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Inaugural ceremony of the French crown as game of metaphors and symbols (IX-XIV century)

UDK 940.1:929 "15"


© 2010 S.A. Polskaya

Stavropol state university, Pushkin St., 1, Stavropol, 355009,

Stavropol State University, Pushkin St., 1, Stavropol, 355009,

The ceremony of royal dedication of the French monarchy (le sacre royal) on the example of coronation ordines, treatises of an era of absolutism and other sources is investigated. The methodology of political anthropology and political symbolism acts as a theoretical basis that allows to define the semantic nature of perception and representation of the sacral and secular nature of the monarchy in medieval society and the state.

We shall continue the study of the author of the royal consecration ceremony of the French monarchy (le sacre royal), taken by the author of the example of the coronation ordines, treatises of the era of absolutism and other sources. The theoretical basis of political favor methodology of anthropology and political symbolism, that allows to determine the semantic nature ofperception and representation of sacred and secular nature of the monarchy in medieval society and the state.

An inaugural ceremony of the French kings (le sacre royal) which genesis took almost the half-millennia: from Pippin Korotky's crowning in 751 g before creation of the first complex of coronation orders (ordines coronationis) by Hinkmar Reymssky and so-called "kapetingsky ordines" of Ludovic Sviaty's era, was set of a series of rituals, each of which had a certain semantic loading, and everything together they formed the stylized metaphor of the power of the monarchy, its sacral and actually potestarny basis. This grandiose ritual performance was some kind of system of codes in understanding of the nature of the power and its role in life of society.

Fragments of ordines of the middle of VIII - the first half of the 9th century were published still by erudites and representatives of an official historiography of a crown in the period of the Old Regime. In the treatises and more extensive compositions of didactic or retrospective sense, systematizing an image of the monarchy, they repeatedly referred to manuscripts with the description of a coronation ceremony of the first Carlovingians. It is necessary to distinguish Charles Bevi, Nicolas Menan, Jean Du Tille's treatises and the grandiose arch of "The French ceremonial" of Theodor Godfrua from them. As for separate source study efforts in relation to original texts of ordines, most of them in the reduced option is published by Percival Shram. The fullest is Richard Jackson's publication which included the most important manuscripts from 790 to 1356 [1 - 3] for today.

The historiography of a problem of symbolics of inaugural ceremonial is rather extensive and presented by a number of the general and private researches of the experts belonging to various methodological schools and the directions.

The metaphoricalness of a ceremony was expressed both in material, and in abstract, actually semantic forms. The material aspect was noted by signs of the royalty which texts of the first kapetingsky ordines call "royal jewelry" (les ornaments royales). They made 12 objects: crown, sword, scepter, spurs, agraffe, shirt, raincoat, cloak, camisole, shoes, gloves and coronation ring.

Part of them accompanied the monarch in all solemn occasions, another - was for the first time used only for commission of a ceremony. This group of "royal jewelry" received the status of royal regalia (les regalies) as which it is possible to rank 6 objects at once: crown, sword, scepter, "Justice hand", coronation ring and cloak. For the first time their list fixes Fulrad's ordo of the middle of the X century, and already to the middle of the 13th century it was recorded and finally complete in the period of Charles IV and Charles V's board that found reflection in the corresponding ordines [4].

Having received regalia, the king found also all other complex of symbols of the power. If the act the benefit -

Slovenia and deliveries of les regalies at an inaugural ceremony was strictly observed ritual procedure and was followed by the extensive formulas said by the archbishop Reymssky devoting the king, their symbolical importance was even more difficult. According to formulas ordines, by means of finding of regalia the monarch was designated as the individual and blessed with Church secular governor. These signs of a dignity accompanied his all life, and it is no wonder that they gained the independent value which outgrew a ceremony framework.

Their delivery was developed in a certain space-time concept of the minutes of a ceremony and was followed by a series of semantic decisions among which the first it is necessary to call metaphors of images of the power, the place and time of a ceremony, ritual gestures and color scale.

Along with royal regalia so significant symbolical loading was born by the symbols defining presence of the king. Royal lilies, royal colors and a royal throne belong to their number.

Unlike other nobility the king, having passed through a dedication ceremony, received a complex of regalia which noted its prerogatives, according to K. Bohn, "... were for certain learned at the time of the world" [5, river 151]. During conducting military operations the monarch had to differ from the vassals surrounding it. It is known that he is familiar, answering to the similar purpose, the coat of arms which originally fastened on a military board acted. Already in the second half of the 12th century actually everyone fyef had the dynastic line and a heraldic emblem.

