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Construction of buildings of non-state high vocational schools of Kazan at the beginning of the 20th century.



T.A. magsum

candidate of historical sciences, professor PARADISE, deputy dean of faculty of history and management, associate professor of history and social and economic disciplines Naberezhnye Chelny state Pedagogical Institute Magsumov T.A.

CONSTRUCTION of BUILDINGS of NON-STATE HIGH VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS of KAZAN at the beginning of the 20th CENTURY

Summary. In this article difficulties of construction and formation of material resources of non-state educational institutions in Kazan at the beginning of the 20th century are considered.

CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS OF NONSTATE AVERAGE VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS OF KAZAN IN THE XX-TH CENTURY BEGINNING

SUMMARY. In given article difficulties of construction and formation of material resources of nonstate educational institutions in Kazan in the XX th century beginning are considered.

Creation in pre-revolutionary Kazan commercial (1904) and river (1904) schools and also trade school (1910) became a result of a public and private initiative in development of professional education. Non-state educational institutions were subdivided into public (founded by public organizations; all schools considered in article) and private treated them (founded by individuals).

Non-state educational institutions had some difficulties at construction of buildings and formation of the material resources. It was connected with shortcomings of financing of such schools and limitation of their means. If during creation of the state educational institutions the government could make necessary for ensuring educational process financial injections in schools, then the non-state school could not count on similar support. In such plan the first years of existence of non-state schools when means were not enough not only for construction of own buildings, but also for compensation of employees and hiring of rooms were especially difficult.

Construction of the building of the Kazan commercial school (further KKU) and the difficulties interfaced to it became the brightest phenomenon of activity its popechitelny soveta1. After the beginning of work of school the City Council authorized the board of trustees to plan on July 28, 1905 the site for construction of the building of school. The place on Arsk Field opposite to the building of art school of 1,524 quarter of sazhen was chosen. This choice was approved by City Council. On September 12 the thought charged to popechitelny council to develop the project of location of uchilishchny buildings and to dig up resources on their construction in addition to allocations from profits of the Volga and Kama bank in the sum of 125,000 rub. The resolution of City Council on withdrawal of the site was transferred by the governor to the conclusion of presence, provincial on territorial and city affairs, which recognized withdrawal of this site as expedient and subject to implementation.

Having got a thought assignment, popechitelny advice of school announced through the St. Petersburg society of architects a competition on development of the project of the building of commercial school which would accomodate 720 pupils with apartments for some employees. The cost of the building was determined in the extreme sum of 225,000 rub [2, Page 91].

However construction of buildings of school on the chosen site was opposed by council of Rodionovsky institution for young ladies which sent to educational department of the Ministry of Trade and the industry (under which authority commercial schools were) the petition with a request not to allow construction of school on the place elected the city as this school will have to adjoin a corner of a domestic garden at institute, the main building, remote from a facade, in which pupils are located, in only 30 sazhens, and proximity of such building as men's school, in the moral and educational relation is very undesirable to the closed women's educational institution.

Being guided by numerous petitions of administration of Rodionovsky institute, the ministry now of internal affairs refused to popechitelny council of commercial school and City Council issue of the permission for construction of the building of school three times and suggested to construct it near military hospital or near the Arsky cemetery. After 18 monthly red tapes and altercations from government officials on March 20, 1907, at last, permission of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to construction of the building of school on the place planned earlier, but with the changed plan of the allocated site was got. After that the City Council allocated in use of KKU for all the time of its existence the site in 1,756.3 sq. sazhens on which the uchilishchny building had to be located and a small garden is laid out. Between a garden of Rodionovsky institute and the yard of school there was a desyatisazhenny lane.

1 Originally KKU, for the lack of own building, was placed in Kekin's house where,

except it, numbers of Volga (exactly there lived the general Yudenich when he served as the chief of staff of the Kazan military district), shops and so-called were placed. "New club" - the Meeting of the serving government and public institutions. Now in the building of the former Kazan commercial school to the address K. Marx St., 65, there is the Kazan state agricultural university. - TM

For implementation of construction of school by popechitelny council the construction commission as a part of D.V. Varaksin, P.P. Golyshev, A.I. Nemirovsky and some other was founded. The construction was completed shortly before the beginning of World War I. Funds for construction of the uchilishchny building were raised from the following sources: The Rybinsk exchange committee - 125,000 rub, the Kazan municipal public government - 100,000 rub, a loan from the state treasury - 100,000 rub, Yakov Filippovich Shamov-25,000 rub, Okonishnikova's brothers - 25,000 rub, Nikolay Vasilyevich Unzhenin - 25,000 rub, donations of various institutions and persons at requests of popechitelny council - 45,213.50 rub [1, Page 40].

Certain success were made also in formation of material resources of commercial school. The cost of its property was estimated in 1913-1914 academic year at 522,860.67 rub, from them: the building - 446,060 rub, stock - 24,620 rub, offices and laboratories - 20,670 rub, the earth - 17,563 rub, library of-4,168 rub, other manuals - 1,770 rub, the maintenance of the house - 8,007 rub [1, Page 131-133]. KKU entered the first five of the commercial schools of Russia which had the most expensive buildings estimated at 500-600 thousand rub. On average the cost of the real estate of commercial schools fluctuated ranging from 100 up to 400 thousand rubles [5, Page 99].

The river school represented the wooden two-storeyed building of 133 quarter of sazhen. Money for construction of the building of 20,000 rub was assigned by the shipowner S.A. Zemlyanov. On the first floor three classrooms, a reception (it was used also as the conference hall and a teacher's room), library (one room), the room for smoking of pupils, a recreational corridor, shinelny and the room for servants were located. The second floor included office, a physical office, five rooms and kitchen for the apartment of the chief of school and three rooms with kitchen for the apartment of the assistant to the chief of school [4, Page 6-7].

If the educational institutions considered above nevertheless could get own buildings, then the Kazan trade school did not manage to make it. For all considered period the school was located in the hired room on Novo-Gorshechnaya Street, in Vasilyev's house [3, L. 3].

Despite certain shifts, development of material resources of non-state average professional educational institutions of pre-revolutionary Kazan it was carried out by rather slow rates. In such plan for them the first years of existence, in connection with lack of funds were especially difficult. However over time non-state schools could get own buildings and industrial practice base.

LITERATURE

1. Decade of the Kazan commercial school. 1905-1915: [Description]. - Kazan: [B. and.], 1916. - 109 pages: 13 l. diagr.
2. Magsumov, T.A. High vocational school of Kazan at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century [Text]: monograph/T. A. Magsumov. - SPb.: Info-yes, of 2010. - 302 pages
3. National archive of the Republic of Tatarstan [Text]. - T. 312. -

Op. 1. - 44.

4. The report on teaching and educational and an equipment of the Kazan river school in 1908-1909 academic year [Text]. - Kazan: M.A. Semyonov's typolithography, 1909. - 26 pages
5. Razmanova, N. [And.] Commercial schools of Russia: experience of financing which did not become outdated [Text] / N. [And.] Razmanova//Observer-Obsegveg. - 2002. - No. 11/12. - Page 93-99.
Kevin Stone
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