The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

"Going together": way of political self-determination

P.I. Rozovsky



In modern Russia, unlike Russia post-Perestroika, there is any more no such number of short-lived parties which was at the beginning of the 90th when on society blew softly the stupefying freedom smell. Then parties grew as mushrooms after a rain and also quickly stopped the existence. So it is possible to tell that only especially persistent and purposeful parties and public associations reached our days. Such is a situation in the world of "adult" policy.

The situation with the youth organizations and associations is even simpler: in Russia there are practically no independent youth political movements a little noticeable in political arena. "Hardy" movements arise and obviously work only under the auspices of the senior companions, that is youth parties by all means are offices of "adult" parties. Such situation developed on all directions: on left, right and centrist.

It should be noted that during B.N. Yeltsin's presidency the arrangement of political forces radically differed from modern: then in political arena "right" and "left" were the main characters. Now it is possible to speak about the center as the leading political force in Russia.

This trend could not but concern youth. In particular, emergence and strengthening of the youth organization Going Together became manifestation of this trend.

In the present article the attempt to study structure, structure, the program documents, the purposes and tasks of this youth organization implemented by it projects and socio-political actions and also the reaction caused by them in media and the public which are carried out by it becomes. As the main source the materials which are on the central website of the organization were used. Were analyzed also the publication, appearing in media, mainly electronic, in connection with the actions which are carried out by it.

The youth organization Going Together officially exists more than two years: it registered as regional public organization on July 14, 2000. A year later, July 13, 2001, it registered as the all-Russian public organization, having received certificate of registration No. 4 070. Thanks to the fact that branches of the organization are available in many cities of the Russian Federation the organization totals about 50,000 people from whom 80% - students. The age of her members generally fluctuates from 15 to 25 years.1

The organization lives with money of various sponsors among which - several large companies and banks.

Going Together consider the main objective assistance to education spiritually, is moral also physically healthy youth capable to provide real revival of Russia and also assistance to creation of democratic society.

To achieve these objectives, Going Together intend to solve the whole complex of problems.

Despite often declared loyalty of the power, they consider primary task of the organization protection and protection themselves, and also all youth, from an arbitrariness of the state.

In particular it is about protection of the right for universal free education.

Besides, "going together", as well as other youth organizations of right-centrist sense, the question of freedom of self-determination in military service very much interests. They intend to try to obtain a possibility of alternative service for those young people who, according to the principles or religious beliefs, do not consider for themselves possible to protect the homeland up in arms. Practically in all population groups the youth for various reasons tries to achieve the right not to be at war. This requirement most likely was caused by the war in Chechnya and also the fallen wave of information on hazing in army, a wave of desertions and to volume of similar cases, "anti-advertizing" for army.

Besides the questions connected with education and military service, Going Together intend to undertake protection of those young people who became subject to attack and humiliation from law enforcement agencies. It is about an arbitrariness of militia which is often directed to youth. They, in particular, protested against a so-called "round-up of recruits" which was made by law enforcement agencies of Moscow in the fall of 2,001 g 4

Besides, the organization sets as the purpose preservation and protection of the centers of youth culture.

In the declarations "Going Together" often there are elements of youthful maximalism and idealism at assessment of the situation and the role in public life. They say: "We seek to become the real force, we aspire to that society respected "going together", forgot about the omnipotence, understanding that there are forces not subject to them. That ordinary people saw - there are those who will intercede for their children. There are still people whose interests are not limited to purse thickness".

The second block of tasks which are set for itself by Going Together, - formation of spiritual shape of modern youth. They consider it necessary to break down the numerous stereotypes which are existing in consciousness of youth, came from the near "stagnant" past from prisons and gates and also for some reason "from the West". According to them, "it is inadmissible to trade in drugs, to spit on parents and seniors regardless of

that, they are right or not, to steal instead of working,


and to be proud of it".

The third block of tasks is connected with a role of the organization in society and formation of the image. Going Together seek to create the relation to the organization as to force which always where positive energy, unity and active living position is necessary.