In comparison with the feudal nobility the royal house rather late got the coat of arms which problem of origin is represented quite knotty and has a direct connection with emergence of the main royal emblem - a flower of a lily (la fleur de lys).

As researchers - numismatists note and art critics - lily flowers incidentally appear on coins and the royal seals from the middle of the 12th century [6]. Really on Louis VII and Philip Augustus's seals the lily is present at a crown, a scepter and the king's staff - tradition which will remain also during the subsequent period.

According to Sh. Bevi, at the end of Louis VI's government "the banner of France from a blue velvet, square, embroidered with gold flowers of a lily from two parties was created..." [7, river 191]. Ordo of 1250 already contains the miniatures representing the king during the inaugural ceremony for as which background serve lily flowers on the blue field. "The coronation book by Charles V" shows a figure of the monarch in the clothes literally covered with flowers of a lily from a cloak and a camisole to shoes. Also attires konnetablya and the devoting archbishop look. During the same period the heraldic form of a lily - a flower with three petals without stalk with cross finally is fixed

a level on a diamond-shaped basis. Simplification of shape in connection with requirements of heraldry was necessary and gave to a royal emblem elegance and clearness of lines that considerably facilitated its distribution. Now it is found on the seals of the cities and territories attached to the royal domain, and since 1238 - on the seals of all vessels and judicial districts. As a result la fleur de lys became the main sign of the public power of the king in all its forms [8, river 239].

Presence of a royal lily at an inaugural ceremony is designated first of all on royal "jewelry" including on a complex of regalia. It is remarkable that teeth of two main crowns of the French monarchy - an imperial crown of Charles the Great and "Sviaty a wreath" Ludovic Sviaty on which sample all subsequent analogs were created were executed in the form of a lily. As for a cloak, whatever color it was as N. Menan writes: "... from blue cloth, as at Henry II on his dedication... from a dark-blue or violet velvet, as at Louis XIII..., on a border and all external space it is always decorated gold with flowers lilies" [9, river 230]. Charles V's dedication ordered it to put on "... the silk colors of an azure of a shoe covered with flowers of a lily, a shirt and a raincoat of the same color, decorated gold with flowers lilies..." [10]. Also, according to N. Menan, spurs and an agraffe look: "spurs... gold with blue enamel, are covered with gold flowers of a lily and are decorated with grenades..., the agraffe in the form of a lily serves as a fastener of a royal cloak, it is richly inlaid with diamonds and pearls...". Also other royal accessories are respectively decorated: for example, burse "... from the blue cloth covered with tiny gold flowers of a lily with couple of laces trimmed with gold and blue thread..." [9, river 229, 231].

Thus, the figure of the king was completely "absorbed" emblem. Besides, according to T. Godfrua and N. Menan's descriptions, la fleur de lys decorated all interior of a ceremony in Reims Cathedral: covered carpets on ladders and the place of royal prostration, shone on a canopy over a throne and in finishing of the throne: "At last, the entrance which is occupied with a set of places for canons goes down two big flights to an ambon... covered to a floor with three big carpets..., one of which of a violet velvet, in a set is embroidered with the gold flowers of a lily.... Opposite to the bottom of the aforesaid choruses the canopy from four petals with the high steps covered with the violet velvet carpet embroidered with gold flowers of a lily is located" [9, river 219]. Such universal presence of a royal emblem speaks about much bigger importance of its semantics, than at a heraldic figure.

The same ornament decorated royal clothes: "A big royal cloak from blue sateen, all in gold flowers of a lily, decorated with one big bow with a fine pearl in knot, at the edges

it is sheathed by an ermine, she covered the king to the bottom and repeated camisole fabric. A double camisole (i.e. sewed by "face" on both parties. - Page of P.) from the same blue sateen covered with the same gold flowers of a lily.... Pair of shoes from blue sateen embroidered with gold flowers of a lily, decorated with a bow with pearls in its knot and monograms; also on the king the camisole from the brilliant atlas was put on. One party from the blue sateen decorated small gold with flowers lilies with pendants, cords and fasteners from gold, and the second party is covered with blue silk" [9, river 264]. "The inventory book of 1634 the" of a treasury of abbey of Saint-Denis storing regalia and other values of a crown confirms these descriptions, fixing the following set of the royal attires belonging to Louis IX: "No. 335. The big royal cloak of a violet velvet embroidered with gold flowers of a lily, lined with white taffeta with an edge from a white ermine. No. 336. A camisole from the violet atlas embroidered with gold flowers of a lily. No. 337. Pair of shoes from the violet atlas embroidered with gold flowers of a lily" [11].

