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Economy of residents of the eneolitichesky settlement Mergen 6

khozyaystvo of residents of the eneolitichesky settlement Mergen 6 [C

S.N. Skochina

Basing on integrated analysis of stone and bone Eneolithic inventory, paper defines features of economic activities among the settlers of the Mergen microzone in the Lower Ishim basin. The author identifies location of the Mergen 6 settlement among the other Eneolithic cultures of the adjacent territories.

From the multilayered settlement Mergen 6 in the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Priishimya occurs considerable kompelex eneolitichesky time. The analysis of stock will allow to present economy of inhabitants of this settlement and in general the residential district in an eneolita.

The settlement Mergen 6 is located in the Ishim district of the Tyumen region on the northeast coast of the lake of the same name. Expeditions of IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science in 1990 and 2002 opened the site of a monument of 236 sq.m. Are investigated neolytic and partially — eneolitichesky constructions and also the remains of economic activity of the population of transitional time from bronze to iron.

Eneolitichesky constructions represent poorly profound semi-dugouts of subsquare and suboval forms. In filling of ditches the eneolitichesky ceramics, stone and bone stock and also the remains of bones of animals and birds, scales, branchiate covers of fishes, fragments of shells were found in the basic. The Eneolitichesky complex was allocated on the basis of the typological analysis, planigrafichesky and stratigraphic observations.

The ceramics is ornamented in an edge and patching manner, a part of vessels on a nimbus — prints of a so-called rope stamp. The outer surface of vessels is decorated completely, including a bottom. Walls are covered monotonous ranks of prints vertically and horizontally put edge stamp. Along with horizontal tapes of prints of a comb at ceramics there are geometrical motives: grid, triangles, vertical columns. Patching vdavleniye act as a dividing zone, form direct horizontal corbels.

It is difficult to give objective characteristic of stock as the eneolitichesky complex cut the neolytic settlement, besides the stock is typologically close to neolytic material. It is possible that some stone and bone products belong to the Neolithic. It should be noted that the surface of products from a stone and a bone is very strongly damaged by a layer, it sometimes complicates identification of functional purpose of tools.

Served as raw materials for production of tools red yashmokvartsit, white quartzite and flint of poor quality. The stone industry of the settlement otshchepovy, with insignificant use of plates. Nuklevidny chips, plates with a retouch, trailer scrapers (fig. 1, 5), tools on otshchep (fig. 1, 7, 8), scrapers on otshchep (fig. 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 11), dart tips are typologically presented. As secondary processing the regional priostryayushchy retouch, sometimes abrupt was generally used. The fragment of the polished stone disk with an opening in the center made of red slate with a radius of 2 cm belongs to eneolitichesky time, (fig. 1, 3) 0.2 cm thick.

Plates were applied by residents of the settlement to such operations as a skobleniye, a pileniye of a tree and drilling of a stone. Scrapers on otshchepa were used for processing of skins and a skobleniye of a tree. Some tools were used again, for example the dart tip which is bilaterally processed by a priostryayushchy retouch from white quartzite (12.6 * 3.1 * 1.2 cm). A part of an edge of a tip was again used for processing of a skin as a chisel (fig. 1, 1).

The collection of products from a bone is very indicative. The bone in economic activity of the settlement had important value as the cheapest, easily available and besides the strong material compensating for the deficiency of stone raw materials.

Fig. 1. Stone stock of the settlement Mergen 6:

1 — a dart tip; 2, 4, 6, 10, 11 — scrapers on a skin; 3 — a stone disk;
5, 9 — skobel on a tree; 7 — a drill on a stone; 8 — otshchep with a retouch

In potter's production bone were used polished, pallets and ornamentira, in tanning business — pro-splittings, scrapers on shovels and edges, needles, were used to weaving of various utensils kochedyk. Harpoons, a dart, the ground horn edges are connected with hunting and fishing activity (daggers?). Fish processed by means of fish scalers.

For production of tools there were parts those raw materials which could correspond to function of a product: on production of pro-splittings, needle cases and cores — tubular bones of birds and a metapodiya; planes, kochedyk and tools on clay — the split and whole edges of animals. Besides, in kostoobrabatyvayushchy business horns of animals were used. The horn was split, its longitudinal edges processed planing and a prishlifovka, pointing the tool; probably, such products were used as daggers (fig. 2, 6).

For processing of a bone on the settlement such operations as the cabin, straightening of parts of a horn, a skobleniye stone skobely, planing by metal and abrasive processing were carried out.

