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Pakhomovsky complex of the settlement of Oskino Boloto


A.A. Tkachyov, Al. Tkachyov Ave

The materials of a pakhomovsky cultural complex of a late bronze age received at a research of the multilayered settlement of Oskino Boloto are considered. The questions of the device and providing the pakhomovsky settlement, a domostroitelstvo, economy, metallurgical production, chronology and dating of pakhomovsky antiquities are raised. The analysis of ceramic and ware material confirms rather early chronological position of this settlement in the system of the late bronze Pritobolya complexes.

Pritobolye, pakhomovsky culture, settlement, dwelling, economy, bronzoliteyny production, stock, ceramics.

In Tobolo-Ishimsky Entre Rios monuments of several archaeological cultures formed and interacting in this region during an era of late bronze are open and studied: pakhomovsky, suzgunsky, barkhatovsky. Monuments of the pas-homovsky culture which is marked out to O.N. Korochkova on materials of settlements Pakhomovskaya Pristan I and New Shadrino VII [1987] are of special interest. Now over 30 objects carried to antiquities of pakhomovsky type are opened, part of them are investigated permanently [Evdokimov, Korochkova, 1991; Korochkova, etc., 1991; Matveev, Chikunova, 1999; Matveev, etc., 2003; Agapeto-va, 2009].

Despite rather long period of studying pakhomovsky culture, the issues connected with an area of pakhomovsky antiquities, origin and the historical fate of the pakhomovsky population, cultural interpretation and a chronological ratio of priishimsky and pritobolsky monuments and their place in the system of late bronze complexes of the region are up to the end not resolved. In the light of the put problems the most important aspect is determination of the main lines inherent in pakhomovsky culture. The basic factors defining cultural shape and the territory of distribution of this education can be considered features of a system of resettlement, planning of settlements, an interior of dwellings, a set of stock, figuration of ceramics and the direction of economic activity of the population. In article an attempt to cover some of the above-mentioned aspects on materials of the multilayered settlement of Oskino Boloto is made.

Systematic studying this settlement showed that the inhabited platform of a monument became populated repeatedly throughout different cultural and chronological eras — from the Neolithic before the Middle Ages. By Poseleniye it is located on the western outskirts of page. Memorable the Yalutorovsk district of the Tyumen Region, on the low cape of the first nadpoymenny terrace of the left bank of the Iset River. The cape is limited from the South to the high floodplain of the river, from the North — the ancient boggy lake Oskino the swamp. In a coastal terrace the gap in the form of the narrow log according to which the superficial stream with low and fenny coast connecting the lake to the river proceeds is observed. Height of the coastal terrace towering over the boggy site of the lake does not exceed 2-2.5 and 3-4 m over water level in Staritsa of Iset. The cape and coast of the lake are covered with a pinery. Among the pine forest on well zadernovanny surface over three dozen zapadin are traced. The area of distribution of finds and the sizes of the cape allow to assume that the inhabited platform of a monument reached 15-20 thousand sq.m (fig. 1).

For seven field seasons (2000-2002, 2005-2008) on the settlement opened 1376 sq.m of a cultural layer. Within the explored site over 20 constructions are studied (14 inhabited designs are investigated completely). Different cultural and chronological eras are studied unevenly. Among completely studied inhabited constructions by neolytic time 1 dwelling, belongs to an eneolit era — 2, with late bronze time 5 constructions, are connected with the early Iron Age — 2, with the Middle Ages — 4.

In this article the housing estate relating to the settlement functioning during an era of late bronze is characterized. Materials of a complex have a certain similarity to antiquities of pakhomovsky archaeological culture [Tkachyov, 2001; Tkachyov, Tkachyova, 2006].

Fig. 1. Settlement of Oskino Boloto. Site plan: and — a zapadina; — the abandoned granary; in — the asphalted highway; — the country road; d — the forest road; e — a pinery; — the boggy lowland, dumetose and a birch forest; z — a bush; and — Staritsa the Iset River; to — a cane

The dwelling 1 is explored completely, except for a southeast corner. The construction ditch having rectangular outlines (10*8 m) is focused in the width direction, the area is about 80 sq.m. In a southwest corner of the room the small rectangular platform (1.5*1.75 m) towering over floor level on 10-15 cm is traced. Depth of an underground part of a ditch from the level of the continent of 0.2-0.4 m. The room had two exits. One exit (width of 1.5 m, length of 2.45 m) is located in a northern wall near a northeast corner and directed towards the lake. From outer side along exit walls at distance of 0.7-0.8 m

the pair stolbovy poles serving as support of overlapping of a roof of an exit are from each other tracked. Other exit was located in east wall (width of 1.2 m, length of 1.1 m) near a southeast corner, is focused in the floor party. On half of the room 3 centers and 10 economic holes are revealed.