But if the history of creation la fleur de lys on the royal coat of arms appears relatively clearly, then interpretation of its symbolical value is far from unambiguous permission. At first sight, the decision to choose a yellow lily - a modest field flower - for designation of one of the greatest monarchy seems paradoxical. Therefore many authors see transformation of more ancient sign in a lily figure. Sh. Bevi calls her a trident or a dart [7, river 75], in the XIX-XX centuries already historians of antiquity identified her with a trident of the Neptune [12] or the Roman fastion, and orientalists connected with drevnevostochny symbols [13]. But it is necessary to consider that, despite possible pre-Christian roots of semantics of a lily, it was used on crowns and scepters of Carlovingians and as the majority of signs of a medieval era, has Christian origin. For the first time the fair question of an opportunity to consider la fleur de lys as completely medieval generation on which its far harbingers had not a direct bearing set P. Shramm [14]. Also F. Oppenheimer identifying lily flowers with a pigeon - a Christian symbol of Sviaty Doukh adhered to the same point of view. It in turn has the Byzantine origin, being display of one of articles of belief. In its universal distribution the political and legal argument took place: as the lily in the form of the socket jammed on fabric of clothes of priests for Charles the Great's inauguration into 754 g to Saint-Denis, their copies made for dedication already of Louis VII in 1120 were used for confirmation of the rights of its inheritance from Charles the Great [15].

It is in that case logical to pay attention to bible metaphors of la fleur de lys which interpret it as a symbol of beauty and love. So, "the Song of Songs" compares a lily to the bride ("That my lily between sloes, my beloved between maidens"; "I

I belong to my beloved, and my beloved - me, he grazes between lilies" [16]), the Book by Hosea - with prosperity ("I will be dew for Israel; he will blossom as the lily, and will take the root as Lebanon" [17]), but the New Testament changes treatment. At evangelists from the sign of fidelity and power the lily is transformed to a symbol of royal greatness. In general the New Testament does not use it for designation of Christian ethics, except the only mention in the text of "Sermon on the Mount": "Look on lilies as they grow: do not work, do not spin; but I speak to you, as Solomon in all glory did not put on as any of them" [18].

Therefore, the metaphor of a lily is ambiguous. It - a symbol of male and female fidelity, beauty and love. The gospel gives preference to purity of the power, but anyway the lily never contacts the idea of virginity which became the leader in understanding of this sign by Church, since 11th century. In turn it is connected with consolidation and distribution to this period of a mariolatry.

If in the X century the lily served as designation of cultural wealth of belief, justice and heavenly pleasure in Christian understanding, then in the XI-XII centuries its theological symbolism is updated. As researchers specify, originally it symbolized Christ, expressing his aspiration to fidelity, but fixing of a mariolatry gave to a lily the feminine which is at the same time symbolizing and Church [19]. F. Oppenheimer notes that in the 12th century of a statue of the Mother of God covered with the cloak embroidered with lilies, later this sign appears on the coats of arms of bishops and coins of the churches devoted to Mary. So, in Reims, since the Archbishopric of Erve, the coin with a cross and four lilies was minted [15, river 16]. Since Philip II Augustus's government the same print appeared on a reverse of royal coins. As its only difference from a royal emblem color acted: the virgin lily of Mary was white, and royal - gold.

The reason of penetration of "Maiden lily" into the system of royal emblems is seen in fixing of a cult of Mary which, as we know, by the end of the 12th century got courtois coloring. Special awe of the French kings of the Mother of God has a talk community of ethical values of temporal power with the Christian concept of justice, chastity, mildness and the mercy saving from the evil [5, river 153]. As confirmation serves the fact that honor all churches and cathedrals of the royal domain, since the period of government of Louis VI, were devoted to the Virgin (including Reims Cathedral where with Henry I's accession the inauguration was almost everywhere held) [20].

Moreover, the French monarchy proclaimed itself being under the patronage of Virgin Mary, and the lily metaphor along with theological gained also political value. Its symbol became a royal emblem, having passed to a board, a banner, clothes and even a crown. From now on, being a subordinate to laws

heraldry, the royal lily got not only strictly designated form, but also color. Therefore in terms of an analysis technique we can raise a question of "color" metaphoricalness of a ceremony.