The fourth block has partially something in common with the first, but has more economic, than legal orientation. Going Together intend to fight for return of the lost social benefits and guarantees. It is about quality free education, equal opportunities at entering higher education institutions, high grants and grants, grants needy, free summer camps, discounts. Setting such tasks, they clearly show, how far from reality they estimate a situation and complexity of a situation in the country. The fact is that it is not about intention to achieve the corresponding results in the future, and about complaints to absence them already now, for present generation. In these requirements clearly look through stereotypes of consciousness of the Soviet era. Members of the organization do not ask a question from where the state will take money for satisfaction of numerous needs of youth. They just consider that the state has to them on that one basis that they exist.

The fifth block of tasks has exclusively declarative character, and these declarations on frankly teenage emotions are constructed. Going Together speak about the right "to choose "Pepsi", Stimorol and all other of advertizing soap only when it is pleasant to us, but not when it is wanted by big-bellied men from advertizing departments".

Despite obvious contempt for "men", they intend to attract actively power structures to the solution of the problems, without concretizing ways of the decision. Many formulations "going together" can raise only a smile the childishness and not realness. But, there's nothing to be done, such is consciousness of some part of our today's youth.

At the same time - and here it is necessary to pay to ideologists "Going together" tribute - they are exclusively consecutive in the views. And well are able to declare the intentions.

Each of objectives found reflection in one or several projects of the organization.

But at first it is necessary to consider program documents of the organization and to point out features of its structure.

The main document of the organization is "The moral code". It contains several "precepts" which are in detail deciphered and explained with extremely state and pathos language reminding minutes of Komsomol meetings.

"The moral code" begins with the requirement to respect parents and in general the senior generation. It clearly says that "the respect for parents is a duty "Going" out of

of dependence on that, parents are right or not". The respect for parents is followed by inadmissibility of murder and torture of animals: "Tormenting animals, the person cultivates in himself cruelty, roughness, meanness of soul which allows it to scoff only at defenseless". There is such impression that these rules were formed not for young men and girls, and for children. But the following item proves that the speech after all goes not about younger school students as in it it is told about harm and inadmissibility of alcoholism: "We will not be able to be better if we do not learn to spend in a different way time, we will achieve nothing in life if we drink, we will not cope with one problem if we instead of its decision get drunk & #34; with горя"". Further it is told about inadmissibility of the use and drug trafficking: "Drug addiction in any form it is not compatible to normal study, work, rest, to a good circle of contacts, to the stable future".

After important point on drugs there is a point narrating about inadmissibility of abuse: "You use foul language - and you never get respect at people of high culture and intelligence. You use foul language - and you will never be accepted for responsible work. You use foul language - and you will never escape from a circle of the degrading morons".

Further it is told about other important, current and painful problems, in particular about inadmissibility of nationalist and chauvinistic ideology. However, the explanation for this postulate of Going Together is offered again a little reduced: "There are no bad nations - there are bad people, there are defects, the general for all people".

Then the thesis that the member of the organization is obliged to seek "to be better" everywhere and in everything follows. It is reasoned with the fact that "characteristic feature of very numerous category of youth is the inability to self-discipline, restraint, the slightest efforts for achievement something".

From here the importance of existence of an active civic stand and patriotism is removed: "The patriotism is the aspiration to make everything depending on you that the country the vein is better, and if forces are not enough to unite in this aspiration with others and to help those who, being in power, want and can really make our country richer and more stable". It is connected, undoubtedly, with statements of the president V.V. Putin for need to actively introduce patriotism, love for the country and spirituality.6 in consciousness of youth

The motto "Going Together" very much approaches this program - "Be better!". The motto has something in common with advertizing of the organization: "If you want to be better if you want to live better - come to us". "The moral code" - the main program document of the organization comes to an end with these words.

The second main document "Going Together" are "The purposes and tasks" about which it was told above.

The third most important document is the declaration for persons interested to join the ranks of the organization.8 First of all is declared: "You can go together with us since irrespective of

your social status, last, external data, the level of development and personal potential we wait for you supporting us in all goals and tasks. You can bring us the program of how to make our life it is better, and we together will think how to carry out it". Further it is emphasized that each member of the organization is free in self-realization in case it does not contradict the purposes and tasks "Going". At last, the declaration paraphrases the well-known mushketersky motto "One for all and all for one":

"The organization will help you if you support it". Thus, the whole system of mutual aid and mutually responsibility is formed.

We will also consider the mechanism of functioning of this system now.