Fig. 2. Settlement of Oskino Boloto. Plan of an excavation: and — stolbovy holes; — an economic hole; in — the center; — edge of a lake terrace; d — a tree; e — the turf; — gray sand; z — yellow sand; and — yellow-gray sand; to — brown sand; l — black gumusirovanny sand; m — gray sand with inclusion of charcoal; N — white sand with impurity of clay inclusions; about — white sand with inclusion of charcoal; p — black sooty sand; r — brown sand with inclusions of organic chemistry; with — a dense black carbonaceous layer ("toptalishche")

The land part of the dwelling was supported by 14 columns in which arrangement a certain regularity is traced. Stolbovy deepenings are located three rows. One row consists of five poles and is traced along a northern wall. The second row, from five poles, passes on the center of the room along a long axis of the dwelling. The third — from three deepenings — is fixed along the southern wall: one deepening is in a southwest corner of the room and two, nearby with each other, about a southeast corner. Outside a ditch, on interhousing space, three Stolbov of deepening forming a row west of an exit and located at distance of 2-2.5 m from a northern wall of a ditch are revealed. It is possible to assume that these deepenings formed a basis for columns of the canopy which is built in between the western wall of an exit and a northern wall of the dwelling (fig. 2).

The dwelling 4 was located in 2 m west of the dwelling 1. The construction ditch extended in the meridional direction had the wrong and rectangular form in the plan (8.5*8.2 m), the area about 70 sq.m. Northwest and northeast corners are expressed accurately, the southern wall more roundish. Ditch walls abrupt, bottom equal. Ditch depth from the level of the continent varies from 0.2 to 0.5 m. In a northern wall of construction, near a northeast corner, an exit in the form of the short platform (1.25*1.25 m) is located. In the dwelling an exit floor, smoothly going down, passes into profound "path" 2.6*1.3*0.1 m in size which was formed as a result of an earth utaptyvaniye at the entrance and an exit of the dwelling. On a floor two economic holes and the center located at the southern wall of a ditch are cleared away.

21 stolbovy deepenings are connected with a land part of construction (12 are cleared away on half of the room, 9 — on adjacent sites of interhousing space). In their arrangement the following regularity is traced: two rod posts are recorded in the center of the room, at corners of "a privkhodovy path", the others are found on ditch perimeter. From West side from an exit along a northern wall, similar to the dwelling 1, the canopy supported by two columns located at distance of 1.5-2 m from a northern wall of a ditch (fig. 2) was located.

The dwelling 5 located in 2 m to the northwest from the dwelling 4 had a ditch subsquare (7.1*6.2 m) the forms, extended in the width direction, of 44 sq.m and depth from the level of the continent of 0.2-0.5 m. The exit issued in the form of the short platform (1.4*0.9 m) is located in the center of a northern wall of a ditch. Ditch walls abrupt, an exit floor, smoothly going down, passes into an equal bottom. On half of the dwelling 2 centers (in the center of the room and near east wall) and 3 economic deepenings which were located lengthways walls are cleared away.

The land part of the room was supported by 14 columns: one number of Stolbov of deepenings was traced along the central axis of construction, the second and third — along the southern and northern walls, and two central rod posts of a northern row defined borders of an exit (fig. 2).

The dwelling 6 is located west of the dwelling 5. Ditches are divided by continental crossing points up to 1.5 m wide between which the pass (width of 1.2 m, depth from the level of the continent of 0.2 m) connecting two rooms was traced. The ditch extended in the meridional direction had wrong square shape (7.2*6.4 m), the area of 46 sq.m. Ditch walls abrupt, a bottom equal, depth from the level of the continent of 0.3-0.6 m. The room was warmed with the center located in the center of the room, near walls of construction three economic holes are revealed. The roof was supported by 18 columns driven on perimeter of a ditch and along the central part of the room (fig. 2).

The dwelling 7 is located to the west of the dwelling 6. Ditches are divided by continental crossing points up to 1.2 m wide in which center the pass (width of 1.5 m, height over floor level about 10 cm) connecting the central parts of constructions is located. The continental crossing point dividing the southern sites of premises is issued in the form of the flat ramp passing into a koridoroobrazny exit (length about 3 m, width to 1 m, depth from continent level to 0.2 m). Along east and western walls of an exit the pair symmetrically located stolbovy deepenings serving for maintenance of overlapping of an exit are tracked. The squared ditch (7.8*5.5 m) is extended in the meridional direction, has the area of 43 sq.m. Ditch walls abrupt, a bottom equal, depth from the level of the continent of 0.3-0.6 m

In the center of the room there was a center, in a northeast corner the large economic hole filled with numerous fragments of ware is recorded. A land part of an inhabited design was supported by 15 Stolbov of holes in which arrangement a certain regularity is traced: the main part of deepenings is found on ditch perimeter.