"Color which historians too often neglected as they did not appreciate it the same as the document, in fact is the main source for understanding of tonality of these ceremonies. Because color gives in typically medieval way them sense and will transform a ritual" [21]. So appreciation of color Zh. - C. Bonn forces us to draw closer attention to it. Really color, as well as any phenomenon in consciousness of the Middle Ages, was subordinated to the hierarchical principle which was in turn treated in symbolical expression.

If to track color scale of a ceremony, then as appears from the above-stated description of royal clothes and interiors of Reims Cathedral, it is possible to allocate generally its double palette: azure-blue and gold, on the one hand, and violet-white - with another.

The church used hierarchy from 5 flowers having sacral character: white, red, green, black and lilac [22]. This situation was fixed by Innokenti III at the beginning of the 13th century. According to its bull, white color, in particular, symbolized Virgin Mary, red - Christian martyrs, lilac - Rise, black - mourning for deceased [23]. The secular tradition gave preference to heraldic hierarchy of color, classifying it by semantic sense which it was designed to bear. So, in relation to the royal house, preference was given to more saturated, sparkling tones. "Color of the sun and the king's clothes, it symbolized an order and mercy.... It is color of power, joy and a holiday" [8, river 248]. It became the main color of the monarchy. For this reason the white lilies of Virgin Mary from a symbol of innocence and heavenly pleasure turned into the gold, royal analog - an emblem of the power of the royal house. To the following in color hierarchy there is azure or celestial-blue color (l&azur) - a symbol of sublime aspirations, the highest spirituality.

This double palette was presented on the royal coats of arms and boards: gold lilies on a blue background. The symbolics of these flowers connected on one field meant indisputable communication of the monarchy good luck. Was not accident at all that the coats of arms of France were produced from two "best" flowers in the world, their value had to symbolize hristianneyshy of monarchs. As the royal coat of arms of a lily were issued at the end of the 13th century, during consolidation of the royalty and as a result of a celebration of ideas of sacrality of its nature. Therefore the role of this emblem began to grow in society, finally its carrying becomes a priority of the royal house [24]. No wonder therefore that a gold lily on a blue background - the symbol of the union of the Christian king with the sky was everywhere used in an interior of le sacre royal.

The combination of gold and celestial-blue is observed already and without lily figure. So, royal clothes could have single color scheme, as during Henry I's dedication in 1027 which, according to Che. Bevi's description, "... it was dressed in a camisole, sandals, a tunic, a raincoat and the cloak of the azure atlas which is richly embroidered..." [7, river 183]. Arguing on color of royal clothes, Bevi concludes that the monarch is traditionally dressed "... in the silk shoes of color of an azure decorated with flowers lilies, a shirt and a raincoat of the same color..." [7, river 192]. In combination with a gold bulk of the Big Altar of Reims Cathedral against the background of which there took place the ceremony the selection of royal flowers looked especially harmoniously. But their interpretation would be incomplete if we disregard the fact that clothes of the devoted monarch not only on breed and a manner of carrying, but also on color were identical to the priest's attire. "... They are similar to shirts and raincoats in which clerks on a mass are dressed", - directly specifies Che. Bevi [7, river 203]. T. Godfrua notes that Charles V's tunic was hyacinthine color, "... which is carried by priests and the high-ranking priests of Israel carried" [25, river 220]. Similar evolutionary interpretation allows to consider blue color as initially sacral, subsequently become also royal. Moreover, traditional color of clothes of Catholic priests - lilac (up to deep violet) also "passed" to a royal dress, "... having made it, - according to the right conclusion of Zh. Le Goff, - color of the power on an equal basis with celestial-blue" [26]. According to T. Godfrua violet color was present at attires Lyudovikov VII, IV and actually all Valois [25, river 194, 446]. If to consider that the lining of a raincoat and cloak and also a shirt in that case were white, but not hyacinthine-blue, as at azure-blue composition, then the color scheme of clothes of the monarch could have also a white-violet palette. The priests dressed in the same tone, violet color of carpets, coverings of benches and chairs, the canopy ennobling over a throne [25, river 314], - all this was in harmony with each other, being the subordinate of the uniform concept.