Everyone joining the organization - the applicant - is obliged to have an interview in Selection committee which is gathered on a voluntary basis from among commanders of groups, commanders of the five and activists. Participation in work of Selection committee is considered a public assignment. The candidate for members of the organization has to bring in Selection committee any identity document, the photo and the statement with the recommendation of the commander of group. If the applicant has no recommending in the ranks of the organization, he has a personal interview at the head of Selection committee.

Besides, the applicant has to fill out the questionnaire, having reported about himself: Full name and year of birth; place of study and progress; registration and passport data; place of the actual accommodation; way of communication; incentive motives for the accession to the organization and a possibility of the help of the organization; main vital interests and views; financial position; marital status; the main problems. The applicant has to show also knowledge of basic provisions of "The moral code" and consent with them.

In the organization there is a list of the bases for refusal in reception after the interview in Selection committee. According to the principles "Going together" the bases the roughness, insincerity and untidy appearance can form. Refuse inclusion in the organization by that who lives in the city to which office he addresses less than 9 months in a year (taking into account winter and summer vacation). The basis for refusal is also the lack of a way of communication.

Belonging of the applicant to any organizations, parties and currents whose principles contradict provisions of "The moral code" enters the following block of the bases. Also those who admitted unwillingness to carry out public instructions or lack of aspiration to correspond to basic provisions of "The moral code" are not accepted.

At last to count on the positive decision, the applicant has to understand well that it "Kindness,

Pity, Honesty, Decency, Patriotism, Mutual aid, Altruism".

The structure of the organization is rather simple.

If the Selection committee makes the decision on reception of the applicant in the organization, then he receives the status of the candidate for full members. Subsequently, after passing of a trial period, the candidate becomes the full member. Full members of the organization are subdivided into groups, and those, in turn, into the five. Each group and at each five has a commander.

The structure "Going together" distinctly reminds these the Little Octobrist organization with its "asterisks".

Each status means the rights and duties recorded in document "Rights and Duties".9

Any young man who showed willingness to join it, had an interview in Selection committee and dividing provisions of "The moral code" is considered the candidate for full members of the organization. The candidate has the right to receive the candidate card providing pass to office and admission to projects of the organization. Also candidate badge of blue color and a personal copy of "The moral code" and "Main objectives and tasks" rely it.

Besides, becoming the candidate, the young man gets admission to one or two projects "Going Together" and also has the right to get advice of all services of the organization in any problem situation.

The main duty of the candidate is observance of basic provisions of "The moral code" and participation in obligatory stocks of the organization if they get at the time of passing of a trial period by it. It should be noted the remarkable fact: work or study, except for the examination which is dropping out for the period of holding an action are not the sufficient basis for refusal of participation in an action. The candidate is obliged to carry out public orders of the organization or the commander of group. It has to spend not less than two hours a month for their performance that is coordinated previously with the commander of group. It is necessary to select the tough provision according to which the candidate is expelled from the organization in case all temporary borders offered it for performance of an assignment for one reason or another are for it unacceptable.

The candidate is also obliged to show a candidate card upon the demand of "The first group", the staff of department of control and audit, on an entrance to divisions of the organization and also upon the demand of the management and the commander of group.10

The young man who passed the two-month trial period which executed two public assignments during this period, took part in two obligatory stocks of the organization, had an interview in Selection committee and personally with the head of the organization is considered the full member of the organization. In many points of the right of full members coincide with the rights of candidates for full members, but they, certainly, have wider

range.11 Instead of a blue badge of the candidate is handed to the full member a badge of white color. He receives the plastic card really of the member of the organization and admission to all projects "Going Together". Besides consultations, the full member has the right for the help of the organization in any problem situation and also for support in any positive undertaking answering to the motto "Be Better". Besides, he has the right for primary participation in the exclusive programs "Going Together". The full member of the organization also receives compensation for travel by public transport of 50 rubles a month or, in case of need, receives a grant for acquisition of stationery and manuals for the same sum.

Strict observance the provision of "The moral code" belongs to duties of the full member of the organization.

As well as the candidate, the full member is obliged to participate in obligatory actions. In the same way work or study, except for examination, are not a good reason for refusal of participation.

Probably, exactly thanks to these strict requirements such mass character on the stocks "Going Together" is also reached.

the Full member on the same conditions, as the candidate, is obliged to carry out public orders of the organization. Presentation of the plastic card upon the demand of "The first group", the staff of department of control and audit, on an entrance to divisions of the organization and also upon the demand of the management and the commander of group belongs to its duties.

