenous people, accustomed to a nomadic way of life, to regular trainings in stationary educational institutions, lack of necessary infrastructure.

Therefore at this stage the creation of local links of training became the main task of the leaders of the Kalmyk autonomous region: elementary comprehensive school and some types of local and secondary professional education. For broad development of secondary vocational education here of higher education institutions it was necessary to improve in Kalmykia and the organization economic,

1 National education in the USSR: comprehensive school: collection of documents. 1917-1923 - M., 1974, page 133-145.
201 0& 11

social and common cultural conditions. In the 1920-30th the elimination of illiteracy among adults became one of the major conditions. By 1920 only 56 people competent were the share of 1,000 residents of the Kalmyk area (5.6%)&. The Soviet power developed the state program of overcoming mass illiteracy, the wide social movement on its realization was developed. Likbezovsky work was sought to be made complex, having combined it with promotion of culture of life, sanitary and hygienic norms, fight for equality of women, etc.

However the achieved results were not fixed by transition studying in stationary schools. After a while there was mass recurrence of illiteracy though official statistics dazzled with victorious reports. Nevertheless the campaigns of the accelerated educational program following one by one nevertheless allowed to raise the level of elementary culture at adult population.

The nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life of the population of Kalmykia caused functioning of such types of school institutions as the schools coming, boarding schools, orphanages and school colonies. The type of boarding school gave the chance to children of nomads to get an education and education. Boarding schools and orphanages with schools at them made 35% of total number school uchrezhdeniy2. For the European part of Russia it was the unique phenomenon. Not smaller distribution was received by school colonies (to tell more precisely, schools farms). Organizing schools farms, the department of national education solved several problems at once: such schools paved the way for transition of the people to settled life, at the same time were in relation to local conditions the best solution of a question of uniform labor school.

The question of preparation of pedagogical shots for the Kalmyk school was particularly acute. The first in the Soviet Kalmykia school with the Kalmyk language of training was open in the settlement. The Kalmyk Market in 1923. Since 1924/25 academic years regional department national obrazova-

1 National archive of the Republic of Kalmykia (further - NARK), t. R-3, op. 2, 51, l. 138.
2 NARK, t. R-3, op. 1, 25, l. 68 (about).

a niya started the gradual translation into the native language of teaching schools of the 1st step. In 1925/26 academic year 34 schools (30%) of the Kalmyk area passed to teaching in the native language. In 1936 in Kalmyk with the ASSR 897 teachers from whom had the higher education 81, the unfinished highest - 34, average - 364 worked, initial and seven-year-old - 398 people 3 By the end of the 1930th at schools of the republic worked already 1,400 teachers, from them with the higher education - 86, unfinished by the highest - 156, an average pedagogical - 630, an average the general - 227 and incomplete secondary education - the 302nd persons. Mass editions published school textbooks and grants. If in 1924 in the Kalmyk autonomous region there were 75 schools of the 1st step and 4 schools of the 2nd step, then in 1927 there were already 140 schools of the 1st step, 5 schools of the 2nd step, and in 1940 224 initial, 50 seven-year, 29 high schools, normal school, agricultural technical school, medical school worked here. Forms and methods of work of schools were improved.

The all-Union population census of 1939 recorded that competent among the population Kalmyk aged from 9 years and 70,8%41 was more senior than the ASSR. In comparison with 1897 (2.6%) and 1926 (26.3%) is essentially new step. However ahead a lot of work still waited: about 30% of all Kalmyks of working-age (including about 36% of women) still remained illiterate.

Compulsory primary education became the following really productive link in the system of national education. Since 1930, work on compulsory education of younger generation began to be carried out steadily. Sharply there was a question of the organization of local professional school.

Formation of professional education - from preparation of "shots of mass professions" before formation of a group of experts of the top skills - took place in terms of the priorities dictated by requirements of survival of the people. So, for overcoming masso-

3 NARK, t. R-25, op. 3, 31, l. 273.
4 All-Union population census of 1939: The main results / under the editorship of Yu.A. Polyakov. - M.: Science, 1992, page 40-41.

vy epidemics it was necessary to train health workers from local community. For broader development of national education the training of Kalmyk teachers was so priority. The economy needed in spetsia - sheets-cattle breeders, etc.

Before revolution the Kalmyk people had only two opportunities: extinction in the closed space of the steppe or dispersal on spaces of the empire and russification, i.e. loss of national culture, originality, and in the long term - assimilation, disappearance of the small people. In the 19th century not numerous cohort of educators in the Kalmyk steppe sought to keep people language, at least as "internal", household, training at the same time limited number of the Kalmyk children in Russian. The bilingualism gave to the people some guarantee of survival. After the revolutions of 1917 and education (reconstruction on a new basis) the Kalmyk statehood in the form of the autonomous region (1920) the situation began to change essentially. Bilingualism

began to develop by parallel development of national culture, the native language and development of the Russian culture, Russian.

Thus, in the considered years in Kalmykia the modernization of a system of national education was carried out. Public policy in education had pronounced class and ideological character. It was directed to demolition of old school and creation of a new education system. Despite all difficulties and contradictions in the system of national education, in the republic the school network extended, the number of pupils grew, their progress increased, the quality of work of schools improved. Fight for implementation of the law on general compulsory elementary and seven years' education these years became one of the most important tasks of the school organizations of Kalmykia. The concept of national school taking into account specifics of indigenous people was developed, textbooks were published, the system of preparation of pedagogical shots was developed.

Juan Boone
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