Thus, the interior of Reims Cathedral and clothes of priests and the king were sustained in uniform color scale which combination can be treated doubly: as the union of Church and a throne, on the one hand, and attempt of the French monarchy by means of this metaphor to add to number of the victories in fight for a priority of the authorities, loan or assignment of traditional flowers of clergy - with another. In this at first sight unimportant party of symbolism of a ceremony the phenomenon, quite significant for medieval consciousness, is. It is known that symbolical representations of this era had quite realistic character. Also the royal symbolics was so directly perceived, finally being focused on a figure of the monarch. Color personification was not an exception. The monarch dressed in the clothes solved in sacral color scale and embroidered with Virgin Mary's emblem appeared not only as

the symbolical embodiment but also as the real carrier of the powers having double - sacred and wordly - the nature.

Literature and notes

1. Bevy Ch.J. Histoire des Inauguratiodes rois, emperueurs et autres Souveraines de l&univers, depuis leur origine jusqu&à présent. Siuvie d&un présis de l&État des arts des siences sous chaque Regne des principaux faits, moeurs, coutumes et usages les plus remorquables des François, dépuis Pepin jusqu&à Louis XVI. P., 1776; Menin N. Traité historique et chronologique du sacre et couronnements des Roys et des Reines de France depuis Clovis I-er jusqu&à présent par Monsieur Menin, Conseiller au Parlement de Metz. P., 1723; Du Tillet J. Recueil des roys de France, leurs couronne et maison. P., 1577; Godefroy Th. Le cérémonial françois. Contenant les cérémonies observées en France aux Sacres et Couronnements de Roys et Reines, et de quelques anciéns Ducs de Normandie, d&Aquitaine, et de Bretagne: Comme aussi à leurs Entrées soulenelles: et à celles d&aucuns Dauphins, Gouvérneurs de Provinces, et autres Seigneurs, dans diverses villes du Royaume, recuilly par Théodore Godefroy et mis en lumière par Denys Godefroy. T. 1 - 2. P., 1649. Ordo mit wechselseitigen Eiden für die Krönung Ludwigs II. des Stammlers zu Compiegne am 8. Dezember 877//Schramm P.E. Ordines-Studien II: Die Krönung bei den Westfranken und den Franzonen (Forts. zu Bd. XI, 285 f)//Archiv für Urkundenforschung in Verbindung mit dem Reichsinstitut für öltere deutsche Geschichtskunde herausgegeben von DR. D. Karl Brandi. Berlin, 1938. Bd. 15. No. 1. S. 15 - 16; "Mainzer-Ordo"//Schramm P.E. Kaiser, Könige und Päpste. Bd.III. Beiträge zur allgemeinen Geschichte. Vom. 10. bis zum 13. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart, 1969. S. 94 - 103; Ordo C: Erdmannscher (Westfränkischer) Ordo um 900 (Zwischen 880 und 960)//Ibid. Bd.II. Vom Karls Großen (814) bis zum Angland des 10. Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart, 1969. S. 216 - 219; Ordo E: Ordo des Hgl. Dunstan. zwishen 960-973//Ibid. S.223 - 233; Ordo F: Ordo hergerichtet für die Krönung des Königs Edgars von England durch den Hgl. Dunstan, Erzbishof von Canterbury zu Bath 11. Mai 973//Ibid. S. 233 - 244; Ordines coronationis Franciae: texts and ordines for the coronation of Frankish and French kings and queens in the Middle Ages/Ed. by R.A. Jackson. T. 1. - 2. Philadelphia, 1995, 2000.
2. Coronatio Iudithae Karoli II. Filiae//MGH. Capitularia regum francorum. Ed. Al. Boretius, V. Krause. Bd.22. No. 2. Hannover, 1897. S.425 - 427; Coronatio Hermentrudis reginae//Ibid. S.453 - 455; Ordo coronationis Karoli II. In regino Hlo-tharii. Factae//Ibid. S. 456 - 458; Ordo coronationis Hludowici Balbi//Ibid. S. 461 - 462.
3. Ordo de Reims//Sacramentaire et mortirologie de l&abbaye de Saint Remi. Martirologie, calendriers, ordinaires et prosaire de la metropole de Reims (VIII - XIII siècles) / Éd. Y. Chevalier//Bibliothèque liturgique. P., 1900. No. 7. P. 222 - 226; Ordo of Saint-Bertin//Ordines coronationis Franciae.... T. 1. P. 240 - 247. Ordo 1250//Ibid. T. 2. P. 51 - 55; Ordo 1270//Ibid. P. 55 - 65.
4. Paris Bibl. Nat. MS lat. 12052. fo 21 v (Ratold Sacra-mentary)//Ward P.L. An Early Version of the Anglo-Saxon Coronation Ceremony//EHR. 1942. No. 57. P. 345 - 361; The Coronation Book of Charles IV and Jeanne d&Evreux/Ed. J. - Cl.