The status following after the full member - the commander of the five. It moves forward initiative group of full members and/or candidates for members of the Organization. At the same time members of the five sign the corresponding letter of recommendation to the candidate for a position of the head of the five for granting in Selection committee.

The candidate for a position of the commander of the five has an interview in Selection committee regarding compliance of a position. Having had an interview and being appointed, the commander of the five receives the corresponding plastic card and a pager of the organization. Unlike full members, the commander of the five has the right for primary receiving the help of all departments and services necessary for full performance of the duties.

The commander of the five has the right to consultations, the help and support of the organization and also to primary participation in exclusive programs. Besides, he has the right to represent the caused a stir members of the five to encouragement. He also receives 50 rubles a month - or in the form of compensation for journey, or as a grant for acquisition of stationery and manuals.

The list of duties of the commander of the five begins with the requirement to transfer information obtained on a pager with a mark "Everything, Everything, All", to members of the five during 5

hours from the moment of obtaining the message. He has to notify members of the five and on meetings of group. Providing an appearance of the five on an obligatory action belongs to duties of the commander of the five, and he is obliged to make in "any ways".12 Commander have to at least once a week do control call of members of the five, not later than the 25th day of every month - to obtain information from members of the five on their plans for the next month, to acquaint them (for coordination of actions) with plans of the organization, to provide them the plan of measures recommended by the organization the next month and the plan of the recommended cultural actions. He also has to carry out coordination of social work and time of its performance with the member of the five.

The commander of the five is obliged not only to participate in obligatory actions, but also to organize actions of the five. It means that he has to receive from the commander of group the corresponding instructions on the eve of holding an action and bring them to members of the five. The commander of the five also has to carry out public instructions, having coordinated time with the commander of group, and their non-performance is strictly punished.

The commander of group moves forward initiative group of full members and/or candidates for members of the organization.

At the same time at a meeting of group the corresponding letter of recommendation to the candidate for a position of the commander of group for granting in Selection committee is signed. The letter is considered valid only in the presence of all 50 signatures of members of group.

The full member who had an interview with the head of the organization and the head of Selection committee regarding compliance of a position becomes the commander of group. Before starting the responsibilities, the commander of group is trained.

The commander of group has wider rights, than the commander of the five. He represents the caused a stir members of group to encouragement and participates in the enlarged meeting of Public council. He receives not a grant of 50 rubles in a month, and

the salary (about its size it is not reported).

Belongs to duties of the commander of group: knowledge of all members of the group by name, timely transfer of information to them, bringing information on the organization to the candidate for members of the group before its interview in Selection committee, delivery to members of the group of recommendations on increase in the status, control over the implementation of public instructions by members of group, timely delivery of reports about their performance and the report about

actions of group in general in Information department (to 5 numbers

the month following reporting), control of visit of actions of the group and obligatory presence on all actions in which more than 10 people, appointment to themselves the deputy and ensuring performance of the functions by that in case of absence of the commander.13 participate

The principles and intentions formulated in "The purposes and tasks" and "The moral code" found reflection in the projects "Going Together". Therefore the range of projects is extremely wide: they cover social, cultural, political and other spheres of life.

The largest and socially significant treat the social sphere.

Project "Center of medico-psychological assistance & #34; The School of survival"" includes series of lectures and seminars on the most burning issues of maintaining health in everyday life and extreme situations. Record of persons interested to participate in this project began on April 5, 2001

There are projects directed to the help to socially unprotected population groups.

The Children without Parents project includes the help to child care facilities (cleaning, repair, etc.), collecting things and toys for the children living in orphanages; behavior of classes and holidays for children, including exit - in orphanages and kindergartens).

The Veterans project consists in the help to the social centers at regional justices and prefectures and also includes the help to specific sponsored veterans.

The Disabled people project is directed to the help of disabled people to the centers at regional justices and prefectures and also includes the help to specific sponsored disabled people.

In the Work with Schools project the program for prevention of drug addiction and also connection of school students to other social projects "Going Together" is implemented.

Participation in social projects has a voluntary nature, and not only members of the organization, but also strangers can participate in them. That stranger who wants to participate in projects appoints a three-months trial period. After this term the badge of white color is handed, and the person automatically becomes the full member of the organization.

Along with social Going Together implement educational projects. They include various courses (a classical guitar, computer courses, language).