Two rows of columns cross the center of the room: one — on the line the North — the South, another — on the line the West — the East. Along the southern wall of construction the canopy leaning on three columns vryty in soil at distance of 2-2.5 m from the southern wall of a ditch (fig. 2) could be located.

A basis of the pakhomovsky settlement was the street located along the central axis of the cape from the northern and southern parties of which two rows of dwellings are traced (northern is investigated completely). To the north of an inhabited part of the settlement, on the flat site of the coast of the lake, the production site occupied with small farm buildings and the metallurgical complex including the system of the centers for metal melting, an ashpit, a canopy and economic holes was located.

The area of inhabited constructions varied within 40-80 sq.m. Exits are in most cases directed to the North, towards the lake. In some cases constructions near an exit had the covered canopy which was directly adjoining a dwelling wall. Dwellings 5-7 represented the three-chambered construction connected by transitions. The Planigrafichesky arrangement and a design of constructions demonstrate that before construction future territory of the settlement was planned taking into account interposition of inhabited, economic and production rooms.

In spite of the fact that each of dwellings had individual constructive traits, features of an interior allow to distinguish the general elements testifying to their single construction:

— premises represented semi-dugouts with tamburoobrazny exits 1.5-3 m long and ditches deepened in soil up to 0.6 m;

— all constructions had the correct geometrical form with accurately fixed walls and corners of ditches;

— the basis forming a frame on which the established poles of walls leaned obliquely along edge of a ditch is characteristic of constructions frame stolbovaya;

— constructions crowned the flat or poorly expressed duo-pitch roofs which central fad was extended in the width direction;

— from outer side of a roof and a wall of dwellings could be blocked by birch bark, branches and to be warmed by the turf;

— the interior usually was divided into two parts: northern and southern which, in turn, could be subdivided into separate compartments by Pletnev walls.

A small amount of finds on interhousing space and on partially studied section of the street testifies to the settled system of maintenance of an order and purity in the territory of the settlement — the main part of finds lies in filling of ditches and on floors of the explored dwellings. Most likely, the accumulating household garbage after periodic cleaning of rooms and interhousing space got enough sleep on roofs of dwellings after which collapse it got to an internal part of constructions.

The Pakhomovsky population living on the settlement of Oskino Boloto had obviously no problems with clear drinking water. Absence on a monument of wells, analogies to which are known on the settlement Pakhomovskaya Pristan I [Evdokimov, Korochkova, 1991. Page 51], the close location of the lake and a flowing stream demonstrate that, most likely, drinking water was received from the stream proceeding along the western bottom of the cape or from the lake. To deliver water from the river, most likely, because of rather long distance it was problematic.

The main sources of information on classes of the pakhomovsky population are various products which on the functional features can be subdivided into groups of the objects used in various industries. Tell several one hundred about an important role of fishery - and two-channeled clay sinkers (fig. 3, 12). Agriculture existence is indirectly demonstrated by zernoterka, chiming clock, pesta, stone disks, those-rochniki (fig. 3, 7, Q, 13). Bronzoliteyny production is presented by lyachka and products from bronze (the Celt's fragment with an ear, an earring, a pocket mirror with an eyelet, the razor, fragments of a channeled bracelet, a beads, tubular proniz (fig. 3, 1, 3, 4-b, c)). The high level of development of bronzoliteyny production is demonstrated by the studied metallurgical complex. He settled down on the bank of the lake and included an ashpit from which South side there were seven centers for metal melting, economic holes and a canopy over 50 sq.m.

From stone products the fragment of a mace (fig. 3, 10) of up-loshchenno-rounded shape with the polished surface found in the dwelling 1 most is of the greatest interest

large of the studied constructions. The mace is often interpreted as attribute of the power. Considering the dwelling sizes, the leader of collective can assume accessory of this room.

Fig. 3. Settlement of Oskino Boloto. Ware stock:

1, 3, 4-6, 8 — bronze; 2, 11-12 — clay; 7, 9-10.13-14 — a stone

From other finds it is worth mentioning products from clay: various pryaslitsa (fig. 3, 11), coils (fig. 3, 2), counters; from a stone — grinding bars (fig. 3, 14), a pryaslitsa, the raw pebbles.