Bonne, J. Le Goff//Rare Books: Notes on the History of the Books and Manuscripts. 1958. No. 8. P. 1 - 12. Ordo of Charles V//Ordines coronations Franciae.... T. 2. P. 233 - 240.

5. Beaune C. Le miroire du pouvoir. P., 1989.
6. Rosbach E. De la fleur de lys comme embleme nationale//Mémoires de l&Academie des sciences, inscriptions et belles-lettres du Toulouse.1884. T. 6. P. 136 - 172; Braun Stumm G. von. L&origine de la fleur de lys rois de France du point de vue numismatique//Revue numismatique. T. 13. P., 1951. P. 43 - 58. Pinoteau H. Les origines de l&héraldique capétienne//Actes du 3-e Congres international de généalogique et d&héraldique. Madrid, 1955. P. 483 - 511.
7. Bevy Ch. J. Op.cit.
8. Beaune C. Naissançe de France. P., 1985.
9. Menin N. Op. cit.
10. Ordo of Charles V. P. 235.
11. Inventaire de 1634//Le Trésor de Saint-Denis: 2 vol/Éd. B. Montesquiou-Fezenszac de, D. Gaborit-Chopin. Vol. 1. Inventaire de 1634. P., 1973. P. 215.
12. In particular, antique perception of a lily is connected with a feminine: in mythology - this milk of Juno spilled on the earth and revenge of Venus which turned the competitor into a flower which is treated as hope, beauty and fertility.
13. Rosbach E. Op.cit. River 139; Braun Stumm G. von. Op.cit. P.47; Spiegel G., Hidman S. The fleur de lys frontispieces to Guillaume de Nangi&s "Chronique abregée": political iconography in late fifteenth century France//Viator. 1981. P. 381 - 407; Rey J. Histoire du drapeau, des couleurs et insignes de la monarchie française: 2 vol. Vol. 1. P., 1981. P. 8 - 13.
14. Schramm P.E. Der König von Frankreich: Das Wesen der Monarchie vom 9. zum 16. Jahrhundert/2 ed. H. Bohlaus. - Bd.I. Text. Weimar, 1960. S. 208 - 214.
15. Oppengeimer Sir Fr. Frankish Themes and Problems. L., 1953.

Came to edition

16. Pesn. II: 2; VI: 3.
17. Wasps. XIV: 6.
18. Onions. XII: 27.
19. Spiegel G., Hidman S. Op. cit. P. 10 - 11.
20. Latereille A., Palanque J., Delaruelle E. Histoire de Catholicism en France. T. 1 - 2. P., 1963. T. 2. P. 14 - 16.
21. Bonne J. - Cl. The Manuscript of the Ordo 1250 and Its Illustrations//Coronations. Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual/Ed. J.M. Bak. Toronto, 1990. P. 59.
22. It is known that the foundation of similar gradation was laid by Aristotle who classified colors from white to black in seven nominations, proceeding from prismatic light refraction (white, blue, violet, green, yellow, red, black). But the practical criterion of application of color scale did not correspond to the Aristotelean concept.
23. Bonne J. - Cl. Rituel de la couleur//Image et signification: Rencontres de l&École du Louvre. P., 1983. P.129.
24. In the 14th century all princes of blood carried the coats of arms with a lily. Moreover, they could not refuse this privilege as the last at the same time expressed belonging to a royal sort what of its branches it would not represent. The exception which was made by bastards and women was removed then. The coat of arms with a lily could not be lost in fight, it was given according to the principle of primogeniture and even was the sign expressing the rights for a throne. See: Jackson R.A. Peers of France and Princes of the Blood//FHS. Vol. 7. No. 1. 1971. River 27 - 46; Viton de Saint-Allais N. Dictionnaire encyclopédique de la noblesse. P., 1816. P. 27 - 31.
25. Godefroy Th. Op. cit. T. 1.
26. Le Goff J. A Coronation Program for the Age of Saint Louis: The Ordo of 1250//Coronations.... P.54.

On November _11, 2009

Stuart John Jeffery
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