The working edge of pro-splittings (8 copies) was made out by a slanting cut, then podshlifovyvatsya (fig. 2, 1-5; 3, 7-9). Three pro-splittings are ornamented. On a fragment one notches issued four vertical rows, on the other hand the struychaty procherchivaniye executed a pattern in the form of "fir-tree" (fig. 3, 7). On other pro-splitting the stone cutter cut out slanting dual lines (fig. 2, 2). On the third on the one hand the pattern is executed in the form of the line of a zigzag, and with another the line which forks closer to an edge is drawn, side edges of a product are decorated by the long drawn lines (see fig. 3, 8). The fragment, probably, of the pro-splitting ornamented with short horizontal notches also belongs to this group (see fig. 3, 9).

In tanning business used planes. One plane is executed on a part of a shovel of an animal, the Tool Edge sizes of 26 x 7.6 x 1.0 cm concave, asymmetric, on one party traces from work on a skin are partially visible. After a zatupleniye the edge was pointed stone skobely. The Akkomodatsionny part is issued by several chips for keeping in a hand why all surface has the corresponding bright zapolirovannost (fig. 3, 1). Other plane is executed from the split edge, the sizes of 30 x 4.5 x 0.5 cm. In a profile will bend, one edge of the tool is rounded, another is broken. A working concave part in the cross section of a dome-shaped form. A part of an edge was broken in the ancient time and was used for keeping of the tool in a hand (fig. 4, 1).

Fig. 2. Bone products of the settlement Mergen 6:

1-5 — pro-splittings; 6 — a dagger fragment (?);
7 — kochedyk; 8 — polished; 9 — the pallet

Fig. 3. Bone products of the settlement Mergen 6:

1 — a plane on a skin; 2 — teslovidny preparation; 3 — "needle case"; 4 — the ornamented phalanx; 5, 6 —

ornamentira; 7-9 — the ornamented pro-splittings

"Needle cases" are a definition rather conditional, they are understood as the extended hollow cylindrical products for storage of needles, but we cannot approve such appointment. From one "needle case" 10.6 cm long only a half remained, it it is very good zapolirovan, edges are maleficiated (fig. 3, 3). Supplement group of the tools used in tanning business, fragments of needles (3 copies) with ears which are processed by a skobleniye and a prishlifovka (fig. 4, 4-6).

It is possible to carry a fragment of a frame of the odnolezviyny vkladyshevy tool along which cross edges there is a row from three small round openings to group of instruments of labor. On corners of longitudinal edge of the tool

dredging is made. At edge of a groove the slanting saw cut (fig. 5, 7) is executed.

Tools for fishing are presented by one-gear harpoons (2 copies). With a one length of 21.5 cm, round in section, with four thorns, nasad it is narrowed (fig. 5, 1). With hunting activity we connect a dart tip with a longitudinal trench (12 x 1.2 x 0.6 cm) which was again used as pro-splitting (fig. 5, 4).

The fish scaler manufactured of the split edge, sizes 16 x x 3.6 x 0.5 cm in a profile curved, with roundish cross and longitudinal working edges is of interest. One side of the tool is polished completely, another partially. Traces are fixed from two parties in the form of long inclined planes of frequent scratches parallel each other. Traces are perpendicular concerning a tool axis, sometimes cross, about 4 cm from edge of the tool, a zapolirovka very bright are localized on the site (fig. 5, 2).

The tools connected with production of ware and processing of its surface are presented by pallets, loshchila and their fragments (5 copies). Polished are executed on the split edges of the form bent in a profile, zapolirovanny on the one hand and partially from porous structure. The working longitudinal edges of tools are rounded (fig. 2, 8; 5, 3, 8). Pallets were used for smoothing of a surface of crude clay (fig. 2, 9) [Poplevko, 2002. Page 249-250]. The fragment of one pallet was reutilizirovan as a scraper on a skin (fig. 5, 8). Working cross edge prishlifovan from spongy structure, on an opposite surface frequent short scratches from work on a skin and characteristic gloss are visible.

of Fig. 4. Bone products of the settlement Mergen 6:

1 — a plane on a skin; 2, 3 — kochedyk;
4-6 — needles; 7 — a pronizka

Fig. 5. Bone products of the settlement Mergen 6:

1 — a harpoon; 2 — the fish scaler; 3, 8 — pallets; 4 — a tip for a dart with a groove; 5 — a horn plate with a pattern;
6 — a slip; 7 — a frame for the vkladyshevy tool

For drawing an edge pattern stamps (2 copies) executed on thin bone plates (fig. 3, 5, 6) were used. One of stamps has two working edges with cloves triangular in respect of a form, another — one working surface with cloves of a trapezoid form.