The ceramics is presented flat-bottomed and, is single, round-bottomed vessels (fig. 4, 1, 3), mainly average sizes made of the clay test with impurity of river sand, chamotte and a dresva, wall thickness from 35 to 8-10 mm vessels with the wall thickness of 6-8 mm prevail. The surface was smoothed down by a grass or spill, roasting kostrovy uneven; color of a surface from dark gray and black to brick-red. A crock in a break of usually black color, from the external and internal parties areas of brick-red color are often fixed, a considerable part of crocks is calcinated on all depth.

Fig. 4. Settlement of Oskino Boloto. Pakhomovskaya ceramics

Vessels of a pottery form have the short, poorly unbent outside neck, roundish, at-ostrenny or the flattened nimbus. Existence on the basis of a neck single is characteristic of a large number of pakhomovsky vessels, is more rare — double, oval or tre87

coal rollers in section or fillets (fig. 4, 5). Often rollers are ornamented with horizontal "fir-tree" (fig. 4, 11). The pattern is applied on a neck and the top part of a trunk. In a complex the ware having a zone, free from figuration, in the top part of a neck (fig. 4, 4, 5) is noted.

In technology of performance of a pattern carved lines and a smooth stamp prevail. Much less often the pattern is put with comb prints. As an additional element roundish, oval or wedge-shaped poles (fig. 4, 2, 9, 10, 12, 13) meet. The top part of a neck is decorated with horizontal lines or ranks of vdavleniye, inclined and vertical prints (fig. 4, 13). Sometimes in the top part of a nimbus geometrical patterns — zigzags, triangles, rhombuses, a grid, arches (fig. 4, 3, 8-12) meet. Below on a neck horizontal "fir-tree" (fig. 4, 13) is noted.

Inclined prints and a vdavleniye, zigzags, "fir-tree", the shaded triangular scallops framed with "fringe" of a various type are characteristic of figuration of a trunk. Sometimes ornamental zones of a neck and trunk are divided by the triangular prints put with a corner of an edge stamp or a rectangular stick (fig. 4, 7, 12). Ornamental zones in a benthonic part of vessels are rather rare. On one of the flat bottoms the pattern in the form of a zigzag put with prints of a long comb is met.

The small group is made by the ware having a peculiar pattern in the form of the semicircular prints put on a nimbus or a trunk (fig. 4, 3, 6). The similar pattern in ornamental compositions is characteristic of antiquities of suzgunsky type [Potemkina, etc., 1995. Page 119-120, fig. 18-21; Tkachyov, 2002. Page 225-226, fig. 2; 2003. Page 40-44, fig. 2, 15, 19-21, 23].

Pakhomovsky antiquities of Tobolo-Ishimsky Entre Rios are dated widely: within the 12-9th centuries BC [Korochkova, 1987. Page 14; Evdokimov, Korochkova, 1991. Page 62-63; Tkachyov, Tkachyova, 2006. Page 247]. This dating is confirmed by a mirror find with an eyelet — similar mirrors are widespread among the steppe and forest-steppe population in late bronze time [Komarovo, 1952. Page 22, fig. 8, 14, 21, 22; Maximova, 1961. Page 66, fig. 2; Chlenova, 1972. Page 203, tab. 37, 50, 54; Kungurov, Father's, 2001. Page 83, fig. 5]. At the same time a find in one closed complex together with a mirror of the bronze razor (the next analogy to this product comes from an alakulsky complex of the settlement of Volosnikovo [Avanesova, 1991. Fig. 4, 43]) allows to refer formation of pakhomovsky antiquities to the beginning of the last third of the II millennium BC

Further studying materials of an era of late bronze of the settlement of Oskino Boloto will allow to understand a role of the pakhomovsky population Pritobolya in the historical and cultural processes happening on the territory Tobolo-Isetya at II-boundary! millennium BC


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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

The article considers the materials of the Pakhomovo cultural complex of the Late Bronze Age obtained under investigation of a multilayer settlement of Os’kino Boloto. The authors touch upon questions of arrangement and supply of the Pakhomovo settlement, as well as of its house building, household, metallurgic production, chronology and dating of the Pakhomovo antiquities. The analysis of the pottery and clothing material tesitifies to a comparatively early chronological position of this settlement in the system of late Bronze complexes of the Low Tobol basin.

Low Tobol basin, Pakhomovo culture, settlement, dwelling, household, bronze casting production, inventory, pottery.

Felix Hansen
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