As Going Together set as the purpose improvement not only spirit, but also a body, much attention is paid to sports projects which include shaping, gym, the pool, school of the top and lower breakdance and house, studio of modern dances, volleyball, school of scuba diving and numerous tourist projects. Great interest would be is of by the materials about ways of implementation of these projects posted on the website, but similar information is closed.

Among projects there is both "Ecology" - cleaning and gardening of territories.

One of the most important directions of the activity of Going Together consider cultural education of youth.

Therefore in the organization the importance of the Cultural Qualification project is very high.14 It are remarkable the fact that participation in it is obligatory for all members of the organization. Moreover, participation and achievements in the project are controlled and documented. The attitude towards "Cultural qualification" is so serious that the refusal of participation in it is equivalent to an exit from ranks of the organization.

This project is subdivided into several subprojects.

the subproject Purpose "Literature" is in giving to the member of the organization the chance to get acquainted with the literary language, to show various options of human relationship, to give a vital ideal to which it is necessary to aspire. The management of a subproject made the list of the books obligatory for reading. They are supposed to be made available to all members of the organization. Consultations, lectures and interviews on read are given.

The subproject purpose "the History of Russia" is to acquaint visually members of the organization with a true story of the country, having shown it as real life of the left generations long ago, but not abstract book science. It includes visit of the cities, monasteries, estates, villages and villages connected with the key moments of the Russian history with the most important figures of history and culture. The list of the cities, estates and monasteries with the indication of their historical value and sights is recommended. All historical places specified in this list can be visited by members of the organization after giving by the commander of group of the statement where the desirable place of an excursion and the number of participants with the annex of the list and a way of communication has to be specified.

A subproject "Theatre" assumes visit of theaters, joint viewing and the subsequent discussion of performances (here too there is a list of the recommended theaters and performances).

A subproject "Visit of the museums and other cultural actions" assumes visit of the museums, exhibitions, concerts, etc. according to the recommended list. Then discussion of what was seen is surely carried out.

At "going together" there are some more projects which it would be more correct to call departments of the organization or its consulting services.

To it the Health service which task is to provide medical care to the members of the organization injured with accidents and hospitalized belongs. Besides, at any time the member of the organization can consult concerning the health with the qualified doctors.

The legal department renders free legal aid to members of the organization. Besides consultations the staff of department can represent the interests of members of the organization in bodies in public institutions and various organizations and also in court.

The travel agency is engaged in the organization of trips of members of the organization for Russia and foreign countries.

The department of employment assists members of the organization in employment.

If necessary members of the organization can get necessary advice online. To it serves the special project "Internet salon" working as advisory Internet service.

As each organization seeking for political self-determination, Going Together began to publish the newspaper - "Be Better".

Articles and notes of members of the organization, the photo and also more or less detailed description carried out "Going together" actions are published in it. And after a month, on the basis of reports on the held events and personal characteristics, the most active participants are encouraged.

As measures of encouragement trips around the cities of Russia and the neighboring countries, an excursion, tickets for exhibitions, concerts, theaters, the best places at cinema, individually - books, disks and other personally demanded objects are used. After a year several participants who actively proved during the work on projects are marked out. Trips to holiday houses, on the cities of Russia and other countries and also the encouragement considering personal needs are provided to such "excellent students" (for example, study payment).

In 2001 Going Together organized several public actions, having reflected it in the website on the Internet.

It is characteristic that the action was usually carried out by the Moscow office, and branches in other cities joined it.

The meeting at the French Embassy with the requirement to return to the Russian actress Natalya Zakharova her daughter Masha became the first large campaign on January 21, 2001: protested against the decision of the French court which forbade to Zakharova to see the daughter after the actress divorced the French husband. Several thousands of people participated in a meeting.

The action caused an insignificant public response, media did not notice it. Actually, except participants, almost nobody spoke about it.

On January 25, 2001 Going Together carried out the action having half-joking character. It was called "The XX century funeral" and it was conceived as farewell to its characteristic features. Too practically did not react to this action of media.

Spring of 2001 of Going Together carried out a series of actions in support of Pavel Borodin whom the Swiss justice accused of financial frauds. The largest of these actions passed at the American Embassy in Moscow. This action caused a resonance in mass media and was shown in news practically of all TV channels. She moved journalists differently: most often in negative or ironic tonality. For example, according to the report from the website of NTV (, "acting stated obscene expressions to the USA and Americans", and the meeting came to the end with "burning of the American flag".

