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Land community and the female peasant in the 60-90th years of the 19th century (on materials of the Central Black Earth)



g. V. Laukhina

LAND COMMUNITY And the FEMALE PEASANT In the 60-90th YEARS of the 19th CENTURY (on materials of the Central Black Earth)

Work is presented by department of national history of the Lipetsk state pedagogical university.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor L.I. Zemtsov

In the 60-90th of the 19th century in the Provinces of Black Earth of the peasant did not take part in wordly descents and had no right for investment with the earth. Women could represent the opinion indirectly through husbands, adult sons. However the community helped widows and soldatka, was responsible for them and sponsored them.

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LAND COMMUNITY AND PEASANT WOMEN IN THE 1860-1890S (based on the materials of Central Chernozemye)

In the 1860-1890 peasant women in the Chernozemye provinces did not participate in communal self-government and did not have rights to assignment of land. Peasant women could express their opinions only though their husbands and adult sons. However, communities helped widows and soldier&s wives, bore responsibility for them and took care of them.

In the researches of the last decade devoted to the Russian peasantry, much attention is paid to poorly studied questions among which and position of the woman in the Russian village. The researches characterizing the status of peasants, their work to the field and houses, performance of maternal function supplement and enrich already developed scientific idea of life of the Russian peasantry in the 60-90th of the 19th century

In this article we will stop on such aspect of life of peasants of the Black Earth as their status in country community. As a rule, in the village or the village there passed all life of the woman. This circle of contacts differed in stability. Certainly, each of peasants occupied the certain niche in rural society. However there were such characteristics which were typical for all female half of the village. The specifics of position of the woman in the country environment were in many respects predetermined by its gender identification.

The subject of the status of the woman in community was brought up by researchers in the 19th century. Among authors who wrote about it it is possible to call L.P. Vesin [2], A. Ya. Efimenko [8], Ya. A. Ludmera [11], I. Kharlamova [17], etc. They established the fact that peasants did not take part in wordly descents on which they were considered major for community of a vorosa, did not receive the share at distribution of land. By Onako already then it was noticed that the community helps widows, soldatka, orphans.

In the Russian historical science the specified issue is touched in V.A. Alexandrov [1], L.V. Danilova and V.P. Danilov [7], L.I. Zemtsov's researches [9], B. N. Mironov [12]. A number of publications and monographs by the modern writers working within gender history is devoted to female subject. It is possible to carry N.L. Pushkareva [13], P.P. Shcherbinin to them [18], I. To I. Yukin [20].

As the source allowing to reveal features of the attitude of the country world towards female peasants we used collections of statistical data on the Tambov province [14]. These data collected by territorial statisticians reflect

real picture of the help of community to lonely women. The specific cases taking place in different counties of the Tambov province are given in collections.

Details of relationship of women with the country world were seen and informed us and authors of memoirs literature, such as A.N. Engelgartd [19], O.V. Kaydanova [10], peasants I.Ya. Stolyarov [16] and Page T. Semyonov [15].

In the dictionary by V.I. Dahl the concept "community" means "society as something separate and integral, arrival, the volost or the population consisting under communal management" [6, page 1042]. In scientific literature understand the social organization as a part of which the peasantry including its female half lived as community [12, page 429]. The community performed numerous and various functions - administrative, production, financial podatnuyu, religious, social, etc.

Traditionally women were not responsible to community, did not take part in wordly descents. B.N. Mironov so formulated one of the principles of communal life: "Women have no monetary and natural obligations to community and the state, but have also no rights, in particular do not participate in public management and have a share in communal property and no right for an allotment" [12, page 453].

Only male community members had the right of use of the communal earth. It was caused by the fact that the majority of agricultural works demanded big physical force and could not be carried out without participation of the man. Such order when the earth allocated the one who can process it was considered as fair. Also peasants did not participate in descents on which the most important decisions were made.

However as a result of destruction of foundations of traditional society in the 60-90th of the 19th century there were changes in relationship of the peasant and community. In some cases women, as a rule, of the widow acquired the right of use of an allotment. IssledoPozemelnyy community and the female peasant in the 60-90th years of the 19th century...

the vatel of the 19th century of A.Ya. Efimenko defined this fact as realization of the right to work, i.e. on manifestation of the labor ability, existing in the country environment [8]. An opportunity gave to work the chance to live and support the children.

Such cases when the earth was allocated to widows are mentioned in territorial statistical collections on the Tambov province. In the village of Buryanovo Nicolo-Cabagnevscoy of the volost "to one widow who remained after the death of the husband with juvenile orphans, the world gave free of charge on half-tithes in each field. Now, when children grew up, the world demanded from the marked widow of payment for future time of taxes" [14, page 34]. This case proves that fellows villager understood those difficulties which widows faced. At the same time it is possible to assume that this widow had male children who had rights for a plot and were potential workers.

In the village of Mikhaylovskoye of the same volost of the widow paid taxes on an equal basis with all, but at the same time "the world makes a plowing, crops and cleaning of bread" [14, page 34]. In this case the community undertook those works with which couldn't cope to the woman. In the village of Tugolukovo "to three widows, on permission of the world, bread from public shop is given for livelihood" [14, page 34].

The given examples show that in each community the issues of the help to widows were resolved individually, but the world did not deny assistance to such women. But at the same time widows received the earth temporarily. Investment with their earth in accordance with general practice was not made.

At a boundary of X1X-XX of centuries cases, however, single when women took part in descents began to be fixed. It were widows, wives at long absence of husbands. L. Gurevich mentioned a case when at a descent at the Voronezh County there was "one old woman" [5, page 9]. He told and about the girl from the Tula province, "who actually was active for the illiterate grandfather as the rural head" [5, page 9].

However such cases were a rarity. Most of peasants had no direct access

to expression of the opinion at a village assembly. And still women could broadcast the opinion to community. They did it through the men. On a descent the husband defended a position of all the family (including its female half) on any given question.

The high trust which was put by the world in the woman was shown in fixing of guardianship over juvenile children in case of loss of the father supporter. At appointment of a guardian the economic solvency, moral shape of the applicant was considered. Mainly members of the family of the died father were appointed trustees. But cases of fixing of guardianship to mother were frequent [3].

The eloquent example of such trust to the woman from fellows villager is available among records of decisions of Kolybelsky volost court [4]. The peasant Nastasia Ivanova Elcha-ninova filed a complaint to the husband Nikita Yesipov Elchaninov. She accused him that he drinks, does not pay a tax in time. The court decided "to appoint to management in the house and the order all his wife with the son..." [4].

B.N. Mironov noted that by the end of the 19th century, on the one hand, in the country environment "the indulgent attitude towards women still prevailed", but with another - "in general it is possible to speak about advancement of women in public life that in itself was a big social innovation" [12, page 477].

Thus, could assign to the woman temporarily the earth, she could take part in a descent, but the world perceived it as representative of the absent husband or the growing-up sons. The opinion of women could be broadcast only indirectly through the man.

In spite of the fact that had no rights for an allotment of the peasant, the world met requirements of those from them who in accordance with the circumstances was left without supporter, giving means of livelihood. The ground could be temporarily assigned to women or material contents is provided. In community the responsibility for widows, orphans, a soldatok was felt and guardianship in relation to peasants who were not only toilers, but also mothers was shown.

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