Kochedyki whole and in fragments (4 copies). In a profile have a little curved form, is especially closer to an edge. At some kochedyk the edge is ground off so that to dull or point it. The outer surface and a part (especially edges) the internal surface of tools from spongy structure were very well processed. A part of kochedyk is executed from tubular bones (fig. 2, 7; 4, 2, 3).

The collection of a complex included preparation for the teslovidny tool, perhaps couplings. Handle 29 cm long and shock part of a vystrugan metal subject. A shock part the sizes of 9.5 x 6.7 x 3.4 cm, subsquare in the plan and in form section, in relation to a handle is at an angle 45 °. Traces of use are not found (fig. 3, 2).

The plate fragment (sizes of 4.6 x 4.7 x 0.7 cm) executed from a horn (fig. 5, 5) belongs to the category of products with an ornament. Originally the plate was rectangular in the plan and the form which is a little bent in section. On inside the vdavleniye put a pattern in the form of a rhombus. On a phalanx of an animal the procherchivaniye executed the drawing of a tree with the branches (fig. 3, 4) lifted up. On an epiphysis three the drawn lines parallel each other are visible, perpendicular to them the dual zigzag is put with notches.

It is possible to carry a fragment of a slip plate 4 cm wide to jewelry, 0.2 cm thick, decorated at the edges with a number of round openings (fig. 5, 6), and a cylindrical pronizka the sizes of 2.4 x 0.6 x 0.6 cm in the section of an oval form (fig. 4, 7).

The considered groups of products demonstrate various application of a bone in production activity and life of inhabitants of the settlement Mergen 6. A set of stone tools, though is small, typical for many cultures of neo-eneolitichesky time. About availability of metal there is only indirect evidence — processing of a bone metal objects.

The appropriating economy was a basis of way of residents of the settlement. Rather large role was played by fishery and hunting for birds and animals (perhaps, and on a wild horse). At this time hunting was very developed, the abundance of species of wild animals indicates a variety of receptions and ways of their trade [Kosintsev, A.E., 1999. Page 102]. Fishery in relation to hunting, probably, was the leader. It is possible to assume that fishery on the lake was semi-annual and was the main source of food that could provide settled life and stability.

In house production a number of specializations, such as woodworking, processing of a stone and bone, production of ware, tools, dressing is allocated. The clothes were done of skins, using vegetable fibers, the last were applied also in potter's production. The skin was processed planes, scrapers, punctured with pro-splittings and sewed needles. Weaving and weaving of various house utensils are demonstrated by textiles prints on ceramics and such tools as kochedyk. Take place

the ornamented objects of non-productive appointment.

A set of bone tools and the ornamented objects meets in quite wide territory: on monuments of neo-eneolitichesky time of the Volga region [Morgunova, 1989. Page 128; 199b],

Northern Prikaspiya [Vasilyev, etc., 1989. Page 41], in Northern Kazakhstan on settlements Botay, Red Jara, etc. [Zaybert, 1993. Page 132].

The ceramics of the settlement Mergen 6 has some lines of similarity to the types of edge and patching ware allocated for territories of Priirtyshje Ekaterina's and aleksandrovsky [Petrov, 1980. Page 3-1 b], dated by the late Neolithic — early bronze and also with eneolitichesky complexes of Nizhny Novgorod Pritobolya [Zaha, 2002. Page 3b] and complexes of lipchinsky culture [Starkov, 1980. Page 147-157].

In Priishimye the close analogs an eneolitichesky complex of the settlement can be seen in materials of settlements Pakhomovskaya Pristan III [Krizhevskaya, 1969], Ir 2 (complex III) [L.L., 1984. Page 51-54],

Serebryanka 1 (complex V) [Panfilov, 1993. Page 33-35], Balandino 1, Sergeevka [Kislenko, Tatarintseva,

1990. Page 89-93]. We find certain parallels on the settlement Botay in Northern Kazakhstan, it concerns not only ceramics with edge and patching figuration and rope elements [Zaybert, Martynyuk,
1984. Page 86; Martynyuk, 1985. Page 71], but also set of bone stock [Zaybert, 1993. Page 86]. The circle of analogies to finds on the settlement Mergen 6 covers the huge territory, all of them keep within an eneolit era framework.


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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

[1] Work is performed with assistance of a grant of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science "Ethnocultural interaction in Eurasia".

Clausen Jeppe
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