Next day after a release of the report "Going Together" issued a hot denial: according to them, they, really, burned a small piece of the American flag, but anything else, and no "obscene language" existed as abuse is strictly forbidden by "The moral code".

In the night of June 22, 2001 Going Together organized a large-scale action "Are obliged to remember!". Devoted to the 60 anniversary from the date of the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the action took place in 33 largest cities of Russia, and more than 2 0 thousand people took part in it. Meetings, memorial evenings were held, candles to monuments and graves of fallen are established.

On July 5, 2001 Going Together carried out at the building of the State Duma an action in support of new "Labour Code". More than one thousand people took part in it. The event was timed to demonstration of the members of the CPRF who were actively protesting against the new LABOUR CODE.

This action was shown in programs of news of several TV channels. TV reporters transferred in one of releases that Going Together during the action in support of the new LABOUR CODE arranged "firefight with eggs" with the Communist Party. Going Together categorically denied this information, claiming that they would never take such "low" step.

Furious fight against holding in Moscow the Portuguese bullfight became one of the brightest manifestations of activity "going together".

In September, 2001 the organization carried out several versatile actions connected with a bullfight. Began with a series of meetings at the Moscow City Duma building. After Yu.M. Luzhkov's decision on cancellation of a bullfight by members of the organization the open letter with gratitude that it cancelled carrying out this "a barbaric fun" was sent it.

During the "antikorridny" campaign Nezavisimaya Gazeta published sharply negative article devoted "going together" and in reply the leader "Going together" Vasily Yakemenko sent to their methods of fight against a bullfight.15 the open letter to Nezavisimaya Gazeta where tried to disprove with anger criticism in the address.

On September 14 2,001 g on the Going Together fax the message from the CEO of "The Russian academy of entertainments" A.N. Agapov with the offer to undertake further care of bulls who were prepared for participation in a bullfight arrived. The organization appeared very

consecutive in the undertakings also undertook rescue and keeping of bulls.

Strangely enough, the stocks "Going Together" against a bullfight had very insignificant public response. This results from the fact that the attention of media was riveted on a situation with a bullfight in general and turned on more influential political parties and movements.

The exception makes material in Nezavisimaya Gazeta in which Vasily Yakemenko was called "the person who with

gloss in eyes lifts youth on any senseless actions". In the same place one of the stocks "Going Together" was in detail described: "The meeting of "WILLOWS" was followed by distribution of expensive booklets with chilling inscriptions and the picture. United youth of 13 - 17 years, having entered the names in official lists of participants, rhythmically cried out slogans against "massacre in Moscow". The chanting crowd in undershirts with the image of the president was turned on from splashes of false blood and mass of press photographers and was convincing. However after the term which is released to an action the heat of participants as if on command ran low. From the point of view of organizers of a meeting, the action brought together one and a half thousand people. These militias were more modest - no more than four hundred".

Yakemenko immediately wrote the response open letter, threatening to file a lawsuit against the newspaper for slander and the wrong reading of the press release sent them. Nezavisimaya Gazeta was not frightened of threats, did not print a denial and before "going together" did not apologize, but business did not come to court. 16

While Moscow raged concerning a bullfight and the related financial affairs, in America there were terrible terrorist attacks on September 11. Going Together instantly responded and published the address to "youth of the whole world" with the offer to create everywhere groups of volunteers for mitigation of consequences of terrorist attacks. They created group of so-called "dobrovoller", but in the USA nobody called them so this initiative remained on paper.

On October 20, 2001, that is for the 40th day after the tragedy in the USA, Going Together carried out in Moscow an action in support of the American people at the U.S. Embassy.

In November, 2001 the organization held a beauty contest among girls - members of the organization. The action had exclusively advertizing character what Going Together especially and did not hide.

Certainly, hour of triumph "going together" there was an action on November 7, 2001 - "Clear-out of Russia". It passed in 52 cities of the Russian Federation, and more than 4 6 thousand participants took part in it. The city administration took part in many cases in an action. The serious help in the organization of an action was rendered by the Mayor of Moscow Yu. Luzhkov.

It is remarkable that this action made double sense. Besides cleaning of the territory akts?

Raymond Hudson
Other scientific works: